Neurocognitive and
Behavioral DISORDERS
IN CHILDREN
MILEN SANTIAGO RAMOS M.A., MSc.,
PhD
Mental Retardation
         
  IQ  LEVEL
ACADEMIC 
ACHIEVEMENT
LEVEL OF 
SUPERVISION  
SEVERE 0 to 19   FULL  
MODERATE  2...
Manifestations
Limitations in two areas
1)Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this 
refers to a person’s ability t...
Signs
There are many different signs of intellectual disability in children. Signs may 
appear during infancy, or they may...
CausesAnytime something interferes with normal brain development, intellectual 
disability can result. However, a specific...
What can I do to help my
intellectually disabled child?
Steps to help your intellectually disabled child include:
Learn ev...
ADHDAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder
INATTENTION
INATTENTION-HYPERACTIVITY
IMPULSIVENESS
inattentive type
Predominantly inattentive type symptoms
Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently...
hyperactive-impulsive type
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
symptoms may include
Fidget and squirm in their seats
...
manifestations primarily of impulsivity
manifestations primarily of impulsivity
Be very impatient
Blurt out inappropriate ...
Learning Disabilities
average or above-average intelligence and there
is a lack of achievement at age and ability level or...
types
Dysgraphia-An individual with Dysgraphia has a difficult time with the physical task
of forming letters and words wi...
Organic Problems
Seizures – febrile, partial, general, psychomotor
Brain trauma
Congenital defect – hydrocephalus
Tourette...
Communication disorders
APHASIA
a disturbance of the comprehension and
formulation of language caused by dysfunction
in sp...
types
Expressive
Receptive
Conduction
Psychological Disorders
Thinking – childhood schizophrenia
Affective- depression, bipolar
Conduct disorders
Conduct Disorders
oppositional defiant disorder are of three types:
angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, ...
Chromosomal defectsDown syndrome (DS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a
genetic disorder caused by the pr...
Autism
Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by
impaired social interactionand verbal and non-verbal
co...
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Neurocognitive and behavioral disorders in children

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Neurocognitive and behavioral disorders in children

  1. 1. Neurocognitive and Behavioral DISORDERS IN CHILDREN MILEN SANTIAGO RAMOS M.A., MSc., PhD
  2. 2. Mental Retardation             IQ  LEVEL ACADEMIC  ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL OF  SUPERVISION   SEVERE 0 to 19   FULL   MODERATE  20 to 49 GRADE 2 MODERATE SELF- HELP  SKILLS- PARTIAL MILD 50 to 69 GRADE 6 MILD SELF HELP  SKILLS  - FULL                    
  3. 3. Manifestations Limitations in two areas 1)Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this  refers to a person’s ability to learn, reason, make  decisions, and solve problems. 2) Adaptive behaviors. These are skills   necessary for        day-to-day life, such as  being  able to communicate      effectively,  interact  with others, and take care of       oneself.
  4. 4. Signs There are many different signs of intellectual disability in children. Signs may  appear during infancy, or they may not be noticeable until a child reaches  school age. It often depends on the severity of the disability. Some of the  most common signs of intellectual disability are: Rolling over, sitting up, crawling, or walking late Talking late or having trouble with talking Slow to master things like potty training, dressing, and feeding himself or  herself Difficulty remembering things Inability to connect actions with consequences Behavior problems such as explosive tantrums Difficulty with problem-solving or logical thinking In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other  health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mental  disorders, motor handicaps, vision problems, or hearing problems.
  5. 5. CausesAnytime something interferes with normal brain development, intellectual  disability can result. However, a specific cause for intellectual disability can  only be pinpointed about a third of the time. The most common causes of intellectual disability are: Genetic conditions. These include things like Down syndrome and  fragile X syndrome. Problems during pregnancy. Things that can interfere with fetal brain  development include alcohol or drug use, malnutrition, certain infections, or  preeclampsia. Problems during childbirth. Intellectual disability may result if a baby is  deprived of oxygen during childbirth or born extremely premature. Illness or injury. Infections like meningitis, whooping cough, or the measles  can lead to intellectual disability. Severe head injury, near-drowning,  extreme malnutrition, exposure to toxic substances such as lead, and severe  neglect or abuse can also cause it.
  6. 6. What can I do to help my intellectually disabled child? Steps to help your intellectually disabled child include: Learn everything you can about intellectual disabilities. The more you know, the better advocate you can be for your child. Encourage your child’s independence. Let your child try new things and encourage your child to do things by himself or herself. Provide guidance when it’s needed and give positive feedback when your child does something well or masters something new. Get your child involved in group activities. Taking an art class or participating in Scouts will help your child build social skills. Stay involved. By keeping in touch with your child’s teachers, you’ll be able to follow his or her progress and reinforce what your child is learning at school through practice at home. Get to know other parents of intellectually disabled children. They can be a great source of advice and emotional support.
  7. 7. ADHDAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder INATTENTION INATTENTION-HYPERACTIVITY IMPULSIVENESS
  8. 8. inattentive type Predominantly inattentive type symptoms Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something enjoyable Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new or trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities Not seem to listen when spoken to Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others Struggle to follow instructions.
  9. 9. hyperactive-impulsive type Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms may include Fidget and squirm in their seats Talk nonstop Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time Be constantly in motion Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities and also these manifestations primarily of impulsivity
  10. 10. manifestations primarily of impulsivity manifestations primarily of impulsivity Be very impatient Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences Blurts out comments better left unsaid (not always innapropriate) Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
  11. 11. Learning Disabilities average or above-average intelligence and there is a lack of achievement at age and ability level or there is a large discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability.
  12. 12. types Dysgraphia-An individual with Dysgraphia has a difficult time with the physical task of forming letters and words with a pen and paper and has difficulty producing legible handwriting. Dyscalculia-A person with Dyscalculia has difficulty understanding and using math concepts and symbols. Dyspraxia-Language comprehension of a person with Dyspraxia does not match language production. She may mix up words and sentences while talking. Nonverbal Learning Disorder-A Nonverbal Learning Disorder is demonstrated by below-average motor coordination, visual-spatial organization, and social skills. Dyslexia-An individual with Dyslexia may mix up letters within words and words within sentences while reading. He may also have difficulty spelling words correctly while writing; letter reversals are common. Some individuals with Dyslexia may also have a difficult time with navigating and route finding using right/left and/or compass directions.
  13. 13. Organic Problems Seizures – febrile, partial, general, psychomotor Brain trauma Congenital defect – hydrocephalus Tourette syndromes/ticks Cerebral palsy - a group of non-progressive non- contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement
  14. 14. Communication disorders APHASIA a disturbance of the comprehension and formulation of language caused by dysfunction in specific brain regions
  15. 15. types Expressive Receptive Conduction
  16. 16. Psychological Disorders Thinking – childhood schizophrenia Affective- depression, bipolar Conduct disorders
  17. 17. Conduct Disorders oppositional defiant disorder are of three types: angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, and vindictiveness. conduct disorder wherein specifier was for people with limited "prosocial emotion“. Intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, and kleptomania -Impulse-Control Disorders Not Otherwise Specified“. intermittent explosive disorder without outbursts of physical aggression
  18. 18. Chromosomal defectsDown syndrome (DS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. Usual IQ is 50 (moderate MR) Fragile X syndrome (FXSis a genetic syndrome that is the most widespread single- gene cause ofautism and inherited cause of mental retardation among boys. It results in a spectrum of intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe as well as physical characteristics such as an elongated face, large or protruding ears, and large testes (macroorchidism), and behavioral characteristics such as stereotypic movements (e.g. hand-flapping), and social anxiety. Fragile X syndrome is associated with the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome, resulting in a failure to express the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is required for normal neural development
  19. 19. Autism Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interactionand verbal and non-verbal communication, and by restricted, repetitive or stereotypedbehavior Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger disorder (AD), is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, alongside restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. It differs from other autism spectrum disorders by its relative preservation oflinguistic and cognitive development. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and atypical (peculiar, odd) use of language are frequently reported
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