John van genderen


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John van genderen

  1. 1. How to write scientific journal papers<br />Professor Dr. J. L. van Genderen<br />January, 31st, 2011, National University of Mongolia<br />School of Geography and Geology<br />
  2. 2. CONTENTS<br />Choose a journal<br />Guide to authors<br />Format of Manuscript<br /> 3.1 Title<br /> 3.2 Abstract<br /> 3.3 Keywords<br /> 3.4 Introduction<br /> 3.5 Main text<br /> 3.5.1 Study area/dataset<br /> 3.5.2 Procedures<br />3.5.3 Results and discussions of <br /> results<br />3.6 Conclusions<br />3.7 Tables<br />3.8 Figures<br />3.9 Equations<br />3.10 References<br />3.11 Appendices<br />3.12 Acknowledgements<br />2<br />
  3. 3. CONTENTS (2)<br />Peer Review Process<br />Ethical considerations<br />Reasons for rejection<br />Final suggestions<br />3<br />
  4. 4. 1. CHOOSE A JOURNAL<br />Question: Find a journal for your article or write an article for a specific Journal?<br />Is it international?<br />Is it peer reviewed? – How long does it take?<br />Is it in Science Citation Index (SCI) data base?<br />Is it available online and/or in printed form?<br />Who is Editor in Chief?<br />Who is on Editorial Board?<br />Who is publisher of the Journal?<br />4<br />
  5. 5. 1. CHOOSE A JOURNAL (2)<br />Is it published by a Learned Society?<br />What is the Journal’s Impact Factor?<br />How often is the Journal published?<br />What is the scope of the Journal? Does your paper fit?<br />What type of papers does the Journal publish? Does your paper comply?<br />Relevance is main aspect. Relate your paper to Scope/Aims of the Journal<br />Some Journals have page charges, or charge for printing figures in colour<br />Where is the Journal Indexed? (e.g. ISI, ACM, SCOPUS, EI, ICE, GEOBASE, etc.?)<br />5<br />
  6. 6. 2. GUIDE TO AUTHORS<br />Most common error! Authors do not STUDY the “Instructions for Authors”<br />Your paper must comply 100% before you submit. Especially in terms of format, style, length, type, etc.<br />Before submitting your paper, read several issues of the Journal to understand format, style, referencing system, use of figures/tables, etc.<br />Do they publish mainly methodology type papers or case studies, or application papers? Does yours fit?<br />Type of paper: review, research, letter, technical note, case study, short communication, etc.<br />Length of your paper<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Taylor & Francis Journals – New Titles for 2010 <br />
  8. 8. Taylor & Francis Journals – New Titles for 2011 <br />
  9. 9. Taylor & Francis Journals – Online Platform<br /><br />
  10. 10. 3. FORMAT OF THE MANUSCRIPT<br />Pay attention to:<br />Structure of your paper<br />Grammar and Spelling<br />Style<br />Structure of your paper. Did you study “Guide to Authors? Did you read several issues of the Journal?<br />Grammar and Spelling. Did you use “Spell checker”. American or English spelling? English language editing (Converting “Monglishto English”)<br />Style. Check “Instructions to Authors”. Comply with length (word count). Referencing system. Use automated reference and/or article- formatting tools (e.g. Endnote ®, Reference Manager ®, ProCite ®, Biblioscape, Papyrus ®<br />10<br />
  11. 11. 3.1 TITLE<br />What’s wrong with this title?“Using the FFTXT8 Algorithm to calculate NDVI-LAI Indices”.<br />Do NOT use abbreviations or Acronyms in the title of your paper<br />Keep title “generic” – relevant to a wider audience, e.g. “A methodology to improving urban land use map accuracy,” instead of “An improved land use map of Ulan Batar, Mongolia, using R.S. data.”<br />Scientist often use search engines, so title is very important.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 3.2 ABSTRACT<br />An abstract is a summary of the whole paper. It includes problem to be studies, objectives, methods, results and conclusions<br />An abstract should be able to stand alone. Often with online publications, access to the abstract is free. Access to full paper is not free. Hence readers decide on basis of abstract if they want to download / buy the full paper.<br />Abstract should not include references<br />Usually one writes the abstract after the paper has been written<br />Any Abbreviation/Acronym must be written in full first time it is used, followed by abbreviation in brackets. Thereafter, abbreviation can be used<br />12<br />
  13. 13. 3.3. KEY WORDS<br />Normally about five key words should be selected<br />Choose them carefully<br />Don’t make them too general (e.g. remote sensing)<br />These are used for indexing services, Google scholar, etc. so pay attention!<br />13<br />
  14. 14. 3.4 INTRODUCTION<br />Should indicate general background<br />Should summarize previous work (literature review)<br />It should not state the results or conclusions<br />Do not assume reader has read the abstract (Remember that it is not part of the paper)<br />Introduction should explain:<br />What is the background to the problem/piece of research<br />What is the problem<br />How others have studied it<br />How you have gone about researching it<br />Introduction should be at right scientific level for your audience. Not too general, not too detailed<br />14<br />
  15. 15. 3.5 MAIN TEXT (1)<br />3.5.1 Study area / Data used<br />3.5.2 Procedures<br />3.5.3 Results and discussion of results<br />3.5.1 Study area/data used<br />Location of Test site needs to be clearly given so that anyone, anywhere in the World can see where it is (e.g. location map, co-ordinates for Google Earth)<br />What data did you use? Give sources and details<br />Did you collect data yourself, or obtained it from other source? Date of the data<br />15<br />
  16. 16. 3.5 MAIN TEXT (2)<br />3.5.2 Procedures<br />Procedures differ from the methodology. In procedures, you describe what and how you actually did. How did you process/ analise your data.<br /> The methodology gives the overall/general/approach to solving the problem you have researched.<br />3.5.3 Results and discussion of results<br />First present the results<br />Then discuss the results<br />Discussion should include section on errors in your results, accuracy assessment, significance of results, potential practical applications (if any)<br />If results are negative, explain possible reasons: e.g. data used methodology adopted, procedures applied, analysis techniques used, or other suspected reasons<br />16<br />
  17. 17. 3.6 CONCLUSIONS <br />This gives the new information/discovery/advancement of knowledge resulting from your research<br />It should NOTbe a summary of the whole paper. The summary belongs in the abstract.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. 3.7 TABLES<br />These often leads to lot of problems<br />Is it really necessary?<br />Who’s going to read all the columns with lots of numbers?<br />In any case, if table is vital to prove a point, then highlight the significant numbers, so that they are noticed<br />18<br />
  19. 19. 3.8 FIGURES<br />Are all your figures really necessary?<br />If so, do they have to be in colour?<br />Note page charge for use of colour in printed versions<br />Usually for online versions, no limitation to use of colour<br />Make sure size of lettering of figures is adequate for single or double column size of journal page (often A5)<br />19<br />
  20. 20. 3.9 EQUATIONS<br />Be very careful when typing equations (notations, fonts, symbols)<br />Check them carefully when you correct the proofs<br />The terms, symbols, used in equations should be same as those used in the text<br />20<br />
  21. 21. 3.10 REFERENCES <br />Make sure they are in format asked for in the “Instructions to authors”<br />Each journal has his own style<br />Make sure all references cited in text are included<br />Sometimes references in list are NOT included in the text<br />Often the references are incomplete or even wrong!<br />Did you actually read all the references you cited ??!!<br />Quote all authors, and not just “et al.”<br />Be careful with quoting web links (may no longer be active) or with internal reports, or other difficult to find document<br />Always state if a reference is not in English (e.g. give English title, but then say in brackets “(in Mongolian)”<br />21<br />
  22. 22. 3.11 APPENDICES<br />Depends on nature of the paper and policy of the Journal<br />Some journals use appendices for long mathermatical derivation, or Software Code<br />Some journals do not allow them at all<br />Sometimes better to refer to a literature reference (e.g. a textbook or thesis)<br />22<br />
  23. 23. 3.12 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS<br />These are important<br />Acknowledge all persons who contributed to your paper<br />Acknowledge those who provided you with the data used<br />Especially acknowledge the organizations who have sponsored / financed your research<br />23<br />
  24. 24. 4. PEER REVIEW PROCESS<br />The editing process: Pre-Screening.<br />Only two people will ever see your manuscript: a managing editor and a language editor. Both have signed confidentiality agreements.<br />The managing editor reviews your manuscript and assigns an appropriate language editor, who edits the manuscript. The managing editor reviews your manuscript before it is returned to you for corrections. Only after you have resubmitted, is it sent out to independent reviewers. <br />This is Elsevier policy. You have to PAY! Other publishers have other policy<br />24<br />
  25. 25. 4. PEER REVIEW PROCESS (2)<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 4. PEER REVIEW PROCESS (3)<br />What a language editor does: <br />Correct spelling, grammatical and punctuation errors<br />Check for problems in parallelisms, tense and conjugations<br />Eliminate improper language and poor word choice<br />Conform to your choice of British or American English <br />26<br />
  27. 27. 4. PEER REVIEW PROCESS (4)<br />What they don’t do:<br />Format the manuscript, conform to a style sheet or word count changes<br />Edit the content<br />Verify, edit or format references<br />Write, re-write or paraphrase any part of the manuscript .<br />Elsevier language editors are PhDs or PhD candidates.  All are native English speakers with excellent communication skills. To meet the demanding requirements, they undergo extensive training and have frequent performance reviews<br />27<br />
  28. 28. 5. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS<br />Submit original work – plagiarism on the rise? or more effective method of detection?<br />Present an accurate account of your research<br />Submit the same/similar paper to only one journal at a time<br />Avoid fragmenting your research to maximise on number of papers<br />Do not self-plagiarise – not more than 10% of own previous work without attributing it<br />Cite all relevant references<br />Acknowledge all co-authors and fellow researchers<br />Declare any source of funding for your paper<br />Disclose any conflict of interest<br />Do not submit an incomplete paper just to get feedback<br />28<br />
  29. 29. 6. Summary of Procedure<br />29<br />Author Submits Paper<br />Online Submission System<br />ScholarOne Manuscript<br />Peer Review<br />Rejection<br />Acceptance <br />Online Platform<br />informaworld<br />Author Revises Paper According to <br />Reviewer’s Comments<br />& Submits Final Version <br />Paper Published Online <br />and/or Printed <br />Production –<br />Corrections Made<br />Production –<br />Copyedited & Typeset<br />Online Tracking System<br />CATS<br />Page Proofs Sent to Author for Checking<br />Author Returns Page Proofs<br />
  30. 30. 7. Summary of Procedure (2)<br />30<br />(After Elsevier)<br />
  31. 31. EXTRA COMMENTS<br />If you don’t succeed at first, TRY, TRY, and TRY again!<br />You learn more from a rejection or major re-write, than from a successful paper, as you always get feedback from the reviewers and editor.<br />Once you have had a paper accepted by a particular journal, your second paper to same journal has more chance.<br />But, try to publish in a variety of journals.<br />LOOK FORWARD to receiving an offprint of your next SCI Paper!!<br />SUCCESS!!<br />31<br />