Neurocognitive and behavioral disorders in children
MILEN SANTIAGO RAMOS M.A., MSc.,
SEVERE 0 to 19 FULL
MODERATE 20 to 49 GRADE 2 MODERATE
MILD 50 to 69 GRADE 6 MILD
SKILLS - FULL
Limitations in two areas
1)Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this
refers to a person’s ability to learn, reason, make
decisions, and solve problems.
2) Adaptive behaviors. These are skills necessary for
day-to-day life, such as being able to communicate
effectively, interact with others, and take care of
There are many different signs of intellectual disability in children. Signs may
appear during infancy, or they may not be noticeable until a child reaches
school age. It often depends on the severity of the disability. Some of the
most common signs of intellectual disability are:
Rolling over, sitting up, crawling, or walking late
Talking late or having trouble with talking
Slow to master things like potty training, dressing, and feeding himself or
Difficulty remembering things
Inability to connect actions with consequences
Behavior problems such as explosive tantrums
Difficulty with problem-solving or logical thinking
In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other
health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mental
disorders, motor handicaps, vision problems, or hearing problems.
CausesAnytime something interferes with normal brain development, intellectual
disability can result. However, a specific cause for intellectual disability can
only be pinpointed about a third of the time.
The most common causes of intellectual disability are:
Genetic conditions. These include things like Down syndrome and
fragile X syndrome.
Problems during pregnancy. Things that can interfere with fetal brain
development include alcohol or drug use, malnutrition, certain infections, or
Problems during childbirth. Intellectual disability may result if a baby is
deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature.
Illness or injury. Infections like meningitis, whooping cough, or the measles
can lead to intellectual disability. Severe head injury, near-drowning,
extreme malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe
neglect or abuse can also cause it.
What can I do to help my
intellectually disabled child?
Steps to help your intellectually disabled child include:
Learn everything you can about intellectual disabilities. The more you
know, the better advocate you can be for your child.
Encourage your child’s independence. Let your child try new things and
encourage your child to do things by himself or herself. Provide guidance
when it’s needed and give positive feedback when your child does
something well or masters something new.
Get your child involved in group activities. Taking an art class or
participating in Scouts will help your child build social skills.
Stay involved. By keeping in touch with your child’s teachers, you’ll be able
to follow his or her progress and reinforce what your child is learning at
school through practice at home.
Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children. They can be
a great source of advice and emotional support.
Predominantly inattentive type symptoms
Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one
activity to another
Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something
Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or
learning something new or trouble completing or turning in homework
assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to
complete tasks or activities
Not seem to listen when spoken to
Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
Struggle to follow instructions.
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
symptoms may include
Fidget and squirm in their seats
Dash around, touching or playing with
anything and everything in sight
Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school,
and story time
Be constantly in motion
Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities
and also these manifestations primarily of
manifestations primarily of impulsivity
manifestations primarily of impulsivity
Be very impatient
Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their
emotions without restraint, and act without
regard for consequences
Blurts out comments better left unsaid (not
Have difficulty waiting for things they want or
waiting their turns in games
average or above-average intelligence and there
is a lack of achievement at age and ability level or
there is a large discrepancy between achievement
and intellectual ability.
Dysgraphia-An individual with Dysgraphia has a difficult time with the physical task
of forming letters and words with a pen and paper and has difficulty producing
Dyscalculia-A person with Dyscalculia has difficulty understanding and using math
concepts and symbols.
Dyspraxia-Language comprehension of a person with Dyspraxia does not match
language production. She may mix up words and sentences while talking.
Nonverbal Learning Disorder-A Nonverbal Learning Disorder is demonstrated by
below-average motor coordination, visual-spatial organization, and social skills.
Dyslexia-An individual with Dyslexia may mix up letters within words and words
within sentences while reading. He may also have difficulty spelling words correctly
while writing; letter reversals are common. Some individuals with Dyslexia may also
have a difficult time with navigating and route finding using right/left and/or
Seizures – febrile, partial, general, psychomotor
Congenital defect – hydrocephalus
Cerebral palsy - a group of non-progressive non-
contagious motor conditions that cause physical
disability in human development, chiefly in the
various areas of body movement
a disturbance of the comprehension and
formulation of language caused by dysfunction
in specific brain regions
oppositional defiant disorder are of three types:
angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and
conduct disorder wherein specifier was for people with
limited "prosocial emotion“.
Intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, and
kleptomania -Impulse-Control Disorders Not Otherwise
intermittent explosive disorder without outbursts of
Chromosomal defectsDown syndrome (DS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a
genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of
chromosome 21. Usual IQ is 50 (moderate MR)
Fragile X syndrome (FXSis a genetic syndrome that is the most widespread single-
gene cause ofautism and inherited cause of mental retardation among boys.
It results in a spectrum of intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe as well
as physical characteristics such as an elongated face, large or protruding ears, and
large testes (macroorchidism), and behavioral characteristics such as
stereotypic movements (e.g. hand-flapping), and social anxiety.
Fragile X syndrome is associated with the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat
affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome,
resulting in a failure to express the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which
is required for normal neural development
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by
impaired social interactionand verbal and non-verbal
communication, and by restricted, repetitive
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger
disorder (AD), is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is
characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction
and nonverbal communication, alongside restricted and
repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from
other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation
oflinguistic and cognitive development. Although not required
for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical (peculiar, odd)
use of language are frequently reported