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Carbonate Acidizing & design 142


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Carbonate Acidizing and Design
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Carbonate Acidizing & design 142

  1. 1. Carbonate Acidizing & Design
  2. 2. Carbonate Rocks  Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks.  Composed primarily of two major types of carbonate minerals. 1.Limestone 2.Dolostone or Dolomite
  3. 3. Limesto ne Composed of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera.
  4. 4. Dolomit e An anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2 .
  5. 5. Acidizing & Designing  Acidizing involves pumping acid into a wellbore or geologic formation that is capable of producing oil and/or gas.  Purpose of any acidizing is to improve a well’s productivity or injectivity.  Acidizing designing in which we selecte the appropriate acids, after that ready to design the treatment.
  6. 6. Two types of acids are most commonly used  1.Hydrochloric acid in all formation types.  2.Hydrofluoric acid in sandstones and certain shales.  Other types of acids, such as organic acids, may also be used in specialized situations
  7. 7. Three general categories of acid treatments are  Acid washing  Matrix acidizing  Fracture acidizing
  8. 8. Acid Washing  Mostly used in carbonate formations  Objective is simply tubular and wellbore cleaning.  Most commonly performed with hydrochloric acid (HCl) mixtures to clean out scale (such as calcium carbonate), rust, and other debris restricting flow in the well.
  9. 9. Matrix Acidizing  Mostly used in sandstone formations  Acid is injected into the well penetrating rock pores at pressures below fracture pressure.  Used to either stimulate a well to improve flow or to remove damage.  During this process the acids dissolve the sediments and mud solids within the pores that are inhibiting the permeability of the rock.
  10. 10. Fracture Acidizing  Mostly used in carbonate formations  Involves pumping highly pressurized acid into the well,  physically fracturing the reservoir rock and dissolving the permeability inhibitive sediments.  Purpose is to restore or improve an oil or gas well’s productivity
  11. 11. Acidizing Refers to Stimulation  Well stimulation is a well intervention performed on an oil or gas well  To increase production by improving the flow of hydrocarbons from the drainage area into the well bore.
  12. 12. Backflush Job  After an acid job is performed,  used acid and sediments removed from the reservoir are washed out of the well in a process called Backflush.
  13. 13. Heterogeneous carbonate fields challenging to produce  Carbonates can exhibit highly varying properties  (e.g., porosity, permeability, flow mechanisms) within small sections of the reservoir,  making them difficult to characterize.  This involves detailed understanding of the fluids saturation,  pore-size distribution,  permeability,  rock texture,  reservoir rock type,  and natural fracture systems at different scales.
  14. 14. Massive hydrocarbon reserves  It is estimated that more than 60% of the world's oil and 40% of the world's gas reserves are held in carbonate reservoirs.  The Middle East, is dominated by carbonate fields, with around 70% of oil and 90% of gas reserves held within these reservoirs.
  15. 15. Pakistan <3  Most carbonate reservoir are present in Pakistan ( Northern areas) in which 90% of gas and 60% of oil are produces to fulfill the demand of oil/gas for our country.  But many reserves are remaining to extract or evaluate the hydrocarbon, because this reserve has an ability to fulfill the demand of the energy in Pakistan.
  16. 16. Conclusion  Every nation depend on economy and economy stable by profitable business,  Oil & gas sector is more profitable business in the whole world.  More exploration get more profit and stable the economy of any country.  Government interest required in exploration.  Carbonate acidizing and design is required to produce well efficiently & economically.
  17. 17. Refrences  Internet  Wikipedia  Schlumberger  Petro wiki  SPE  Etc….