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  1. 1. 21st Century Literature Mr. Michael M. Isidoro
  2. 2. What is Literature?
  3. 3. Literature • Is a body of written works. • Originated from oral traditions. • Are imaginative works. • Deals with stories and poetry. • The content depends on the author. Three Points of Literature • Literature portrays human experience. • Authors interpret these human experiences. • It is an art form and a style of expression.
  4. 4. The Three Literary Periods
  5. 5. BC-1564 The Pre-Colonial Period
  6. 6. The Pre-Colonial Period • This existed before the Spanish occupation in the 1500s. • It is oral in nature and is full of lessons and ideas about life, its blessings, and its consequences. • It contains ideas from birth to the grave. • The oral characteristic of pre-colonial literature gives the possibility for many alterations. • In the Philippine context, no matter how it may be considered as altered, pre-colonial literature is still revered to by many Filipinos. • The sources are usually the local native town folk.
  7. 7. Forms 1. Oral Literature a. Riddles b. Proverbs 2. Folk Songs a. Lullabies b. Drinking Songs c. Love Songs d. Songs of Death e. Religious Songs 3. Folk Tales a. Myths b. Legends c. Fables d. Epics
  8. 8. Riddles (Mga Bugtong) • These are statements that contain superficial words, but they function figuratively and as metaphors, and are in the form of questions. • These are questions that demand deeper answers. • Deals with everyday life. • It usually has mundane things as answers. • This is used in the past as a form of game in small or large gatherings.
  9. 9. Examples: Bisaya Baboy sa lasang, (A wild pig of the forest,) Ang tunok puro lansang. (Is covered with spikes.) Answer: Nangka (Jackfruit) Meranaw Chabacano Sominub lawiyan, (It dived,) Mbowat lawitan. (It rose.) Tagia que tagia, (You keep on slashing it,) Hende ta penetra. (But it does not penetrate) Answer: Ragum (Needle) Answer: Agua (Water)
  10. 10. Proverbs (Mga Salawikain) • These are statements that are considered as wise. • These are usually given by parents or elders of the community. • There is belief that experience is the best teacher.
  11. 11. Examples: “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” • Meaning: Taking care of yourself leads to success and productivity. “It's no use locking the stable door after the horse has bolted.” • Meaning: Fixing a mistake won’t help after the consequences have happened. “Laugh and the world laughs with you, weep and you weep alone.” • Meaning: People prefer sharing good news over bad news.
  12. 12. 1. Huwag gawin sa iba ang ayaw mong gawin sa iyo. Kung hindi tayo magdudulot ng mga bagay na ayaw nating gawin sa atin ng ibang tao, pawang mga kabutihan lang mangyayari. 2. Kung ano ang puno, siya ang bunga. Kung ano ang pinanggalingan ay siya rin ang bunga. Kadalasan, ito ay tumutukoy sa pagkakaparehas ng anak sa kanyang mga magulang. 3. Kung walang tiyaga, walang nilaga. Walang pag-unlad kung hindi ka marunong mag tiyaga o magtrabaho ng maigi.
  13. 13. Folk Songs • These are folk lyrics that are usually chanted. aspirations, hopes, everyday life • These usually contain ideas on and expressions of love for loved ones. • It is bounded by the learning of good morals. • It is easy to undestand because it is straightforward and not figurative in nature.
  14. 14. Bahay kubo, kahit munti Ang halaman doon ay sari-sari. Singkamas at talong, sigarilyas at mani Sitaw, bataw, patani. Kundol, patola, upo’t kalabasa At saka mayroon pang labanos, mustasa, sibuyas, kamatis, bawang at luya sa paligid-ligid ay puro linga. EXAMPLE:
  15. 15. Forms • Lullabies- these is locally known as the Hele. These are sung to put to sleep babies. The content varies, but usually, parents sing these with ideas on how hard life is and how they hope that their child will not experience the hardships of life.
  16. 16. Sa Ugoy ng Duyan Lullaby I Sana'y di magmaliw ang dati kong araw Nang munti pang bata sa piling ni nanay Nais kong maulit ang awit ni inang mahal Awit nang pag-ibig habang ako'y nasa duyan (Repeat I) II Sa aking pagtulog na labis ang himbing, Ang bantay ko'y tala,ang tanod ko'y bitwin, Sa piling ni nanay langit ang buhay, Puso kong may dusa, sabik sa ugoy ng duyan (Repeat I,II) coda: Nais kong matulog sa dating duyan ko inay O, inay...
  17. 17. • Love Songs- to many Filipinos, these are known as the Harana. It can also be called Courtship Songs and are used by young men to capture the heart of the girl that they love. • Religious Songs- are songs or chants that are usually given during exorcisms and thanksgiving during good harvest. • Songs of Death- are lamentations that contain the roll of good deeds that the dead has usually done to immortaliz his or her good image.
  18. 18. Examples: Lullabies Ilocano Maturog, duduayya Maturog kad tay bunga, Tay lalaki nga napigsa Ta inton dumakkel tay bunga, Isunto aya tay mammati Tay amon a ibaga me. Go to sleep, dear little one Will my child please sleep, This strong boy So when the child grows big He will obey Everything that we say.
  19. 19. Folk Tales (Mga Kwentong Bayan) • These are stories of native Filipinos. • These deal with the power of nature- personified, their submission to a deity- usually Bathala- and how this deity is responsible for the blessings and calamities. • These also tackle about irresponsibility, lust, stupidity, deception, and fallibility that eventually leads to the instilling of good morals.
  20. 20. Usual Themes: • Pre and Post apocalypse • Life and Death • Gods and Goddesses • Heroes and Heroines • Supernatural beings • Animals needed to appease the • Ceremonies deities.
  21. 21. Forms • Myths- these tackle the natural to strange occurences of the earth and how things were created with an aim to give an explanation to things. -There is Bathala for the Tagalogs and the Gueurang for the Bikolanos. - Paradise is known as Maca, while Hell is Kasanaaan
  22. 22. • Legends- uderstood through mysteries legends, around the them. natives These stories usually come with a moral lesson that give credit to supernatural powers, supernatural occurences, and other out-of- this-world native imagination. • Fables- are short or brief stories that cater the children of the native Filipinos and are usually bounded by good manners and right conduct. These stories use animals as characters that represent a particular value or characteristic. • Epics- are very lengthy narratives that are based on oral traditions. These contain encounters of fighters, stereotypical princes or heroes that save a damsel in distress.
  23. 23. Examples: Myths The Story of Bathala Ang Pag-aaway ng Dagat at Langit Legends The Legend of Maria Makiling The Legend of the Sampaguita Fables Ang Kuneho at and Pagong Si Juan Tamad Epics Hinilawod Darangen
  24. 24. 1521-1898 The SPANISH Period
  25. 25. The Spanish Period • The start of the Philippine's more colorful history took place in March 6, 1521 when Ferdinand Magellan docked on the shores of Homonhon. • The Filipinos were then called “Ladinos”, meaning they were latinized. • Filipinos were called two things. One is the “Taga-Bayan”, while the other is the “Taga-bukid” or “Taga-bundok”. • A person who is a Taga-bayan is considered urbane and civilized and were in easy range of the church and state. • A person who is a Taga-bundok or Taga-bukid is called a Bruto Salvage (Savage Brute) or Indio and were the ones who lived far from the center of the Spanish power.
  26. 26. Forms 1. Religious Literature 2. Secular or Non-Religious Literature a. Pasyon b. Senakulo c. Komedya a. Awit b. Korido c. Prose Narratives 3. Propaganda Literature 4. Revolutionary Literature
  27. 27. Religious Literature • Revolves around the life and the death of Jesus Christ. Forms of Religious Literature: Pasyon- it is about the passion (journey and suffering) and the death of Jesus Christ. Senakulo- it is the re-enctment of the Pasyon. Komedya- it depicts the European society through love and fame, but can also be a narrative about a journey, just like Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. It is also considered religous, because it usually depicts the battle between the Christians and the Saracens or the Moros.
  28. 28. Secular or Non- Religious Literature • Revolves around tales of valiance and adventure. Forms of Secular or Non-Religious Literature: Awit- these are tales of chivalry where a knight saves a princess. Florante at Laura is a good example. Korido- is a metrical tale or a tale that follows the struture of a poem. Prose Narratives- are easy to understand instructional materials that in a literary light that teaches Filipinos on proper decorum. Pagsusulatan ng Dalawang Binibini na si Urbana at Feliza (1864) is a good example.
  29. 29. Propaganda Literature • These were in the forms of satires, editorials, and news articles that aimed to attack the Spanish Rule. • The propaganda trinity is composed of Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. Del Pilar, and Graciano Lopez Jaena • Examples Graciano Lopez Jaena Ang Fray Botod- One of his works written in Jaro, Iloilo in 1876, six years after the Cavite Revolt attacking the friars in the Philippines. He exposed how some of the friars were greedy, ambitious and immoral.
  30. 30. LA HIJA DEL FRAILE (The Child of the Friar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG (Everything is mere show)- the tragedy of marrying a Here Jaena explains Spaniard. Marcelo H. Del Pilar KAIINGAT KAYO (Be Careful)- a humorous and sarcastic dig in answer to Fr. Jose Rodriquez in the novel NOLI of Rizal, published in Barcelona in 1888. He used Dolores Manapat as pen-name here. DASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and Jokes)- similar to a cathecism but sarcastically done agains the parish priests, published in Barcelona in 1888. Because of this, del Pilar was called “filibuster.” Done in admirable tone of supplication and excellent use of Tagalog.
  31. 31. ANG CADAQUILAAN NG DIOS (God’s Goodness)- published in Barcelona, it was also like a cathecism sarcastically aimed against the parish priests but also contains a philosophy of the power and intelligence of God and an appreciation for and love for nature. Dr. Jose Rizal NOLI ME TANGERE- his was the novel that gave spirit to the propaganda movement and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines.
  32. 32. Revolutionary Literature • are exposes that sparked revolution and resistance in the hearts of Filipinos. Examples: Andres Bonifacio Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Obligations of our Countrymen) – an outline of obligations just like the Ten Commandments, hence, it is likewise called Ang Dekalogo. Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog (What the Tagalogs should Know) – an essay outlining the basic tenets of Bonifacio’s ideas on nationalism.
  33. 33. Examples: Emilio Jacinto Liwanag at Dilim (Light and Darkness) – a collection of essays on different subjects like freedom, work, faith, government and love of country. Apolinario Mabini El Desarollo y Caida de la Republica Filipina (The Rise and Fall of the Philippine Republic) – this essay highlights the establishment of the Philippine republic and its subsequent doom due to disunity among the Filipinos
  34. 34. Examples: Dr. Jose Rizal El Filibusterismo– This is a sequel to the NOLI. While the NOLI exposed the evils in society, the FILI exposed those in the government and in the church. However, the NOLI has been dubbed the novel of society while that of FILI is that of politics.
  35. 35. Publications El Heraldo de la Revolucion (Herald of the Revolution) – printed the decrees of the Revolutionary Government, news and works in Tagalog that aroused nationalism. This is the Official Newspaper of the Revolutionary Government of Aguinaldo. La Independencia (Independence) – an independent newspaper founded and edited by General Antonio Luna. La Republica Filipina (The Philippine Republic) – a private newspaper edited by Pedro Paterno. La Libertad (Liberty) – another private newspaper edited by Clemente Zulueta.
  36. 36. 1900-1942 The AMERICAN Period
  37. 37. The American Period • . The Philippines had a great leap in Education and Culture • The use of English alongside Filipino was practiced. • The Philippines Public School system was introduced. • Free public instruction was given to the Filipinos. • The literature during the American period was considered as imitative of American model. Instead of asking the students to write originals, students ended up following the form of American poets.
  38. 38. Forms 1.Poetry- poetry under the American rule still followed the style of the old, but had contents that ranged from free writing to societal concerns under the Americans. 2.Drama- was usually used in the American period to degrade the Spanish rule and to immortalize the heroism of the men who fought under the Katipunan. 3.Remake Novels- took up Dr . Jose Rizal's portrayal of social conditions by colonial repression.
  39. 39. Poetry Jose Corazon de Jesus (1832-1896) popularly known as “Batute,” created his own generation with his first book of poems. Mga Gintong Dahon (1920)- were poems pre-occupied with such non- traditional themes as passion-slaying, grief-induced, insanity, and lover’s suicide. Sa Dakong Silangan (1928)- returned to the awit form, retelling the history of Philippines under Spain, the coming of the U.S under the guise of friendship to take over from Spain
  40. 40. Drama Severino Reyes (1861-1942) – spearheaded a movement to supplant the komedya with a new type of drama, the sarsuwela, a Filipino adaptation of the Spanish zarzuela. Examples: Walang Sugat (1902)- is a sarsuwela (drama in the form singing) drawn from the period of Revolution, depicting the cruelty and corruption of friars and the heroism of the soldiers of the Katipunan.
  41. 41. Other successful sarsuwelas: Hindi Aco Patay (1903) by Juan Matapang Cruz Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas (1903) by Aurelio Tolentino- is an allegorical presentation of the history of the nationalist struggle and how the U,S. frustrated the Philippine revolution. Tanikalang Guinto (1902) by Juan Abad (1872-1932)- is about Liwanag and K’Ulayaw, lovers who stand for freedom and the Filipino.
  42. 42. Remake Novels Gabriel Beato Francisco (1850-1935)- is best known for his trilogy of Fulgencia Galbillo (1907), Capitan Bensio (1907), Alfaro (1909), depicting the 30 years of colonial repression by the Spanish rule. Inigo Ed. Regalado (1888-1976)- Madaling Araw (1909) was his first novel showing the complex interrelations of issues and people in contemporary Philippine society. Juan Lauro Arsciwals (1889-1928)- Lalaking Uliran o Tulisan (1914), allusion to the colonial law that branded Filipino patriots as bandits.
  43. 43. 1941-1945 The JAPANESE Period
  44. 44. 1946- 1985 The REPUBLIC
  45. 45. The Japanese Period and the Republic • The Philippine literature came into a halt. • The use of the English language was forbidden, and the use of the Filipino language was mandated under the Japanese rule. • For some this was a problem, but to most writers, it was a blessing in disguise. • Almost all news papers were stopped except for some. • Filipino literature was given a break during this period. Many wrote plays, poems, short stories, etc. Topics and themes were often about life in the provinces.
  46. 46. Forms 1. Poetry 2. Fiction 3. Drama 4. Newspapers 5. Essays
  47. 47. Drama The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period because movie houses showing American films were closed. The big movie houses were just made to show stage shows. Many of the plays were reproductions of English plays to Tagalog.. Newspapers Writings that came out during this period were journalistic in nature. Writers felt suppressed but slowly, the spirit of nationalism started to seep into their consciousness. While some continued to write, the majority waited for a better climate to publish their works.
  48. 48. Poetry The common theme of most poems during the Japanese occupation was nationalism, country, love, and life in the barrios, faith, religion and the arts. Fiction The field of the short story widened during the Japanese Occupation. Many wrote short stories.
  49. 49. Essays Essays were composed to gorify the Filipinos and at the same time to figuratively attack the Japanese.
  51. 51. 21st Century Literature In the 21st centruy Philippines, there are a lot of literary innovations that are adapted and created by Filipinos. Nowadays, even those who do not have any significant literary background make their own way using the freedom that they have to write and to express. There are a lot of new froms from the basic genres of literature; thus, proving how far the literature in the Philippines has gone and how far it will go on from here.
  52. 52. FIN