Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to
“Nanotech”) is the manipulation of matter on an
atomic and molecular scale particularly within
the range of 1-100 nanometers.
A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter,
smaller than the wavelength of visible light and a
hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair.
It is an exciting area of scientific development
which promises ‘more for less’.
It offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter
and faster devices that can do more and cleverer
things, use less raw materials and consume less
Nanotechnology originates from the Greek
With the help of Nanotechnology, we can
change the basic properties of an existing
element by rearranging the atoms in a different
form, to form almost an other element.
For example, Carbon atoms when arranged in
one way forms granite.And, in another way it
forms Diamond with completely different
In this way we can prepare new elements with
the qualities desired, by rearranging the atoms
and the bond formations in the Nano scale.
At the Nano Scale, objects are too small to
see, even with a normal microscope. Hence
Scientists use ScanningTunneling
Microscopes or Atomic Force Microscopes.
The ScanningTunneling Microscope was
invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich
Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory,
for which they received the Nobel Prize in
Physics in 1986.
One of the most wonderful discovery of
scientist by using Nanotechnology is the
It is a one-atom-thick sheet of Carbon atoms
When layers of it are piled one on top of
another, the result is ordinary pencil graphite
that shears apart like a tiny stack of paper.
But, when that same layer is rolled into a tube
form, it form a fiber theoretically 100 times
stronger than steel and lighter than a feather !
By trusting the development of Nanotechnology,
scientists are even claiming that certain kinds of
machines, normally shown in Sci-fi films, like StarTrek,
can also be made.
Scientists claim that, by nanotechnology,
machines(known as replicators) that can produce any
physical objects, from weapons, to a steaming cup of
coffee, can also be made.
They are basically termed as “Molecular
They say that, Atoms and molecules stick together
because they have complementary shapes that lock
together, or charges that attract each other.As millions
of these atoms are pieced together by nanomachines, a
specific product will begin to take shape.
SMALLER AND MORE EFFICIENT CHIP
DEVELOPED BY NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Seeing the development, the scientists are even
predicting the development of technology to the
extent of creation of Nano scale robots called
NANOBOTS(They do not exist till now).
Their size would be around 2.5
They are so small in size that, they can be
injected into a human body, to perform
operation on a single defective cell.
Nanobots can be used not only in medical
field, but also in Astronomy, like in Space
Shuttles for various research and
They can also be used in defense or
They can also be used for spying, tracking
purposes etc., as they are difficult to be
seen and do not catch attention easily.
Similarly, the behavior of an element at
nano scale is very different when
compared to the normal conditions.
For example, you can't walk up to a wall
and immediately teleport to the other
side of it, but, at the nano scale an
electron can! It's called electron
Not only that but, some Insulators even
act as Semiconductors at the Nanoscale.
PRODUCTS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY:
Sunscreen: Many sunscreens contain
nanoparticles of zinc oxide or titanium
oxide. Older sunscreen formulas use
larger particles, which is what gives most
sunscreens their whitish color. Smaller
particles are less visible, meaning that
when you rub the sunscreen into your
skin, it doesn't give you a whitish tinge.
Self-cleaning glass: A company called Pilkington offers a
product they callActiv Glass, which uses nanoparticles to make
the glassphotocatalytic and hydrophilic.The photocatalytic
effect means that when UV radiation from light hits the glass,
nanoparticles become energized and begin to break down and
loosen organic molecules on the glass (in other words, dirt).
Hydrophilic means that when water makes contact with the
glass, it spreads across the glass evenly, which helps wash the
Clothing: Scientists are using nanoparticles to enhance your
clothing. By coating fabrics with a thin layer of zinc oxide
nanoparticles, manufacturers can create clothes that give better
protection from UV radiation. Some clothes have nanoparticles
in the form of little hairs or whiskers that help repel water and
other materials, making the clothing stain-resistant.
Scratch- Resistant coatings: Engineers discovered
that adding aluminum silicate nanoparticles to
scratch-resistant polymer coatings made the
coatings more effective, increasing resistance to
chipping and scratching. Scratch-resistant coatings
are common on everything from cars to eyeglass
Antimicrobial bandages: Scientist Robert Burrell
created a process to manufacture antibacterial
bandages using nanoparticles of silver. Silver ions
block microbes' cellular respiration. In other
words, silver smothers harmful cells, killing them.
Liquid Powder Display: Bridgestone Engineers have
developed a quick response and flexible digital screen
Hence, we can conclude that Nanotechnology
affects almost every branch of science in one
way or the other.
Therefore, Nanotechnology is an important
branch of science and will play a very vital role
And Soon, it will affect each and every part of
our life in the near future, giving us a different
way of living.