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9 sergelen

  1. 1. <ul>Classification and description of Mongolian lake sediment </ul><ul>MSc.Sergelen.G Department of Geoecology and Environmental Study </ul><ul>Ulaanbaatar 2011 </ul>
  2. 2. <ul>Case of study </ul><ul>Lake is a unique geomorphological formation, which is in relation to land and lifecycle. Recently the researchers are started to become interested in lake bottom sediments according to changes of nowadays weather (global warming etc). By studying lake sediments researchers had opportunities to get geo and bio information and to regain the ancient climate, ecological changes and development. </ul>
  3. 3. <ul>Lake sedimentology in Mongolia </ul><ul><li>Expedition from Russia from 1950
  4. 4. Independent research of Mongolian scientists from 1960
  5. 5. Cooperative research of other countries from 1990
  6. 6. Research of center MOLARE from 2001 to 2006 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul>Lakes in Mongolia </ul><ul><li>Lakes which have over than 0.1 km 2 square are 3060 /J.Tserensodnom/ and the summary of square of this lakes are 16003 km 2 .
  8. 8. 83.7% total amount of the lakes are small lakes which have less than 1.0 km 2 square and occupying 5.6% of total amount of lakes
  9. 9. Many small lakes dry out in drought year and rainy year become normal (specially in a Gobi desert area and their cycle is unstable). </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul>Methods of sedimentology </ul><ul><li>Sediment drilling </li></ul><ul><li>Sediment classification and description
  11. 11. Geochemical study (LOI)
  12. 12. Paleoecological study (pollen, diatom, ostracode, mollusc)
  13. 13. Dating C14 etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul>Sediment description </ul><ul><li>First analyze during the field work: finger print, smell, color chart, elasticity, other descriptions.
  15. 15. Laboratory work : loss on ignition - LOI . From total content: </li></ul><ul>non carbonate substance 0-100% carbonate substance 0-100% organic substance 0-100% </ul>
  16. 16. <ul>Lake sediment classification by Merkt, Luettig and Schneekloeth (1971) </ul>
  17. 17. <ul>Grain size classification </ul><ul>Clay ( Наанги лаг шавар ) ( Ton ) </ul><ul>< 0,002 mm </ul><ul>Silt ( Тоосорхог шавар ) ( Silt , Schluff) </ul><ul>0,002-0,063 mm </ul><ul>Sand ( Элс ) ( Sand ) Fine grained sand Medium grained sand Coarse grained sand </ul><ul>0,06-2 mm 0,06-0,2 mm 0,2-0,6 mm 0,6-2 mm </ul><ul>Gravel </ul><ul>2-60 mm </ul>
  18. 18. <ul>Geographical regions of Mongolian lakes ( J.Tserensodnom 1971 ) </ul><ul><li>Geographical location’s and landscapes differ
  19. 19. Altitude
  20. 20. Lake water cycle and its life </li></ul><ul>Lake </ul><ul>Steppe region </ul><ul>Khuvsgul mountain </ul><ul>Altai mountain </ul><ul>Steppe </ul><ul>Gobi </ul><ul>Khangai and Lkhentiy mountain </ul><ul>Subregions </ul><ul>Mountainous region </ul>
  21. 21. <ul>Region </ul><ul>Lakes </ul><ul>Khuvsgul </ul><ul>Khuvsgul , Dood Tsagaan , Erkhel </ul><ul>Khangai Khentiy </ul><ul>Terkhiyn Tsagaan , Bust , Telmen </ul><ul>Altai </ul><ul>Khoton </ul><ul>Gobi </ul><ul>Uvs , Airag , Bayan , Orog , Boon Tsagaan </ul><ul>Steppe </ul><ul>Gun , Buir , Ugiy , Khukh </ul><ul>Selected lakes </ul>
  22. 23. <ul>Sediments of selected lakes </ul><ul>N </ul><ul>Lakes </ul><ul>Authors </ul><ul>Sediments </ul><ul>1 </ul><ul>Khuvsgul Nuur </ul><ul>Dorofeyuk.N.I., Tarasov.P.E (1996) </ul><ul>Carbonate mud, clay mud, peat mud, sand mud, lake sand, lake grit </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Diatom mud, sand mud, carbonate mud, clay mud, silty carbonate mud, sand, </ul><ul>2 </ul><ul>Dood (Tsagaan) Nuur </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Clay mud </ul><ul>Dorofeyuk.N.I., Tarasov.P.E (1996) </ul><ul>Sand mud, clay mud, sand </ul><ul>3 </ul><ul>Erkhel Nuur </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Fine detritus mud, carbonate sapropel, silt mud </ul><ul>4 </ul><ul>Terkhiin Tsagaan Nuur </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Diatom mud, sapropel, sand, clay mud, lake silt, fine detritus mud </ul><ul>Gunin.P.D et.al (1994) </ul><ul>Clay mud, sapropel, diatom mud </ul><ul>5 </ul><ul>Bust Nuur </ul><ul>M.Walther (2003) </ul><ul>Sapropel, liver mud </ul><ul>6 </ul><ul>Telmen Nuur </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Caly mud, silt mud, fine detritus mud, carbonate mud </ul><ul>7 </ul><ul>Khoton Nuur </ul><ul>Gunin.P.D et.al (1994) </ul><ul>Fine detritus mud, sapropel, lake clay, sand mud </ul><ul>Tarasov.P.E et.al (1999) </ul><ul>Clay mud, sand mud, lake clay </ul>
  23. 24. <ul>8 </ul><ul>Uws Nuur </ul><ul>M.Walther (1997) </ul><ul>Carbonate sapropel, carbonate mud, fine detritus mud, clay mud </ul><ul>9 </ul><ul>Airag Nuur </ul><ul>M.Walther (2003) </ul><ul>Carbonate mud, carbonate sand mud, sand mud </ul><ul>10 </ul><ul>Bayan Nuur </ul><ul>Krengel.M et.al (2000) </ul><ul>Carbonate mud, fine detritus mud, diatom mud, clay mud, silt mud, lake carbonate sand, sand </ul><ul>11 </ul><ul>Orog Nuur </ul><ul>M.Walther (2002) </ul><ul>Carbonate mud </ul><ul>12 </ul><ul>Boon Tsagaan Nuur </ul><ul>Gunin.P.D et.al (1994) </ul><ul>Sand mud, silt mud, clay mud, sand </ul><ul>13 </ul><ul>Gun Nuur </ul><ul>Dorofeyuk.N.I., Tarasov.P.E (1996) </ul><ul>Sand mud, clay mud, sandy clay mud, lake lime, lake carbonate sand, sand </ul><ul>14 </ul><ul>Buir Nuur </ul><ul>Gunin.P.D et.al (1994) </ul><ul>Silt mud, sand mud </ul><ul>15 </ul><ul>Ugii Nuur </ul><ul>M.Walther (2001, 2003) </ul><ul>Fine-, midd-, coarse- detritus mud, carbonate mud, sand mud, sand </ul><ul>Khosbayar.P., John Peck et.al (2003) </ul><ul>Fine detritus mud, carbonate mud, sand mud, sand </ul><ul>16 </ul><ul>Khukh Nuur </ul><ul>Gunin.P.D et.al (1994) </ul><ul>Silt mud, sand mud </ul><ul>Sediments of selected lakes </ul>
  24. 25. <ul>Lake sediments in Mongolia by Merkt etc. </ul><ul>Regions </ul><ul>Sediments </ul><ul>Khuvsgul region </ul><ul>Carbonate mud, clay mud, peat mud, sand mud, lake sand, gravel, diatom mud, fine detritus mud, carbonate sapropel, silt mud </ul><ul>Clay mud, silt mud, diatom mud, lake sand, sand mud, lake grit, carbonate mud, fine detritus mud, sapropel </ul><ul>Khangai Khentii region </ul><ul>Diatom mud, sand, sapropel, caly mud, fine detritus mud, liver mud, silt mud, carbonate mud </ul><ul>Altai mountains region </ul><ul>Fine detritus mud, sapropel, lake clay, sand mud, clay mud </ul><ul>Gobi region </ul><ul>Carbonate mud, carbonate sapropel, fine detritus mud, clay mud, sand mud, diatom mud, silt mud, sand, lake carbonate sand </ul><ul>Steppe region </ul><ul>Sand mud, silt mud, clay mud, sandy clay mud, fine- middl- coarse- detritus mud, carbonate sapropel, lake lime, lake carbonate sand, sand, gravel </ul>
  25. 27. <ul>Result </ul><ul><li>Lake bottom sediments have to be identified according to one classification system. Sediments identified according to this classification can then used as base data for further studies. The classification by Merkt, Luettig and Schneekloeth was chosen as the most suitable system for lake bottom classification. 21 types of mud of this classification were interpreted into Mongolian language and the terminologies are presented in the Appendix. </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>The most commonly distributed lake sediments are clay mud, silt mud, diatom mud, lake sand, sand mud, lake gravel, carbonate mud, fine detritus mud, and sapropel. They occur in all regions including Khangai, Khovsgol and Altai mountains, Great lakes depression, Valley of Lakes, and eastern Mongolian steppe. Therefore, this study can contribute to identifying the general characteristics of bottom sediments of Central Asian High Plateau lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Clayey or silty fine grained sediments with high sand contents and carbonate deposits are the specific characteristics of sediments that are common in Mongolia. These bottom sediments have 10 to 50% organic content. Humus rich sediments with more than 50% of organic contents occur in mountainous regions with rich vegetation cover; however, it is very interesting to find this type of sediment in deep layers of some lakes in the Great Lakes Depression </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul>Discussion </ul><ul><li>However, sedimentology studies were carried out in a very few lakes in Mongolia and the number was not enough for comparison. A sedimentology study was done in Khoton lake in the region of Altai High Mountain while no studies were done in Khentii range. It means that there are many places where researches and studies need to be carried out. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul>English and German </ul><ul>Mongolian </ul><ul>code </ul><ul>Lake clay /Seeton/ Clay mud /Tonmudde/ Lake silt /Seeschluff/ Silt mud /Schluffmudde/ Silty mud /Schluffige Mudde/ Diatom mud /Diatomeenmudde/ Cilicic mud /Kieselgur Lake sand /Seesand Sand mud /Sandmudde Lake grit /Seekies </ul><ul>Нуурын лаг шавар Ялзмагтай лаг шавар Нуурын тоосорхог шавар Ялзмагт тоосорхог шавар Ялзмагтжсан тоосорхог шавар Цахиурт замагт ялзмагт тоосорхог шавар Цахиурлаг ялзмагт тоосорхог шавар Нуурын элс Ялзмагт элсэрхэг шавар Нуурын хайрга </ul><ul>Ftt Ftm Fuu Fum Flm Fid Fig Fss Fsm Fgg </ul><ul>Nominclator (a) </ul>
  29. 31. <ul>English and German </ul><ul>Mongolian </ul><ul>code </ul><ul>Lake lime /Seeschill/ Lake carbonate sand /Seekalksand/ Lake chalk /Seekreide/ Carbonate mud /Kalkmudde/ Carbonate sapropel /Kalksapropel/ Fine detritusmud /Feindetritusmudde/ Sapropel /Sapropel/ Liver mud (algen mud) /Lebermudde/ Peat mud /Torfmudde/ Mid.detritus mud /Mitteldetritusmudde/ Coarse detritus mud /Grobdetritusmudde/ </ul><ul>Нуурын шохой Нуурын карбонатлаг элс Нуурын цэрд Карбонатлаг ялзмагт шавар Карбонатлаг шавар ялзмаг (сапропел) Нарийн ширхэгтэй ялзмагт шавар Шавар ялзмаг (сапропел) Элгэн ялзмагт шавар Хүлэрлэг ялзмагт шавар Дунд ширхэгтэй ялзмагт шавар Бүдүүн ширхэгтэй ялзмагт шавар </ul><ul>Fkl Fks Fkk Fkm Fkp Fhf Fhp Fhl Fhh Fhm Fhg </ul>
  30. 32. <ul>example: Элгэн ялзмагт шавар Fhl (liver mud) </ul><ul><li>Нэг төрлийн гаралтай, уян налархай цэлцгэр чанартай, хатах үед дун хясаа хэлбэрийн хагарал үүсгэдэг, нойтон байхдаа хурц үнэртэй
  31. 33. Карбонат бус минералын агууламж 0-30%
  32. 34. Карбонатын агууламж 0-20%
  33. 35. Органик бодис 50-100%-ийг хуурай жингээс тус тус эзэлнэ.
  34. 36. Ихэвчлэн эвтрофи, гүехэн нууранд бүрэлддэг. </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul>Sedimetology of Orog lake (2003) </ul>
  36. 38. <ul>Sedimentology of Khuvsgul lake by Dorofeyuk.N.I., Tarasov.P.E 1996 </ul><ul>Хөвсгөл нуурын хурдасны дээжийн литологи болон үр тоосны анализийн диаграмм 1.кальцит гитъяа,2.Клейрхэг гитъяа, 3. Хүлэр, 4.элст клейрхэг гитъяа, 5.элс, 6.хайрга бүхий сортлогдоогүй элс, 7.ургамлын үлдэгдэл, 8.моллюск, 9.хайрга </ul>
  37. 39. <ul>Lithology </ul>
  38. 41. <ul>Thank you </ul>