SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 27
Download to read offline
Self-governing village communities
existed in India from earliest times.
They are mentioned in the Rig
Vedas which dates from 1200 B.C.
Existence of village „Sabhas‟ & „gramins‟
until 600 B.C.
 Trace of „village assembly‟ & „elder‟s
council‟ & village headman „gramika‟ in
Maurayan / Gupta age.
 Gradually village bodies took the form of
Panchayats (an assembly of five persons) &
elevated to a sacred position of authority.
 They were vested with police & judicial
powers.

Characteristic of village Panchayats
remained unchanged.
 Local affairs were regulated by the
Panchayats and village officers were
answerable to them.
 Under the Mughals, their judicial
powers were curtailed, but local affairs
continued to be regulated by them.

British Colonial Period
With the advent of British, self-contained
village communities and their Panchayats
ceased to get sustenance.
 In course of time they were replaced by
formally constituted institutions of village
administration.
 The Local Self Govt. in India was the
creation of the British though village
panchayats were not their first priority.

British colonial period
They were mainly concentrated around the
trading centres, so their interest was limited
to creation of local bodies of nominated
members in major towns.
 Municipal Corporation was first formed in
Madras in 1687 on the British model of a
town council.
 It was empowered to levy taxes for building
a guild hall and schools.

Formation of Local Bodies
With the passage of time similar bodies
were set up in other major towns and their
taxation powers were widened.
 But they continued to comprise nominated
members only with no elective element.
 The revolt of 1857 put imperial finances
under considerable strain. It became
necessary to finance local services out of
local taxation.

Lord Mayo‟s Resolution
In 1870 the Viceroy Lord Mayo got a
resolution passed by hi council for
decentralization of power was passed in
1870.
 Objective was to bring about efficiency in
administration to meet the demands of the
people & to mobilize further fund for the
growing wants of the country.
 The revolt of 1857 had put imperial finances
under considerable strain, so it was found
necessary to finance local services out of
local taxation.

The Bengal Chowkidari Act,
1870
In the wake of this resolution “The Bengal
Chowkidari Act, 1870” was passed to revive
traditional village panchayat system in
Bengal
 This Act empowered D.M. to set up
panchayats of nominated members (not
less than five members) in the villages.
 These nominated Panchayats could levy
and collect taxes to maintain Chowkidars.
 This Act did not create any local authority in
the village to take care of local
sanitation, communication, education or
other function.

Lord Ripon‟s Resolution
The system of Chowkidari panchayat
became very unpopular.
 Lord Ripon appeared as new Viceroy &
on18 May,1882 Lord Ripon‟s Resolution on
Local Self-Govt. was adopted which
emphasized four fundamental principles :(a) elected non-official majority, (b) nonofficial chairman, © to exercise govt. control
over local bodies not from within but from
outside, (d) elastic & sufficient financial
resources for local bodies.

The Bengal Local Self-Govt.
Act, 1885
The resolution of the liberal Viceroy
heralded the dawn of a new era in the
history of Indian administration.
 The Bengal Local Self-Govt. Act,1885 was
passed to establish a net work of rural local
bodies at two levels - district and
subdivision.
 The Act also established Union Committees
to perform municipal functions in rural
areas.
 These bodies were constituted by the Govt.
on the basis of informal election.

Instrument of political education
In most cases the names of persons
nominated by the Govt. were made known
to the village folk in a meeting presided
over by the Sub-divisional Officer and
People were expected to approve those
names.
 Within a few years the experiment failed.
The Royal Commission on Decentralization
in India (1907) recommended merger of
Chowkidari function and welfare function in
the locality and placing them in the hands of
same local body.

Fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal
Functions
Govt. of India‟s Resolution, 1918 endorsed
the view of the Commission and wanted to
make village panchayats living units by
giving villagers an interest in and some
control over local village affairs.
 The Bengal Village Self-Govt. Act, 1919
was passed which achieved the fusion of
Chowkidari & Municipal functions into a
newly created body - known as the Union
Board. Other two bodies at District and
Sub-division levels remained unaltered.

Functions of Union Board under the
Bengal Village Self-Govt. Ac,1919
Union Board was vested with, apart from
police function, powers & functions
necessary for village community affairs,
minor roads, water works, public health &
sanitation.
 It had powers of taxation necessary for
discharging the duties assigned to it.
 The staple of the Union Board‟s finance
was Chowkidaricess which had been levied
for half a century and provided a secure
basic income.

Local Board & District Board
Post of Circle Officer was created to serve as
a link between the village administration and
the Sub-divisional administration.
 Local Board at the sub-division level and
District Board at the district level had no
organic linkage with the Union Board.
 Local Board had no power to raise money on
its own account. It was designed to act as
agent of District Board for undertaking the
public works and duties assigned to it.
 All powers were vested in the District Board.

District Boards
Its 2/3 members were elected by members
of Local Boards & 1/3 members were
nominated comprising both officials & nonofficials.
 The nomination was to be done by
Divisional Commissioner; but under
amendment of the Act in 1932 it was given
to the MIC of LSG
 Up to 1921, D.M. used to be Chairman;
thereafter Dist. Board elected its own
Chairman.
 Still Govt. exercised a good control over
election from Local Boards.

Govt. of India Act, 1935
Inauguration of Provincial autonomy under
the Act marked another important stage in
the evolution of Panchayats.
 Popularly elected Govts. in Provinces felt
duty bound to enact legislation for further
democratization of LSG Institutions
including village Panchayats.
 But due to declaration of Second World War
in 1939 the position remained unaltered.

Post Independence Panchayats
Provision for organizing village panchayats as units of selfgovt. was laid down in Art. 40.
 Balwantrai Mehta Committee was appointed in Jan.1957
to suggest measures for better working of CD Program &
NES.
 Committee suggested: - (a) three tier PRI, (b) genuine
transfer of power & responsibility to PRI, © adequate
resources to PRI & (d) channelizing all social & economic
development through PRI.
 It did not insist on uniform structure of PRI throughout
the country. States were free to evolve their own pattern
suitable to them.

Four tier PRI in West Bengal
3-tier PRI was first adopted by Rajasthan
on 2 October 1959.
 The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1957 introduced Anchal Panchayat at cluster level &
Gram Panchayat at village level.
 The West Bengal Zilla Parishad Act,1963
introduced Zilla Parishad at district level &
Anchalik Parishad at Block level.
 Thus 4-tier PRI was established in W.B. on
October 2, 1964.

The West Bengal Panchayat
Act,1973





The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973 was passed
with provision of 3-tier PRI & direct election to each
tier on adult franchise, but its implementation could
not take place.
In Dec,1977 Asoke Mehta Committee was
constituted to review working of PRIs.
The Committee submitted report in Aug, 1978
suggesting - (a) reduction of dependence of PRIs on
State Govt. (b) providing power of taxation to PRIs ©
transfer of certain taxes like profession
tax, entertainment tax, tax on land & building to PRIs
(d) open participation of political parties in Panchayat
election.
Implementation of 3-tier PRI






The Left Front came to power in the State in 1977
& the State Govt. immediately decided to go in for
popular panchayats.
Direct elections were held in June, 1978 to Zilla
Parishads at district level, Panchayat Samitis at
block level & Gram Panchayats at cluster level
with open participation of political parties.
Term of a panchayat body was five years &
elections were held regularly after every five years.
Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act,1992





L.M.Singhvi Committee recommended
constitutional status for panchayats in 1986.
Lok Sabha passed Constitution (Seventy-third
Amendment) Act, 1992 (known as Panchayati Raj
Act) which inserted Art.243 & Eleventh Schedule.

The Act provides constitutional status to PRIs & all
States/U.Ts are to constitute three/two tier PRIs
depending on their total population.
Salient points of Constitution Amendment Act, 1992

Every Panchayat shall constitute Gram Sabha
comprising all registered voters of the area.
 In every tier seats shall be reserved for SC/ST
members in proportion to their population in the
panchayat.
 Not less than one-third of the seats in all tiers shall
be reserved for women.
 The offices of chairpersons in each tier shall be
reserved for SC/ST members in proportion to their
population in the area.

Salient Points
Not less than one-third offices of chair-persons in all
tiers shall be reserved for women.
 Every panchayat shall continue for five years from
the date appointed for its first meeting & no longer.
 Devolution of powers & responsibilities upon
Panchayats at the appropriate level for (a) preparation of plans for economic develop-ment &
social justice, (b) implementation of schemes for
economic development & social justice as may be
entrusted to them.

Salient Points
Authorizing powers to impose taxes by the
panchayats.
 Assigning to panchayats such taxes, duties, tolls &
fees levied/collected by the State Govt.
 Providing grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the
Consolidated Fund of the State
 Constitution of Finance Commission to review
financial position of the Panchayats.
 Maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats &
auditing of such accounts.
 Constitution of State Election Commission for
conduct of all elections to the panchayats.

Incorporation of amendments in the State
Act.




These amendments brought about a fundamental
change not only in the realm of local self-govt. but
also in India‟s federal character.
Some provisions viz, Gram Sansad, reserva-tion
for women & SC/ST members in each tier of
panchayats was inserted prior to the Con-stitution
Amendment Act, 1992. Other provisions were
incorporated in the State Act through the
W.B.Panchayat (Amendment) Act,1994 and 1997.
Gram Unnayan Samiti
Further amendment of the Act in 2003 has
paved the way for constitution of GUS at
Gram Sansad level.
 Members of GUS are elected by the voters
of a Gram Sansad from among themselves.
 Elected member of GP from the GS is its
ex-officio Chairperson. Members of GUS
elect a Secretary from among themselves in
its first meeting. Gus will assist GS to
prepare its annual plan which shall be the
basis of the GP plan.

Thus the journey from the idea of Local SelfGovernment of Lord Ripon to the institutions of SelfGovernment or Local Govt. concept in the Seventythird Constitutional Amendment took more than a
century.

More Related Content

What's hot

Local self governance
Local self governanceLocal self governance
Local self governanceVenu Goud
 
Democratic decentralization by karunambika
Democratic decentralization by karunambikaDemocratic decentralization by karunambika
Democratic decentralization by karunambikaKarunambikaNagendran
 
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMAJHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMADr.Vijay Prakash Sharma
 
Local Self Government Rural
Local Self Government RuralLocal Self Government Rural
Local Self Government RuralSuhas Mandlik
 
Urban local self government
Urban local self governmentUrban local self government
Urban local self governmentNellissery Stibu
 
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)Spunky Padrone
 
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj InstitutionsWomen Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutionsprofessionalpanorama
 
Federal system in india
Federal system in india Federal system in india
Federal system in india gagan deep
 
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA Gaurav Purohit
 
Evolution of Local Self Governments in India
Evolution of Local Self Governments in IndiaEvolution of Local Self Governments in India
Evolution of Local Self Governments in IndiaRavikant Joshi
 
The municipalities
The municipalitiesThe municipalities
The municipalitiesMoloy Dutta
 
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics Presentation
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics PresentationRural - Local Self Government || Civics Presentation
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics PresentationShreyashAnand7
 
National commission for SCs and National commission for STs
National commission for SCs and National commission for STsNational commission for SCs and National commission for STs
National commission for SCs and National commission for STsRupali Bansal
 
Democratic decentralization
Democratic decentralizationDemocratic decentralization
Democratic decentralizationseektheinfo
 

What's hot (20)

Local self governance
Local self governanceLocal self governance
Local self governance
 
Democratic decentralization by karunambika
Democratic decentralization by karunambikaDemocratic decentralization by karunambika
Democratic decentralization by karunambika
 
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMAJHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
JHARKHAND-A village development model for rural India- DR. V.P.SHARMA
 
Local Self Government Rural
Local Self Government RuralLocal Self Government Rural
Local Self Government Rural
 
Panchayats in West Bengal
Panchayats in West BengalPanchayats in West Bengal
Panchayats in West Bengal
 
Urban local self government
Urban local self governmentUrban local self government
Urban local self government
 
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)
Political and Economic Decentralization (Case Study: Panchayati Raj in India)
 
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj InstitutionsWomen Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions
Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions
 
Federal system in india
Federal system in india Federal system in india
Federal system in india
 
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
ANALYSIS OF URBAN LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA
 
Evolution of Local Self Governments in India
Evolution of Local Self Governments in IndiaEvolution of Local Self Governments in India
Evolution of Local Self Governments in India
 
The municipalities
The municipalitiesThe municipalities
The municipalities
 
Forest right act src ppt
Forest right act src pptForest right act src ppt
Forest right act src ppt
 
Ee 123 ppt
Ee 123 pptEe 123 ppt
Ee 123 ppt
 
Panchayati raj
Panchayati rajPanchayati raj
Panchayati raj
 
Panchayati Raj
Panchayati Raj Panchayati Raj
Panchayati Raj
 
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics Presentation
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics PresentationRural - Local Self Government || Civics Presentation
Rural - Local Self Government || Civics Presentation
 
MGNREGA
MGNREGAMGNREGA
MGNREGA
 
National commission for SCs and National commission for STs
National commission for SCs and National commission for STsNational commission for SCs and National commission for STs
National commission for SCs and National commission for STs
 
Democratic decentralization
Democratic decentralizationDemocratic decentralization
Democratic decentralization
 

Viewers also liked

Rabindranath tagore Biography
Rabindranath tagore BiographyRabindranath tagore Biography
Rabindranath tagore BiographyRaj Sikarwar
 
Marxist theory
Marxist theoryMarxist theory
Marxist theorymvincent13
 
Rabindranath tagore.ppt
Rabindranath tagore.pptRabindranath tagore.ppt
Rabindranath tagore.pptArun Andani
 
Behavioural theory
Behavioural theoryBehavioural theory
Behavioural theoryUlsah T N
 
Powerpoint
PowerpointPowerpoint
Powerpointchrilee
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Marxism
Marxism Marxism
Marxism
 
Marxism and its application
Marxism and its applicationMarxism and its application
Marxism and its application
 
Rabindranath tagore Biography
Rabindranath tagore BiographyRabindranath tagore Biography
Rabindranath tagore Biography
 
Marxist theory
Marxist theoryMarxist theory
Marxist theory
 
Rabindranath tagore.ppt
Rabindranath tagore.pptRabindranath tagore.ppt
Rabindranath tagore.ppt
 
Behavioural theory
Behavioural theoryBehavioural theory
Behavioural theory
 
Powerpoint
PowerpointPowerpoint
Powerpoint
 
An Introduction To Human Rights
An Introduction To Human RightsAn Introduction To Human Rights
An Introduction To Human Rights
 

Similar to Historical perspective of panchayats west bengal

Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An AnalysisHistorical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysisiosrjce
 
Evolution of Urban Local Government
Evolution of Urban Local GovernmentEvolution of Urban Local Government
Evolution of Urban Local GovernmentEbadur Rahman Naeef
 
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptx
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptxXI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptx
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptxadarshshrivastava38
 
Evolution of urban local government
Evolution of urban local governmentEvolution of urban local government
Evolution of urban local governmentEbadur Rahman Naeef
 
Online Assignment
Online AssignmentOnline Assignment
Online AssignmentArun Murali
 
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)Anjum Afroz
 
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odisha
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of OdishaRights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odisha
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odishaijtsrd
 
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015 Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015 Waseem Sajjad
 
Constitutional development in india
Constitutional development in indiaConstitutional development in india
Constitutional development in indiashashank9949
 
Online Assignment
Online AssignmentOnline Assignment
Online AssignmentArun Murali
 
Local Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanLocal Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanParas Bhutto
 
Panchayat Raj institution
Panchayat Raj institution Panchayat Raj institution
Panchayat Raj institution Reena409232
 
Constitutional amendment for local government
Constitutional amendment for local governmentConstitutional amendment for local government
Constitutional amendment for local governmentM S Siddiqui
 
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992Rai University
 
The constitutional development_of_pakist
The constitutional development_of_pakistThe constitutional development_of_pakist
The constitutional development_of_pakistSarkarBasit1
 
Local governments and field administrations in india
Local governments and field administrations in indiaLocal governments and field administrations in india
Local governments and field administrations in indiaindianeducation
 
Lecture 1-historical-background
Lecture 1-historical-backgroundLecture 1-historical-background
Lecture 1-historical-backgroundamanbishla1
 

Similar to Historical perspective of panchayats west bengal (20)

Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An AnalysisHistorical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
Historical Background of the Municipalities of Bangladesh: An Analysis
 
Evolution of Urban Local Government
Evolution of Urban Local GovernmentEvolution of Urban Local Government
Evolution of Urban Local Government
 
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptx
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptxXI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptx
XI-PolSc-Bk01-Ch08-Local Governments.pptx
 
Evolution of urban local government
Evolution of urban local governmentEvolution of urban local government
Evolution of urban local government
 
Online Assignment
Online AssignmentOnline Assignment
Online Assignment
 
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)
Rural local bodies and function Panchayati Raj System (PRIs)
 
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odisha
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of OdishaRights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odisha
Rights and Responsibilities of PRI Members in a Scheduled District of Odisha
 
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015 Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015
Islamabad Local Government Bill 2015
 
Constitutional development in india
Constitutional development in indiaConstitutional development in india
Constitutional development in india
 
Online Assignment
Online AssignmentOnline Assignment
Online Assignment
 
Local Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in PakistanLocal Government System in Pakistan
Local Government System in Pakistan
 
Panchayat Raj institution
Panchayat Raj institution Panchayat Raj institution
Panchayat Raj institution
 
Constitution .pdf
Constitution .pdfConstitution .pdf
Constitution .pdf
 
Constitutional amendment for local government
Constitutional amendment for local governmentConstitutional amendment for local government
Constitutional amendment for local government
 
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992
Bjmc i, igp, unit-ii, panchayati raj act 1992
 
The constitutional development_of_pakist
The constitutional development_of_pakistThe constitutional development_of_pakist
The constitutional development_of_pakist
 
Municipalities act
Municipalities actMunicipalities act
Municipalities act
 
Local governments and field administrations in india
Local governments and field administrations in indiaLocal governments and field administrations in india
Local governments and field administrations in india
 
Assignment on upazila parishod
Assignment on upazila parishodAssignment on upazila parishod
Assignment on upazila parishod
 
Lecture 1-historical-background
Lecture 1-historical-backgroundLecture 1-historical-background
Lecture 1-historical-background
 

More from MINTU DEBNATH

Departmental disaster management plans a suggested outline
Departmental disaster management plans  a suggested outlineDepartmental disaster management plans  a suggested outline
Departmental disaster management plans a suggested outlineMINTU DEBNATH
 
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment...... Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment...... MINTU DEBNATH
 
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan    Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan MINTU DEBNATH
 
Right To Information (RTI)
Right To Information (RTI)Right To Information (RTI)
Right To Information (RTI)MINTU DEBNATH
 
Birth & death registration - west bengal
Birth & death registration  - west bengalBirth & death registration  - west bengal
Birth & death registration - west bengalMINTU DEBNATH
 
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj Institution
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj InstitutionDRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj Institution
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj InstitutionMINTU DEBNATH
 
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee SchemeMGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee SchemeMINTU DEBNATH
 
RTI– simplified flowchart
RTI– simplified flowchartRTI– simplified flowchart
RTI– simplified flowchartMINTU DEBNATH
 
Right to education act, 2009 a presentation in bengali
Right to education act, 2009   a presentation in bengaliRight to education act, 2009   a presentation in bengali
Right to education act, 2009 a presentation in bengaliMINTU DEBNATH
 
Women development and government schemes west bengal
Women development and government schemes   west bengalWomen development and government schemes   west bengal
Women development and government schemes west bengalMINTU DEBNATH
 
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assam
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assamA institutional structure of panchayati raj in assam
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assamMINTU DEBNATH
 
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west Bengal
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west BengalNational social assistance program (nsap) – in west Bengal
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west BengalMINTU DEBNATH
 

More from MINTU DEBNATH (13)

Mid Day Meal Scheme
Mid Day Meal SchemeMid Day Meal Scheme
Mid Day Meal Scheme
 
Departmental disaster management plans a suggested outline
Departmental disaster management plans  a suggested outlineDepartmental disaster management plans  a suggested outline
Departmental disaster management plans a suggested outline
 
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment...... Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......
Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......
 
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan    Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan
Idea of mainstreaming DRR plan within the Gram Panchayat development plan
 
Right To Information (RTI)
Right To Information (RTI)Right To Information (RTI)
Right To Information (RTI)
 
Birth & death registration - west bengal
Birth & death registration  - west bengalBirth & death registration  - west bengal
Birth & death registration - west bengal
 
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj Institution
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj InstitutionDRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj Institution
DRR mainstreaming through Decentralized Planning with Panchayati Raj Institution
 
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee SchemeMGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
MGNREGS - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
 
RTI– simplified flowchart
RTI– simplified flowchartRTI– simplified flowchart
RTI– simplified flowchart
 
Right to education act, 2009 a presentation in bengali
Right to education act, 2009   a presentation in bengaliRight to education act, 2009   a presentation in bengali
Right to education act, 2009 a presentation in bengali
 
Women development and government schemes west bengal
Women development and government schemes   west bengalWomen development and government schemes   west bengal
Women development and government schemes west bengal
 
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assam
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assamA institutional structure of panchayati raj in assam
A institutional structure of panchayati raj in assam
 
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west Bengal
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west BengalNational social assistance program (nsap) – in west Bengal
National social assistance program (nsap) – in west Bengal
 

Recently uploaded

6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseCeline George
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...HetalPathak10
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17Celine George
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...DhatriParmar
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPCeline George
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of EngineeringFaculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
Faculty Profile prashantha K EEE dept Sri Sairam college of Engineering
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdfIndexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
Indexing Structures in Database Management system.pdf
 
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 DatabaseHow to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
How to Make a Duplicate of Your Odoo 17 Database
 
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
Satirical Depths - A Study of Gabriel Okara's Poem - 'You Laughed and Laughed...
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
How to Fix XML SyntaxError in Odoo the 17
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Large Language Models"
 
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
Beauty Amidst the Bytes_ Unearthing Unexpected Advantages of the Digital Wast...
 
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERPAn Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
An Overview of the Calendar App in Odoo 17 ERP
 
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
Plagiarism,forms,understand about plagiarism,avoid plagiarism,key significanc...
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 

Historical perspective of panchayats west bengal

  • 1. Self-governing village communities existed in India from earliest times. They are mentioned in the Rig Vedas which dates from 1200 B.C.
  • 2. Existence of village „Sabhas‟ & „gramins‟ until 600 B.C.  Trace of „village assembly‟ & „elder‟s council‟ & village headman „gramika‟ in Maurayan / Gupta age.  Gradually village bodies took the form of Panchayats (an assembly of five persons) & elevated to a sacred position of authority.  They were vested with police & judicial powers. 
  • 3. Characteristic of village Panchayats remained unchanged.  Local affairs were regulated by the Panchayats and village officers were answerable to them.  Under the Mughals, their judicial powers were curtailed, but local affairs continued to be regulated by them. 
  • 4. British Colonial Period With the advent of British, self-contained village communities and their Panchayats ceased to get sustenance.  In course of time they were replaced by formally constituted institutions of village administration.  The Local Self Govt. in India was the creation of the British though village panchayats were not their first priority. 
  • 5. British colonial period They were mainly concentrated around the trading centres, so their interest was limited to creation of local bodies of nominated members in major towns.  Municipal Corporation was first formed in Madras in 1687 on the British model of a town council.  It was empowered to levy taxes for building a guild hall and schools. 
  • 6. Formation of Local Bodies With the passage of time similar bodies were set up in other major towns and their taxation powers were widened.  But they continued to comprise nominated members only with no elective element.  The revolt of 1857 put imperial finances under considerable strain. It became necessary to finance local services out of local taxation. 
  • 7. Lord Mayo‟s Resolution In 1870 the Viceroy Lord Mayo got a resolution passed by hi council for decentralization of power was passed in 1870.  Objective was to bring about efficiency in administration to meet the demands of the people & to mobilize further fund for the growing wants of the country.  The revolt of 1857 had put imperial finances under considerable strain, so it was found necessary to finance local services out of local taxation. 
  • 8. The Bengal Chowkidari Act, 1870 In the wake of this resolution “The Bengal Chowkidari Act, 1870” was passed to revive traditional village panchayat system in Bengal  This Act empowered D.M. to set up panchayats of nominated members (not less than five members) in the villages.  These nominated Panchayats could levy and collect taxes to maintain Chowkidars.  This Act did not create any local authority in the village to take care of local sanitation, communication, education or other function. 
  • 9. Lord Ripon‟s Resolution The system of Chowkidari panchayat became very unpopular.  Lord Ripon appeared as new Viceroy & on18 May,1882 Lord Ripon‟s Resolution on Local Self-Govt. was adopted which emphasized four fundamental principles :(a) elected non-official majority, (b) nonofficial chairman, © to exercise govt. control over local bodies not from within but from outside, (d) elastic & sufficient financial resources for local bodies. 
  • 10. The Bengal Local Self-Govt. Act, 1885 The resolution of the liberal Viceroy heralded the dawn of a new era in the history of Indian administration.  The Bengal Local Self-Govt. Act,1885 was passed to establish a net work of rural local bodies at two levels - district and subdivision.  The Act also established Union Committees to perform municipal functions in rural areas.  These bodies were constituted by the Govt. on the basis of informal election. 
  • 11. Instrument of political education In most cases the names of persons nominated by the Govt. were made known to the village folk in a meeting presided over by the Sub-divisional Officer and People were expected to approve those names.  Within a few years the experiment failed. The Royal Commission on Decentralization in India (1907) recommended merger of Chowkidari function and welfare function in the locality and placing them in the hands of same local body. 
  • 12. Fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal Functions Govt. of India‟s Resolution, 1918 endorsed the view of the Commission and wanted to make village panchayats living units by giving villagers an interest in and some control over local village affairs.  The Bengal Village Self-Govt. Act, 1919 was passed which achieved the fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal functions into a newly created body - known as the Union Board. Other two bodies at District and Sub-division levels remained unaltered. 
  • 13. Functions of Union Board under the Bengal Village Self-Govt. Ac,1919 Union Board was vested with, apart from police function, powers & functions necessary for village community affairs, minor roads, water works, public health & sanitation.  It had powers of taxation necessary for discharging the duties assigned to it.  The staple of the Union Board‟s finance was Chowkidaricess which had been levied for half a century and provided a secure basic income. 
  • 14. Local Board & District Board Post of Circle Officer was created to serve as a link between the village administration and the Sub-divisional administration.  Local Board at the sub-division level and District Board at the district level had no organic linkage with the Union Board.  Local Board had no power to raise money on its own account. It was designed to act as agent of District Board for undertaking the public works and duties assigned to it.  All powers were vested in the District Board. 
  • 15. District Boards Its 2/3 members were elected by members of Local Boards & 1/3 members were nominated comprising both officials & nonofficials.  The nomination was to be done by Divisional Commissioner; but under amendment of the Act in 1932 it was given to the MIC of LSG  Up to 1921, D.M. used to be Chairman; thereafter Dist. Board elected its own Chairman.  Still Govt. exercised a good control over election from Local Boards. 
  • 16. Govt. of India Act, 1935 Inauguration of Provincial autonomy under the Act marked another important stage in the evolution of Panchayats.  Popularly elected Govts. in Provinces felt duty bound to enact legislation for further democratization of LSG Institutions including village Panchayats.  But due to declaration of Second World War in 1939 the position remained unaltered. 
  • 17. Post Independence Panchayats Provision for organizing village panchayats as units of selfgovt. was laid down in Art. 40.  Balwantrai Mehta Committee was appointed in Jan.1957 to suggest measures for better working of CD Program & NES.  Committee suggested: - (a) three tier PRI, (b) genuine transfer of power & responsibility to PRI, © adequate resources to PRI & (d) channelizing all social & economic development through PRI.  It did not insist on uniform structure of PRI throughout the country. States were free to evolve their own pattern suitable to them. 
  • 18. Four tier PRI in West Bengal 3-tier PRI was first adopted by Rajasthan on 2 October 1959.  The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1957 introduced Anchal Panchayat at cluster level & Gram Panchayat at village level.  The West Bengal Zilla Parishad Act,1963 introduced Zilla Parishad at district level & Anchalik Parishad at Block level.  Thus 4-tier PRI was established in W.B. on October 2, 1964. 
  • 19. The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973    The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973 was passed with provision of 3-tier PRI & direct election to each tier on adult franchise, but its implementation could not take place. In Dec,1977 Asoke Mehta Committee was constituted to review working of PRIs. The Committee submitted report in Aug, 1978 suggesting - (a) reduction of dependence of PRIs on State Govt. (b) providing power of taxation to PRIs © transfer of certain taxes like profession tax, entertainment tax, tax on land & building to PRIs (d) open participation of political parties in Panchayat election.
  • 20. Implementation of 3-tier PRI    The Left Front came to power in the State in 1977 & the State Govt. immediately decided to go in for popular panchayats. Direct elections were held in June, 1978 to Zilla Parishads at district level, Panchayat Samitis at block level & Gram Panchayats at cluster level with open participation of political parties. Term of a panchayat body was five years & elections were held regularly after every five years.
  • 21. Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act,1992    L.M.Singhvi Committee recommended constitutional status for panchayats in 1986. Lok Sabha passed Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992 (known as Panchayati Raj Act) which inserted Art.243 & Eleventh Schedule. The Act provides constitutional status to PRIs & all States/U.Ts are to constitute three/two tier PRIs depending on their total population.
  • 22. Salient points of Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 Every Panchayat shall constitute Gram Sabha comprising all registered voters of the area.  In every tier seats shall be reserved for SC/ST members in proportion to their population in the panchayat.  Not less than one-third of the seats in all tiers shall be reserved for women.  The offices of chairpersons in each tier shall be reserved for SC/ST members in proportion to their population in the area. 
  • 23. Salient Points Not less than one-third offices of chair-persons in all tiers shall be reserved for women.  Every panchayat shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting & no longer.  Devolution of powers & responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level for (a) preparation of plans for economic develop-ment & social justice, (b) implementation of schemes for economic development & social justice as may be entrusted to them. 
  • 24. Salient Points Authorizing powers to impose taxes by the panchayats.  Assigning to panchayats such taxes, duties, tolls & fees levied/collected by the State Govt.  Providing grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State  Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position of the Panchayats.  Maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats & auditing of such accounts.  Constitution of State Election Commission for conduct of all elections to the panchayats. 
  • 25. Incorporation of amendments in the State Act.   These amendments brought about a fundamental change not only in the realm of local self-govt. but also in India‟s federal character. Some provisions viz, Gram Sansad, reserva-tion for women & SC/ST members in each tier of panchayats was inserted prior to the Con-stitution Amendment Act, 1992. Other provisions were incorporated in the State Act through the W.B.Panchayat (Amendment) Act,1994 and 1997.
  • 26. Gram Unnayan Samiti Further amendment of the Act in 2003 has paved the way for constitution of GUS at Gram Sansad level.  Members of GUS are elected by the voters of a Gram Sansad from among themselves.  Elected member of GP from the GS is its ex-officio Chairperson. Members of GUS elect a Secretary from among themselves in its first meeting. Gus will assist GS to prepare its annual plan which shall be the basis of the GP plan. 
  • 27. Thus the journey from the idea of Local SelfGovernment of Lord Ripon to the institutions of SelfGovernment or Local Govt. concept in the Seventythird Constitutional Amendment took more than a century.