UNIT 2: PETROLEUM GEOLOGY Sub Unit 2.1: Physical GeologyMOHD FIRDAUS BIN KAMURIDEPARTMENT OF PIPINGKKTM KEMAMANEmail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
DEFINITION• Physical Geology is the study of the Earths materials and of the processes that shape them. It includes the surface processes which have shaped the earths surface and the study of the ocean floors, and the interior of the Earth
EARTH1. Divided by -Internal Structure of the Earth -Surface Features of the Earth2. Internal Structure of the Earth contain -crust -mantel -core3. Lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle which isjoined to the crust across the mantle. As the Earths convection system(surface layer that cools through heat conduction), the lithospherethickens over time. It is fragmented into tectonic plates
PLATE TECTONIC• Theory of plate tectonics is it constantly changing This movement of lithospheric plates is described as plate tectonics. This is when plates move horizontally across the Earths surface and the continents change their relative positions. The theory of plate tectonics explains the things we see on the Earths surface• Plate boundaries are found at the edge of the lithospheric plates. There are three types of plate boundaries namely divergent, convergent, and transform. Deformation of the Earth’s crust is found at these plate boundaries because of the interaction between two plates.
Divergent Boundary• At these boundaries, two plates move apart relative to each other. As the two plates move apart, mid-ocean ridges are created as magma from the mantle spreads upward through a crack in the oceanic crust and cools. This causes the growth of oceanic crust on either side of the cracks . As the plates continue to move, and more crust is formed, the ocean basin expands and a ridge system is created.
Convergent Boundary• occur where oceanic lithosphere is pushed back into the mantle, marked by oceanic trenches and subduction zones. These are plate margins where one plate is overriding another, thereby forcing the other into the mantle beneath it. These boundaries are in the form of trench and island arc systems. All the old oceanic crust is going into these systems as new crust is formed at the spreading centers. Convergent boundaries also explain why crust older than a certain age (Cretaceous) cannot be found in any ocean basin as it has already been destroyed by the process of subduction.
Transform Boundary• The third type of plate boundary is called a conservative or transform boundary. It is called conservative because plate material is neither created nor destroyed at these boundaries, but rather plates slide past each other. A classic example of a transform plate boundary is the San Andreas fault in California. The North American and Pacific Plates are moving past each other at this boundary, which is the location of many earthquakes. These earthquakes are caused by the accumulation and release of strain as the two plates slide past each other.