GAMBLING, SEX , INTERNET ,PORNOGRAPHYADDICTION TO COCAINE,METHAMPHETAMINEHYDROCHLORIDE,KETAMINE,BARBITURATES, ALCOHOL
IAD (INTERNET ADDICTION DISORDER) IS A SPECULATED MENTAL DISORDER MADE ANDINTRODUCED BY IVAN GOLDBERG, M.D., IN 1995.IT IS AN ADDICTION THAT CLOSELY PARALLELSTHE OTHER ADDICTIONS SUCH AS DRUG ANDPATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING ADDICTION AND ISPOTENTIALLY JUST AS DAMAGING
Altered Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Internet Game Overusers: A 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Study Hyun Soo Park, MS, Sang Hee Kim, PhD, Seong Ae Bang, MA, Eun Jin Yoon, MS, Sang Soo Cho, PhD, and Sang Eun Kim, MD, PhD Department of Nuclear Medicine at Seoul National University College of Medicine in South Korea. Results: Internet game overusers showed greater impulsivenessthan the normal users and there was a positive correlationbetween the severity of Internet game overuse andimpulsiveness. Imaging data showed that the overusers hadincreased glucose metabolismConclusion: Internet game overuse may be associated withabnormal neurobiological mechanisms in the orbitofrontalcortex, striatum, and sensory regions, which are implicated inimpulse control, reward processing, and somatic representationof previous experiences. Our results support the idea thatInternet game overuse shares psychological and neuralmechanisms with other types of impulse control disorders andsubstance/non-substance-related addiction.
Recent perspectives on addictive behavior have integrated psychologicaland neurobiological correlates to focus on the key role of the brain’sreward system. “We believe that conditioned drug-associated andbehavior-associated cues can activate an ‘addiction memory’ and cravingand therefore maintain the addictionin contrast to healthy subjects, excessive computer gamers reportedsignificantly higher scores of computer game-stimulus-induced arousal,and craving, as well as feelings of being controlled by the cuesPsychophysiological data indicate that the excessive computer gamersperceived the computer game-associated stimuli as significantly morepleasant, as well as significantly more arousing, than did non-excessivecomputer gamers, who viewed these stimuli as neutral. “These reactionsare similar to what we found in drug usersSABINE M. GRÜSSER-SINOPOLI, PHD, OF THE CHARITÉ-UNIVERSITY MEDICINEIN BERLIN, GERMANY.
Found a significant increase in the release of dopamine—a brainchemical associated with so-called reward mechanisms in drug addiction—in the brains of high sensation-seeking healthy men during gambling.Data are interesting for two reasons “First, they support the hypothesisthat dopamine levels can be altered behaviorally through rewarding (orpunishing) activities such as gambling, suggesting that dopamine mayfunction as the body’s own drug, independent of external drug intake.”JAKOB LINNET, PHD, OF AARHUS UNIVERSITY IN DENMARK
POSITIVE EFFECTS In terms on the beneficial effects of video game playing, thereis some evidence that shows that "certain" type of videogames, especially the ones that involve fast pace first-personshooters, improve peripheral vision, enhances attention, taskswitching, object tracking, decision making, eye-handcoordination, reaction time, enhancements in low-level vision,visual spatial capacity, among others. There is also someevidence of improvement in certain cognitive skills seen invideo gamers compared to non-video gamers showinginteresting enhanced basal cognitive effects.brief periods of playing time is usually associated with a positivetrend in enhanced cognitive and motor abilities for certain types ofgames while a negative association is seen when players spendmore than four hours a day. In other words, time spent playingexcessively will impair social and academic abilities in teenagersand young adults.
Beneficial effects depends on the genre of the video game.Specifically, pro-social and role-playing video games that contain"chatting" or other social networking functions (ie., Tribes or Halo)that promote collaboration and multiple players tend to enhancesocial and leadership skills.
NEGATIVE EFFECTSExperts agreed that excessive video game playing is co-morbidwith other psychiatric disorders such as chronic depression, ADHD,autism-like behaviors, bipolar disorders, Internet addiction andanxiety spectrum disorders.Violent video games that involve the shooting and destruction ofother human beings, animals and objects tend to produce anxietybehavior, and is associated with promoting confrontational anddisruptive behaviors in affected individuals and increases “hostileattribution bias”. However, some experts cautioned to take theevidence with a grain of salt. They specifically commented thatplaying violent video games does not generate a "mass murderer"or directly promote violent and aggressive behavior but increasesthe likelihood and risk for developing such aggressive behavior.
Evidence that video games are addictive Experts in the panel strongly agreed that there is no definitiveanswer but there are some neuroimaging studies that stronglysuggest that the neuronal circuits and pathways involved with drugaddiction are also involved with pathological video game addiction.Namely, the areas of the brain that light up according to these fMRIstudies involve the basal ganglia, parahippocampus, thalamus,prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens.
Another expert pointed to a study that showed that video gameaddiction parallels the brain areas affected in alcoholics, namelythe orbitofrontal and anterior cyngulate cortex and mentionedthat 1 out of 5 children are considered to be classified as addictedto video games.There is some evidence that brain neurochemistry may be alteredin addicted video gamers which suggests that excessive videogame playing can lead to alterations in brain circuitry. For instance,one study suggested that anti-depressants such as Prozac cancertainly help to reduce the dependence and the addiction to videogames in certain individuals
ConclusionsNeuroimaging studies have contributed significantly to ourunderstanding of the effect of IAD on the brain and illustrate thebroad range of brain regions involved. As outlined in this paper,the neuroimaging findings suggested that the IAD shared thesimilar neurobiological mechanisms of substance addiction andbehavioral addiction. These noninvasive methods will play importantroles in the investigation of neurobiological mechanism andadequate treatments of IAD and drug abuse. Longitudinal designand multiple imaging techniques with behavioral measurementsshould be necessary to improve our understanding of IAD. INTERNET ADDICTION NEUROIMAGING FINDINGS KAI YUAN,1 WEI QIN,1,* YIJUN LIU2 AND JIE TIAN1,3,* 1LIFE SCIENCES RESEARCH CENTER; SCHOOL OF LIFE SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY; XIDIAN UNIVERSITY; XI’AN, CHINA; 2DEPARTMENTS OF PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROSCIENCE; MCKNIGHT BRAIN INSTITUTE; UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA; GAINESVILLE, FL USA; 3INSTITUTE OF AUTOMATION; CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES; BEIJING, CHINA
A research team led by Hao Lei of the ChineseAcademy of Sciences in Wuhan carried out brainscans of 35 men and women aged between 14and 21.Dr Hao Lei and colleagues noted"Overall, ourfindings indicate that IAD has abnormal whitematter integrity in brain regions involvingemotional generation and processing, executiveattention,decision making and cognitivecontrol.
Prof Gunter Schumann, chair in biologicalpsychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry at KingsCollege, London, said similar findings have beenfound in video game addicts.He told the BBC: "For the first time two studiesshow changes in the neuronal connections betweenbrain areas as well as changes in brain function inpeople who are frequently using the internet or video games
The study of 17 adolescents apparently addicted to theinternet and 16 controls was conducted by ChineseresearchersThe researchers used a technique called fractionalanisotropy (FA) to measure the organization of the brain,which is greatly influenced by the number and location ofwhite matter fibres. Those study participants who haddisplayed addiction symptoms showed lower FA values ina variety of regions of the brain, such as as the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferiorfronto-occipital fasciculus and corona radiation. Lower FAvalues indicate that the nerve fibres are not functioningproperlyThe researchers theorize that the myelin, a protectivesheath around nerve fibres, is disrupted in a variety ofregions of the brain in people with IAD. They also believethat fractional anisotropy may eventually become aneffective way of detecting the severity of internetaddiction.
PMCID: PMC3312312REDUCED STRIATAL DOPAMINETRANSPORTERS IN PEOPLE WITHINTERNETADDICTION DISORDERHAIFENG HOU, 1, 2, 3, 4 , , , SHAOWE JIA, 5 SHU HU, 5 RONG FAN, 5 , , AND HONG ZHANG 1, 2, 3, 4WEN SUN 5 TAOTAO SUN 5DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, SECOND AFFILIATEDHOSPITAL OF ZHEJIANG UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE,HANGZHOU, ZHEJIANG 310009, CHINA.
Hijacked PathwaysDrug-taking and other addictive behaviors “hijack” the brain’s reward system, saysIn normal patients, dopamine plays a major role in motivation and reward, surgingbefore and during a pleasurable activity — say, eating or sex — to make patientswant to repeat a behavior that’s crucial to the survival of the species.Dopaminergic pathways connect the limbic system, responsible for emotion, withthe hippocampus, etching rewarding behaviors into the brain by creating strong,salient memories.The problem arises when the memory and the craving to recapture it takes over aperson’s life..As the dopamine surge repeats and repeats, it gains speed, but the brakes beginto fail: Normal function in the brain’s frontal lobes, responsible for inhibitory controland executive functioning (read: willpower), tends to decrease in addicts.“Ultimately, the war on drugs is a war between the hijacked reward pathways thatpush the person to want to use, and the frontal lobes, which try to keep the beastat bay. That is the essence of addiction.”Petros Levounis, MD, director of the Addiction Institute of New York at St. Luke’s and Roosevelt Hospitals in Manhattan.
Porn and ΔFosBAddiction neurobiologists have revealed that all addictions, bothchemical and behavioral, appear to share a single molecularswitch
Heres how this works:•You overconsume fatty/sugary foods, drugs or high levels of sexual activity causing dopamine to surge repeatedly.•Chronic overconsumption, and associated dopamine spikes, cause ΔFosB toaccumulate gradually in key areas of your brain. (ΔFosB is atranscription factor, i.e., a protein that binds to yourgenes and turns them onor off.)•ΔFosB then hangs around for a while, altering your genes responses,bringing on measurable, physical brain changes. These begin withsensitization, i.e., hyper-reactivity of the brains reward circuitry—but only inresponse to the specific cues it associates with the developing addiction.•All of the brain changes initiated by ΔFosB tend to keep you overconsumingor, in the case of Internet porn, riveted to what your brain perceives as aFertilization Fest.
According to researcher Eric Nestler,[ΔFosB is] almost like a molecular switch. ... Once its flipped on, it stays on for a while and doesnt go away easily. This phenomenon is observed in response to chronic administration of virtually any drug of abuse. It is also observed after high levels of consumption of natural rewards (exercise, sucrose,high fat diet, sex).Adolescent animals show much greater induction of ΔFosB compared with older animals, consistent with their greater vulnerability for addiction.Higher ΔFosB is but one of the unique aspect of teenbrains that make them more vulnerable to addiction.
Continued over-consumption leads to accumulationof ΔFosB → activation of genes → changes insynapses → addiction-related brain changes →cravings, compulsions → continued overconsumption.as reward circuit dopamine also supplies the part of thebrain that governs executive function (the prefrontal cortex)a third addiction-related brain change. Desensitization (thedecline in dopamine and dopamine D2 receptors) canadversely affect prefrontal cortex—producing abnormalwhite matter, loss of gray matter, and lowered metabolism.These changes are calledhypofrontality. They result inweakening your impulse control and over-valuing youraddiction.