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Starting with JSON Path Expressions in Oracle 12.1.0.2

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Getting started with the new Native Database JSON capabilities in Oracle database 12.1.0.2

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Starting with JSON Path Expressions in Oracle 12.1.0.2

  1. 1. Mark D. Drake, Marco Gralike
  2. 2. Manager, Product Management • Server Technology, Oracle Corporation • Oracle 25+ years experience • XML Infrastructure products in Oracle's Server Technology division
  3. 3. Management Consultant • Ordina, The Netherlands • Oracle 20+ years experience • Oracle ACE Director (www.xmldb.nl)
  4. 4. Basic constructs (recursive)  Base values number, string, boolean, …  Objects { } sets of label-value pairs  Arrays [ ] lists of values
  5. 5. New in Oracle Database 12.1.0.2.0  Store and manage JSON documents in Database ▪ JSON documents stored as text ▪ JSON documents can be indexed  Access JSON documents via developer-friendly ‘Document-Store’ API’s  SQL query capabilities over JSON documents for reporting and analysis
  6. 6. Allows Oracle RDBMS to be used as a JSON Document Store  Enables storing, indexing and querying of JSON documents No new JSON data type IS JSON constraint used to ensure a column contains valid JSON documents  Apply to CLOB, VARCHAR2, RAWand BLOB data  Enables use of .dotted notation to navigate JSON document structure and access content
  7. 7. Flexible Schema development
  8. 8. JSON data can also be  Partitioned  Used with Flashback  Recovered (when proper backup is in place)  Used with Securefile storage ▪ Smaller storage ▪ Encryption, Deduplication, Compressed  Multiple index options  Caching advantages, etc., etc.,…
  9. 9. JSON content is accessible from SQL via new operators JSON operators use JSON Path language to navigate JSON objects Proposed extention to SQL standards
  10. 10. The JSON Path language makes it possible to address the contents of a JSON document  A JSON path expression can address 1 of 4 items ▪ The entire object, a scalar value, an array, a specific object  JSON Path expressions are similar to XPath Expressions ▪ The entire document is referenced by $ ▪ All JSON path expressions start with a $ symbol ▪ Key names are separated by a ’.’ (period) JSON Path expressions are case sensitive
  11. 11. JSON Path Expression Type Contents $.Reference String "ABULL-20120421" $.ShippingInstructions.Address.zipcode Number 99236 $.ShippingInstructions.Address Object { "street": "200 Sporting Green", "city": "South San Francisco", "state": "CA", "zipCode": 99236, "country": “USA" } $LineItems Array [ { "ItemNumber" : 1, "Part" : { "Description" : “Christmas” "UPCCode" : 13131092899 } }, { "ItemNumber" : 2, "Part" : { "Description" : “Easter” "UPCCode" : 13131092899 } ]
  12. 12. Compatible with Java Script  $.phone[0] Wildcards, Multi-Selects, Ranges  $.phone[*], $.phone[0,1 5 to 9] Predicates  .address?(.zip > $zip) SQL conversion functions usable in predicates  .?(to_date(.date) > $date)
  13. 13. JSON_VALUE  Return a single scalar value from a JSON Document JSON_QUERY  Return a JSON Object or JSON Array from a JSON Document JSON_EXISTS  Filter rows based on JSON-PATH expressions JSON_TABLE  Project in-line, nested relational views from JSON Documents JSON_TEXTCONTAINS  JSON aware full-text searching of JSON Documents Proposed extension to SQL standards
  14. 14. Using .dotted notation SQL> select j.PO_DOCUMENT 2 from J_PURCHASEORDER j 3 where j.PO_DOCUMENT.PONumber = 1600 4 / SQL> select j.PO_DOCUMENT.ShippingInstructions.Address 2 from J_PURCHASEORDER j 3 where j.PO_DOCUMENT.PONumber = 1600 4 /
  15. 15. Can only return a SCALAR value SQL> select JSON_VALUE(PO_DOCUMENT, 2 '$.LineItems[0].Part.UnitPrice' 3 returning NUMBER(5,3)) 4 from J_PURCHASEORDER p 5 where JSON_VALUE(PO_DOCUMENT, 6 '$.PONumber' returning NUMBER(10)) = 1600 ;
  16. 16. Can only returns anARRAY or OBJECT SELECT JSON_QUERY('{a:100, b:200, c:300}', '$.*' WITH WRAPPER) AS value FROM DUAL; VALUE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [100,200,300]
  17. 17. Used in the WHERE clause SQL> select count(*) 2 from J_PURCHASEORDER 3 where JSON_EXISTS( PO_DOCUMENT 4 , '$.ShippingInstructions.Address.state') 5 /
  18. 18. Used in the FROM clause Creation of an inline relational view of JSON SQL> SELECT m.* 2 FROM J_PURCHASEORDER p 3 , JSON_TABLE 4 ( p.PO_DOCUMENT, '$' 5 columns 6 po_rno FOR ORDINALITY, 7 po_number NUMBER(10) path '$.PONumber' 8 ) m 9 WHERE po_number > 1600 and PO_Number < 1605;
  19. 19. SQL> SELECT m.* 2 FROM J_PURCHASEORDER p 3 , JSON_TABLE 4 ( p.PO_DOCUMENT, '$' 5 columns 6 po_number NUMBER(10) path '$.PONumber', 7 reference VARCHAR2(30) path '$.Reference', 8 requestor VARCHAR2(32) path '$.Requestor', 9 userid VARCHAR2(10) path '$.User', 10 center VARCHAR2(16) path '$.CostCenter' 11 ) m 12 WHERE po_number > 1600 and PO_Number < 1605;
  20. 20. 1 row output for each row in table PO_NUMBER REFERENCE REQUSTOR USERID CENTER 1600 ABULL-20140421 Alexis Bull ABULL A50 1601 ABULL-20140423 Alexis Bull ABULL A50 1602 ABULL-20140430 Alexis Bull ABULL A50 1603 KCHUNG-20141022 Kelly Chung KCHUNG A50 1604 LBISSOT-20141009 Laura Bissot LBISSOT A50
  21. 21. create or replace view J_PURCHASEORDER_DETAIL_VIEW as select d.* from J_PURCHASEORDER p, JSON_TABLE (p.PO_DOCUMENT, '$' columns ( PO_NUMBER NUMBER(10) path '$.PONumber', USERID VARCHAR2(10) path '$.User', COSTCENTER VARCHAR2(16) path '$.CostCenter', NESTED PATH '$.LineItems[*]' columns ( ITEMNO NUMBER(38) path '$.ItemNumber', UNITPRICE NUMBER(14,2) path '$.Part.UnitPrice' ) ) ) d;
  22. 22. Full-text search of JSON data that is stored in a VARCHAR2, BLOB, or CLOB column Must be used in conjunction with special JSON Oracle Text Index Use CTXSYS.JSON_SECTION_GROUP
  23. 23. SQL> SELECT po_document 2 FROM j_purchaseorder 3 WHERE JSON_TEXTCONTAINS 4 ( po_document 5 , '$.LineItems.Part.Description' 6 , 'Magic' ); Execution path |* | DOMAIN INDEX | PO_SEARCH_IDX | | | 4 (0)
  24. 24. Check constraint guarantees that values are valid JSON documents IS [NOT] JSON predicate  Returns TRUE if column value is JSON, FALSE otherwise  Full parse of the data while validating syntax  Tolerant and strict modes Use to ensure that the documents stored in a column are valid JSON
  25. 25. LAX  Default STRICT  Among others: ▪ JSON property (key) name and each string value must be enclosed in double quotation marks (") ▪ Fractional numerals must have leading zero ( 0.14 | .14) ▪ XML DB Developers Guide or JSON Standards (ECMA-404 / 262)  More performance intensive than Lax
  26. 26. create table J_PURCHASEORDER ( ID RAW(16) NOT NULL, DATE_LOADED TIMESTAMP(6) WITH TIME ZONE, PO_DOCUMENT CLOB CHECK (PO_DOCUMENT IS JSON) ) insert into J_PURCHASEORDER values(‘0x1’,‘{Invalid JSON Text}'); ERROR at line 1: ORA-02290: check constraint (DEMO.IS_VALID_JSON) violated
  27. 27. ALL_JSON_COLUMNS DBA_JSON_COLUMNS USER_JSON_COLUMNS Will not show up when  Check constraint combines condition IS JSON with another condition using logical condition OR  “jcol is json OR length(jcol) < 1000” ???
  28. 28. -- Default (lax) SQL> SELECT json_column 2 FROM t 3 WHERE ( json_column IS JSON); -- Explicit SQL> SELECT json_column 2 FROM t 3 WHERE ( json_column IS JSON (STRICT));
  29. 29. SQL> insert into J_PURCHASEORDER 2 select SYS_GUID(), 3 SYSTIMESTAMP, 4 JSON_DOCUMENT 5 from STAGING_TABLE 6 where JSON_DOCUMENT IS JSON; SQL> delete from STAGING_TABLE 2 where DOCUMENT IS NOT JSON;
  30. 30. NULL on ERROR  The Default  Return NULL instead of raising the error ERROR on ERROR  Raise the error (no special handling) TRUE ON ERROR  In JSON_EXISTS  Return TRUE instead of raising the error
  31. 31. FALSE ON ERROR  In JSON_EXISTS  Return FALSE instead of raising the error EMPTY ON ERROR  In JSON_QUERY  Return an empty array ([]) instead of raising the error DEFAULT 'literal_value' ON ERROR  Return the specified value instead of raising the error
  32. 32. RETURNING clause  PRETTY ▪ Can only be used in JSON_QUERY ▪ Pretty-print the returned data  ASCII ▪ Can only be used in JSON_VALUE, JSON_QUERY ▪ Automatically escape all non-ASCII Unicode characters in the returned data, using standard ASCII Unicode
  33. 33. JSON_TABLE, JSON_QUERY  WITHOUT WRAPPER ▪ Default, no change ▪ Raise error, if scalar/multiple values in non JSON result  WITH WRAPPER ▪ Wrap result as a JSON ARRAY [ ]  WITH CONDITIONAL WRAPPER ▪ Wrap result as a JSON ARRAY [ ] ▪ Don’t wrap result if scalar/multiple values in JSON result
  34. 34. For a single JSON object or array value, it is the same as WITHOUT WRAPPER. JSON Example WITH WRAPPER WITHOUT WRAPPER WITH CONDITIONAL WRAPPER {"id": 38327} (single object) [{"id": 38327}] {"id": 38327} {"id": 38327} [42, "a", true] (single array) [[42, "a", true]] [42, "a", true] [42, "a", true] 42 [42] Error (scalar) [42] 42, "a", true [42, "a", true] Error (multiple values) [42, "a", true] none [] Error (no values) []
  35. 35. JSON_TABLE  FORMAT JSON ▪ Forces JSON_QUERY behavior ▪ Therefore can have an explicit wrapper clause  Default ▪ Projection like JSON_VALUE
  36. 36. sqlldr.sh sqlldr userid=json/json control=sqlldr.ctl log=sqlldr.log bad=sqlldr.bad filelist.dat ./data/www.json-generator.com.01.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.02.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.03.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.04.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.05.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.06.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.07.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.08.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.09.json ./data/www.json-generator.com.10.json
  37. 37. sqlldr.ctl LOAD DATA INFILE 'filelist.dat' truncate INTO table JSON_DATA FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',‘ ( clob_filename filler char(120) , clob_content LOBFILE(clob_filename) TERMINATED BY EOF , nclob_filename filler char(120) , nclob_content LOBFILE(nclob_filename) TERMINATED BY EOF , bfile_filename filler char(120) , bfile_content BFILE(CONSTANT "JSON_LOAD", bfile_filename))
  38. 38. create bitmap index COSTCENTER_IDX on J_PURCHASEORDER (JSON_VALUE (PO_DOCUMENT, '$.CostCenter')); create unique index PO_NUMBER_IDX on J_PURCHASEORDER (JSON_VALUE ( PO_DOCUMENT, '$.PONumber' returning NUMBER(10) ERROR ON ERROR));
  39. 39. Path Expressions Operators Functions Conditions Error Handling Returning results Loading JSON data Indexing JSON data
  40. 40. Oracle Database SQL Language Reference  JSON Functions ▪ JSON_QUERY ▪ JSON_TABLE ▪ JSON_VALUE  JSON Conditions ▪ IS JSON ▪ JSON_EXISTS ▪ JSON_TEXTCONTAINS Oracle XMLDB Developers Guide  JSON in DB 12.1.0.2  JSON Path Expressions ▪ Syntax  Indexing JSON ▪ Syntax  Loading JSON ▪ A Method JSON on xmldb.nl
  41. 41. Stanford - Introduction to Databases (JSON) Eclipse JSON Editor Plugin JSONView addon (Firefox/Chrome) JSON Schema Get Started With JSON www.json-generator.com JSON Datasets: www.data.gov

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