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  1. 1. Musical SavantsHow is Form and Structure used in the arts? Human Ingenuity
  2. 2. Let’s start at the very beginning ...What do YOU already know about WesternMusic?Brainstorm your ideas.Compare your brainstorm with a neighbour.How does your knowledge differ?
  3. 3. What do YOU think?List five adjectives to describe Western ArtMusic.Who do you think Western Art Music appealsto and why?How has Western Art Music influencedmusicians in the past and today?Do you agree that Western Art Music has aplace in our community now and in thefuture? Why/why not.
  4. 4. Timeline 650 1050 1450 1850 Renaissance Classical Middle Ages Baroque Romantic450 850 1250 1650 2050 Where would you put the following words on the timeline? RENAISSANCE ROMANTIC BAROQUE MIDDLE AGES CLASSICAL Why? What do you already know about these eras?
  5. 5. The Middle Ages
  6. 6. Context“Life in the Middle Ages”Church was central to Medieval lifedivision between social classes : nobles/peasants/clergyone Hundred years war and the plague (mid1300’s)Monastry monopolised education
  7. 7. Musical characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: “O Successors” - Hildegard of Bingen Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  8. 8. ElementsVocal music (church SECULAR MUSICfrowned uponinstruments - seen as music outside the churchpagan). instrumental - pipes,GREGORIAN CHANT fiddles, drums.flexible rhythm love songs and dancesmelody moves by step Monophonic - later homophonicchurch modes used
  9. 9. Your Turn Compose a single melody linefor the words “Alleluia”. Use a church mode of your choice.Think about the characteristics of Gregorian Chant.
  10. 10. Renaissance
  11. 11. ContextA rebirth of human creativityDa Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Shakespeare.Catholic church was far less powerful -church didn’t monopolise learning andeducation became a status symbol.Invention of printing
  12. 12. Characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: “Pope Marcellus” Mass - Palestrina Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  13. 13. Characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: “Now is the month of Maying” - Thomas Morley Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  14. 14. ElementsVocal music still melodies easy to singimportant - close with a few leapsrelationship betweenwords and music SECULAR MUSICmainly polyphonic vocal music becamewith imitation common popularbetween parts solo voices or voicebass register used with accompanimentgentle flowing Madrigal: combinationrhythm of homophonic and polyphonic texture
  15. 15. Baroque
  16. 16. ContextBaroque = action, movement, bizarre,flamboyant, elaborateEuropean rulers surrounded themselves inluxury while the rest of the populationstruggled to survive.Religious institutions shaped the Baroquestyle, using theatrical and emotional qualitiesof art to make worship attractive.Scientific advances and inventions.
  17. 17. Music in SocietyMusic written to meet specific demands thatcame from the church and courts.The size of the musical staff depended on acourts’ wealth. Music directors supervisedChurch music was grand (organ, choir
  18. 18. Characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: “La Primavera” from the Four Seasons - Vivaldi Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  19. 19. ELEMENTSExpresses one basic Mainly polyphonic asmood 2 or more melodic lines compete for theContinuous rhythms. listeners attention.Repetition. Providesdrive and energy Emphasis on chords and Basso ContinuoMelodic ideasrepeated at different Music depicted thepitches. EXPANSION meaning of certain wordsTerraced dynamics ora constant volume.
  20. 20. Classical Era
  21. 21. ContextNew style of architecture, literature, art.Newton’s philosophies in science = clarity instructure (reflected throughout society) Changes in social structure meant thatnobility was the main supporter of music.The availability and quality of musiciansaltered - simple parts / limited rehearsaltime.
  22. 22. Characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: Haydn, Symphony No. 4 in G Major (1791) Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C Minor, Op. 13 (1798) Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  23. 23. Elementscontrasting mood and tuneful melodies thatvariety were emphasised are easy to remember.in music. Balance and symmetryGreater emotional range. important in melodic phrases.flexible rhythm: pauses,syncopations, and widespread use ofchanges from long to gradual dynamic changes.short notes.usually homophonic
  24. 24. TrendsEnd of figured bass Chamber music: imitate the setting of a room. 2 to 9The Classical Orchestra musicians (string quartet(standardised) important)compositions consisted Concerto: three movementof four movements work for an instrumental(symphonies, quartets, soloist and orchestra.some sonatas). Haydn, Beethoven,The Classical symphony: Mozart.extended composition (over 20minutes). Covers a wide rangeof tone colour and dynamicsin 4 movements
  25. 25. Mix ‘n’ MatchPlace each musicalform in a suitablemuscial era.Choose from:MedievalRenaissanceBaroqueClassical
  26. 26. Great Classical ComposersWhat words can you think of to associatewith the following people:Joseph HaydnWolfgang Amedeus MozartLudwig Van BeethovenRead through the fact sheets and decide on5 important ideas, facts, or works that bestrepresent each person. Put them into yourDW’s.
  27. 27. Romantic Era
  28. 28. ContextThe romantic movement stressed emotion, individualityand imagination.Writers were drawn towards fantasy and rebelled againsttime-honored conventions of their elders.Romanticism coincided with the industrial revolutionwhich caused many social and economic changes.Nationalism was an important political movement thatinfluenced music.Composers became ‘free artists’.
  29. 29. Characteristics Listen to the following musical extracts: Chopin, Nocturne in Eb Major, Op. 9, No. 2 (1830-1831) Describe what you hear in the following musical elements:1. MELODY2.TEXTURE3.STRUCTURE
  30. 30. Elementsindividuality of style - Expressive tone colourmusic that reflected the (advances in technology)composers personalities. colourful new harmonies -Subjects of nature popular. chromatic chords and dissonance.Melancholy, rapture,longing, intimacy, romantic rapid modulation and alove, and fantasy are some wide variety of keys.of the many emotionscovered in romantic music. Expanded range of dynamic, pitch and tempoProgram music. tiny and HUGE musical works.
  31. 31. TrendsArt song - strophic form (repeated musicalmaterial for each verse) OR throughcomposed (different musical material)Program musicLots of composers!The Russian five