MELJUN CORTES Research Colloquium


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MELJUN CORTES Research Colloquium

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MELJUN CORTES Research Colloquium

  1. 1.  Research Design • The next step after stating the management problem, research purpose, and research hypotheses and questions, is to formulate a research design. • The starting point for the research design is, in fact, the research questions and hypotheses that have been so carefully developed. MELJUN CORTES MELJUN CORTES
  2. 2.  Research Design Chapter 3 MELJUN CORTES
  3. 3. Research Design MELJUN CORTES
  4. 4. Research Design? • The research design is a plan of action indicating the specific steps that are necessary to provide answers to those questions, test the hypotheses, and thereby achieve the research purpose that helps choose among the decision alternatives to solve the management problem or capitalize on the market opportunity. MELJUN CORTES
  5. 5. Research Design? • The research design answers the question: How are we going to get answers to these research questions and test these hypotheses? MELJUN CORTES
  6. 6. Research Design? • The research design has been considered a "blueprint" for research, dealing with at least four problems: what questions to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect, and how to analyze the results. MELJUN CORTES
  7. 7. Research Design? • • • • • • According to David J. Luck and Ronald S. Rubin, " Are s e a rc h d e s ig n is the d e te rm ina tio n a nd s ta te m e nt o f the g e ne ra l re s e a rc h a p p ro a c h o r s tra te g y a d o p te d /o r the p a rtic ula r p ro je c t. I is the he a rt o f p la nning . I the d e s ig n t f a d he re s to the re s e a rc h o bje c tiv e , it will e ns ure tha t the c lie nt's ne e d s will be s e rve d . " According to Kerlinger " Re s e a rc h d e s ig n in the p la n, s truc ture a nd s tra te g y o f inv e s tig a tio n c o nc e ive d s o a s to o bta in a ns we rs to re s e a rc h q ue s tio ns a nd to c o ntro l v a ria nc e . " According to Green and Tull  " Are s e a rc h d e s ig n is the s p e c ific a tio n o f m e tho d s a nd p ro c e d ure s fo r a c q uiring the info rm a tio n ne e d e d . I is the t o v e r-a ll o p e ra tio na l p a tte rn o r fra m e wo rk o f the p ro je c t tha t s tip ula te s wha t info rm a tio n is to be c o lle c te d fro m whic h s o urc e by wha t p ro c e dMELJUN.CORTES ure s "
  8. 8. Research Design? • Research design can be divided into fixed and flexible research designs (Robson, 1993). • Others have referred to this distinction with “quantitative research designs” and “qualitative research designs”. MELJUN CORTES
  9. 9. Fixed (Quantitative) Designs • In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. • Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). MELJUN CORTES
  10. 10. Descriptive Research • Descriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. The main goal of this type of research is to describe the data and characteristics about what is being studied. • The idea behind this MELJUN CORTES type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations. Although this research is highly accurate, it does not gather the causes behind a
  11. 11. Experimental Research • Experimental research is Because of this element of manipulation, defined essentially researchers in using as research in which the experimental methods causal (independent) are expected to maintain a variable(s) can be good degree of control manipulated in order to throughout the period of change an effect. the study to establish with confidence that cause and effect occurred.  MELJUN CORTES
  12. 12. Flexible (Qualitative) Designs • Qualitative research seeks out the ‘why’, not the ‘how’ of its topic through the analysis of unstructured information – things like interview transcripts, open ended survey responses, emails, notes, feedback forms, photos and videos. It doesn’t just rely on statistics or numbers, which are the domain of quantitative researchers. MELJUN CORTES
  13. 13. Case Study • This case study study is especially useful for tryingtesting Rather than quantifying The method of research design is also useful for to test norms, as inmodelstheories and models actuallysituations. whether scientific by using them in real world work in theoretical quantitative research, qualitative may come out with a great computer the real world. You • Basically, a case a rich is an inresearch provides study the ecosystem of a rock pool model for describing how understanding only by trying it out on a real life pool that depth study isof individual works but it of a particular differences, often providing situation see if itthan realistic simulation. rather you can answers is a a complex to "how" sweeping statistical survey. It is and "why." A single person a methodin a case narrowA is studied used to study.  down a very broad field ofperson holistic picture of the research is obtained when information into one easily researchable is collected about the topic. person's history, people who know the person are interviewed, and, if possible, the person of study is MELJUN CORTES interviewed.
  14. 14. Naturalistic Observation • One way to do "Ethnography," is a qualitative research Also known as this is to participate as a member of the method involving is done, it is called "Participantgroup. When this the study of a group of people in their natural setting. The researcher tries to study researcher observation." As a "Participant-observer," thethe people without affecting from the inside studies the grouptheir behavior. as a member. MELJUN CORTES “Naturalistic Observation” yields rich information about
  15. 15. Focus Groups • When people are available to provide information, a focus group may be used. A focus group is a group of people gathered together to discuss a certain issue, and it is another way of conducting qualitative research. •A focus group involves a small number of people, who are usually hired, meeting and discussing the benefits and shortcomings of a particular product, issue or event. The people chosen for the focus group share qualities relevant to MELJUN CORTES the topic of research.
  16. 16. Surveys • Another dimensionwayafor researchersof surveys. This Surveys provide a of study is the use to obtain a lot of Many surveys include Likert scale, which includes rating statements from a large how much one agrees person information on a scale ofnumber of conducted in they qualitative research method can be people. And,or disagrees. While others have open-ended questions for allow mail, e-mail, or the telephone. or via respondents to communicate their opinions, respondents to includeinformation anonymously. feelings, and personal their opinions and comments. Information obtained from surveys can provide data needed to begin a quantitative, empirical research experiment. MELJUN CORTES
  17. 17.  Research Design  Respondents of the Study Chapter 3 MELJUN CORTES
  18. 18. Respondents of the MELJUN CORTES
  20. 20.  Research Design  Respondents of the Study  Sampling technique Chapter 3 MELJUN CORTES
  21. 21. Sampling Technique MELJUN CORTES
  22. 22. Sampling • The selection of a suitable sample for In statistics and survey methodology, study. sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population MELJUN CORTES
  23. 23. Sampling Techniques MELJUN CORTES
  24. 24. Random Sampling • The first statistical sampling method is simple random sampling. In this method, each item in the population has the same probability of being selected as part of the sample as any other item. MELJUN CORTES
  25. 25. Random Sampling • For example, a tester could randomly select 5 inputs to a test case from the population of all possible valid inputs within a range of 1-100 to use during test execution, To do this the tester could use a random number generator or simply put each number from 1-100 on a slip of paper in a hat, mixing them up and drawing out 5 numbers. MELJUN CORTES
  26. 26. Systematic Sampling • Systematic sampling is another statistical sampling method. In this method, every n th element from the list is selected as the sample, starting with a sample element n randomly selected from the first k elements. MELJUN CORTES
  27. 27. Systematic Sampling • The population has 1000 elements and a sample size of 100 is needed. • Then k would be 1000/100 = 10. • If number 7 is randomly selected from the first ten elements on the list, the sample would continue down the list selecting the 7th element from each group of ten elements. MELJUN CORTES
  28. 28. Stratified Sampling • The statisticalin stratified sampling is to Random step samplingsamples are then first or systematic method called stratified sampling is usedsubgroups divide the each subgroup. The taken frompopulation into whensampling representatives from each subgroup within (strata) for each mutually may be taken fraction based onsubgroup exclusive the population need to be represented in criteria. in the same proportion as the subgroup the sample. has in the population. MELJUN CORTES
  29. 29. Stratified Sampling • For example, if the person conducting a customer satisfaction survey selected random customers from each customer type in proportion to the number of customers of that type in the population. – For example, if 40 samples are to be selected, and 10% of the customers are managers, 60% are users, 25% are operators and 5% are database administrators then 4 managers, 24 uses, 10 operators and 2 administrators would be randomly selected. Stratified sampling can also sample an equal number of items from each subgroup. For example, a development lead randomly selected three modules out of each programming language used to examine against the coding standard MELJUN CORTES
  30. 30. Cluster Sampling • A randomsampling, the In cluster sample is population from within then taken that is being sampled is divided into one or more selected groups called clusters. clusters. Instead of these subgroups being homogeneous based on a selected criteria as in stratified sampling, a cluster is as heterogeneous as possible to matching the population. MELJUN CORTES
  31. 31. Haphazard Sampling • In haphazard sampling, samples are There are also other types of sampling selected based on convenience but that, while non-statistical (information about the should still be chosen as preferablyentire population cannot be extrapolated from the randomly as possible. sample), may still provide useful information. MELJUN CORTES
  32. 32. Haphazard Sampling • The example, the auditor may asktypically,a For auditor could also is usually the The haphazard samplinggrab one ofto see quicker, andtheoff smaller sample sizes than uses the shelf, flip through it listingsampling techniques. The main and list of all of binders source code modules, other and “randomly” haphazardpoints atto audit. then closes his stop and sampling is that disadvantage of eyes on a module the list since it is a module to audit. to select not statistically based, generalizations about the total population should be made with extreme caution. MELJUN CORTES
  33. 33. Judgmental Sampling • In judgmental (another nonstatistical) sampling, the person doing the sample uses his/her knowledge or experience to select the items to be sampled. MELJUN CORTES
  34. 34.  Research Design  Respondents of the Study  Sampling technique Chapter 3  Instruments used in the study MELJUN CORTES
  35. 35. Aggregate Data Analysis Case Studies Content Analysis Ethnography Evaluation Research Experimental Research Interviewing MELJUN CORTES
  36. 36. Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured Organizational Analysis Policy Analysis Social Impact Analysis Surveys MELJUN CORTES
  37. 37. Aggregate Data Analysis The aggregate data study design defines a group as the unit of analysis. It is used when individual data is not available. Aggregate data are easily and relatively cheaply available as compared to individual data MELJUN CORTES
  38. 38. Case Study The Case Study (CS) is a type of Field Research which examines a site using a combination of personal interviews, analyses of written documents, & observations MELJUN CORTES
  39. 39. Content Analysis The review of narrative data  (from open ended surveys, interviews, books, press, media, etc.) that looks for regularity  MELJUN CORTES
  40. 40. Content Analysis The Content Analysis Process has SIX Steps The Researcher   1.  Reviews a sample of responses to an open-ended question from a Record  MELJUN CORTES
  41. 41. Content Analysis 2.  Decides how many different kinds ( categories ) of responses exist  3.  Defines each category & illustrates w/ a concrete example  MELJUN CORTES
  42. 42. Content Analysis 4.  Attaches a numerical code to it  5.  Reviews the full set of verbal responses to determine if all categories are represented  MELJUN CORTES
  43. 43. Content Analysis 6.  Establishes Internal Reliability:       a.  Since a lot of judgment is involved in this translation,  accepted practice dictates  that at least 2 people independently code the entire set of responses  MELJUN CORTES
  44. 44. Content Analysis      b. Then their judgments are compared  c. Differences are resolved & consistency is achieved MELJUN CORTES
  45. 45. Ethnography A qualitative research method aimed to learn and understand cultural phenomena which reflect the knowledge and system of meanings guiding the life of a cultural group. MELJUN CORTES
  46. 46. Evaluation Research Evaluation is a methodological area that is closely related to, but distinguishable from more traditional social research. MELJUN CORTES
  47. 47. Evaluation Research Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. MELJUN CORTES
  48. 48. Experimental Research A systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables. MELJUN CORTES
  49. 49. Interviewing The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the subjects. The main task in interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say. MELJUN CORTES
  50. 50. Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured Naturalistic observation is a research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists. This technique involves observing subjects in their natural environment. This type of research is often utilized in situations where conducting lab research is unrealistic, cost prohibitive or would unduly affect the subject's behavior. MELJUN CORTES
  51. 51. Observation:  Field / Naturalistic or Structured Naturalistic observation differs from structured observation in that it involves looking at a behavior as it occurs in its natural setting with no attempts at intervention on the part of the researcher. MELJUN CORTES
  52. 52. Organizational Analysis The study of the processes that characterize all kinds of organizations, including business firms, government agencies, labour unions, and voluntary associations such as sports clubs, charities, and political parties.  MELJUN CORTES
  53. 53. Organizational Analysis Any organization is a social unit with three properties: (1)it is a corporate (or group) actor, MELJUN CORTES
  54. 54. Organizational Analysis (2) it claims a special and limited purpose (such as making profits or providing medical care), and (3) its creators intend it to last beyond the accomplishment of a single action, if not indefinitely. MELJUN CORTES
  55. 55. Policy Analysis Is determining which of various alternative policies will most achieve a given set of goals in light of the relations between the policies and the goals. MELJUN CORTES
  56. 56. Social Impact Analysis Can be defined as the process of assessing or estimating, in advance, the social consequences that are likely to follow from specific policy actions or project development, particularly in the context of appropriate national, state, or provincial environmental policy legislation. MELJUN CORTES
  57. 57. Social Impact Analysis Is the process of assessing and managing the impacts of a project, plan, program or policy on people. MELJUN CORTES
  58. 58. Survey Survey methodology is the field that studies the sampling of individuals from a population with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population using the sample.  MELJUN CORTES
  59. 59. Survey Polls about public opinion, such as political beliefs, are reported in the news media in democracies. MELJUN CORTES
  61. 61. The End EXECUTIVE PRODUCER Theodore Valerio SPECIAL THANKS Scribd Google Suite101 Facebook Wikipedia MELJUN CORTES Westfallteam