A History ofRadio TechnologyDemystifying Telecommunications           By: Al Klase                                  1
2
What do these Have in Common?                            3
Information-Age Timeline                           4
A Favorite Quote“Any sufficiently advanced technologyis indistinguishable from magic.”Arthur C. Clark, "Profiles of The Fu...
A Mysterious Force• Start at the beginning• In the Stone Age  – Sticks  – Stones  – Animal Parts                          ...
Amber• Naturally polymerized tree resin• Greeks called it elektron                                     7
Electrostatic Experiments                            8
Electric FieldJohann Carl Friederich       Gauss     1777-1855                                          9
The Condenser or Capacitor           Stores Energy as electrostatic charge.C=Q/VQ = charge in Coulombs(6.241506×1018 elect...
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)                11
Alessandro Volta           (1745-1827)Ca. 1774                              12
Circuits and Schematics                          13
Yet Another Mysterious Force•   Heavy black rock•   Lodestone•   Proved to be iron ore•   Greeks found theirs in Magnesia ...
The Compass              15
Magnetic Field due to Electrical Current           1820 - Hans Christian Ørsted                                           ...
Electro Magnet and Inductor                 Stores energy as a magnetic field.   Taught and did                           ...
Samuel Morse’s    Telegraph                     Speedwell            1838                  Morristown.(Binary Serial Commu...
MaxwellTreatise on Electricity and Magnetism                (1873)                        James Clerk Maxwell             ...
More Maxwell               20
i    21
Alternating Current                      22
Oscillation and Resonance                            23
High-frequency AC Oscillator                               24
Eureka!          25
Hertz                  Ca. 1888Heinrich Hertz 1857 - 1894                             26
The First Radio Receiver                           27
A Hertzian Experiment                   From Invention & Innovation                   in the Radio Industry,              ...
PHz = petahertz   29Ehz = exahertz
Short-Wave                  + WiFi, Bluetooth + Satellite TVBroadcast    Cellphones +                 GPS +               ...
Propagation ModesDirect-Wave  All Frequencies                    31
Propagation ModesGround-Wave            ELF-VLF-LF-MF          Below 30 HZ – 3 MHz                                32
Propagation Modes                     Sky-Wave         MF-HF (VHF) - 300 KHz – 30+ MHz• Can allow global point-to-point co...
PART  2       34
Guglielmo Marconi•Born 1874•Wealthy Italian father•Wealthy Irish mother (Jamison)•Tech. Institute at Leghornincluded teleg...
Marconi  at Villa GrifonePhotos and drawings from Early Radio          by Peter R. Jensen                                 36
Marconi Developments•1896 Moves to Great Britain•Sept. 1896, 2.8Km, Salisbury Plain•Mar. ‘97, 14Km, Bristol Channel•Late 1...
Marconi 1896               38
39
Patent 7777Application filed 12 April 1900                                  From The Wonders of Wireless Telegraphy       ...
Passive Receivers                    41
The Fleming ValveJohn Ambrose   Fleming3 (1849 - 1945)                                     42
We need a reliableAmplifier!        43
From The Wonders of WirelessTelegraphyJ. A. Fleming, London, 1913                         44
The Audion Lee Deforest1906                         45
An Audion Radio Receiver                           46
Armstrong   Edwin Howard Armstrong                            47
The Regenerative Circuit                  “Great amplification                  obtained at once!”                        ...
Regen Prototype                  Demonstrated to                  Sarnoff at the                  Marconi station at      ...
Radiotelephone                 50
The Birth of Broadcasting                            51
Timeline           52
VLF = Very Low Frequency                                FREQUENCY3 KHz                                       20 KHz       ...
LF = Low Frequency                    FREQUENCY30 KHz                            200 KHz                 300 KHz          ...
MF = Medium Frequency                            FREQUENCY  300 KHz       1000 KHz                 2 MHz   3 MHz          ...
HF = High Frequency                      FREQUENCY3 MHz    10 MHz                      20MHz   30MHz                      ...
VHF = Very High Frequency                         FREQUENCY30 MHz     100 MHz                    200 MHz   300 MHz        ...
UHF = Ultra-High Frequency                              FREQUENCY300 MHz          1000 MHz                   2 GHz        ...
UHF = Ultra-High Frequency                           FREQUENCY300 MHz           1 GHz                 2 GHz   3 GHz       ...
Repeating Hertz’s Experiments              Transmitter    Receiver MatchingTransformer                                    ...
Transmission                             ReceiverTransmitter                                   61
ReflectionTransmitter                Receiver                                 62
Standing WavesTransmitter          Receiver                                63
Standing Waveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_wave                                             64
Calculationsλ (lambda) (Wavelength) = C (Speed of Light) / Frequency    C λ=    F  C = λ∗F                                ...
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MELJUN CORTES Radio Technology2

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MELJUN CORTES Radio Technology2

  1. 1. A History ofRadio TechnologyDemystifying Telecommunications By: Al Klase 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. What do these Have in Common? 3
  4. 4. Information-Age Timeline 4
  5. 5. A Favorite Quote“Any sufficiently advanced technologyis indistinguishable from magic.”Arthur C. Clark, "Profiles of The Future", 1961 (Clarkes thirdlaw)English physicist & science fiction author (1917 – 2008)Inventor of the communications-satellite concept. 5
  6. 6. A Mysterious Force• Start at the beginning• In the Stone Age – Sticks – Stones – Animal Parts 6
  7. 7. Amber• Naturally polymerized tree resin• Greeks called it elektron 7
  8. 8. Electrostatic Experiments 8
  9. 9. Electric FieldJohann Carl Friederich Gauss 1777-1855 9
  10. 10. The Condenser or Capacitor Stores Energy as electrostatic charge.C=Q/VQ = charge in Coulombs(6.241506×1018 electrons/C )V = EMF in Volts 10
  11. 11. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) 11
  12. 12. Alessandro Volta (1745-1827)Ca. 1774 12
  13. 13. Circuits and Schematics 13
  14. 14. Yet Another Mysterious Force• Heavy black rock• Lodestone• Proved to be iron ore• Greeks found theirs in Magnesia 14
  15. 15. The Compass 15
  16. 16. Magnetic Field due to Electrical Current 1820 - Hans Christian Ørsted 16André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836)
  17. 17. Electro Magnet and Inductor Stores energy as a magnetic field. Taught and did research at Princeton. Joseph Henry 1797 - 1878Ca. 1824 17
  18. 18. Samuel Morse’s Telegraph Speedwell 1838 Morristown.(Binary Serial Communications!) 18
  19. 19. MaxwellTreatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873) James Clerk Maxwell 1831 - 1879 19
  20. 20. More Maxwell 20
  21. 21. i 21
  22. 22. Alternating Current 22
  23. 23. Oscillation and Resonance 23
  24. 24. High-frequency AC Oscillator 24
  25. 25. Eureka! 25
  26. 26. Hertz Ca. 1888Heinrich Hertz 1857 - 1894 26
  27. 27. The First Radio Receiver 27
  28. 28. A Hertzian Experiment From Invention & Innovation in the Radio Industry, W. Rupert MacLaurin,28 1949
  29. 29. PHz = petahertz 29Ehz = exahertz
  30. 30. Short-Wave + WiFi, Bluetooth + Satellite TVBroadcast Cellphones + GPS + + Satellite TV 30
  31. 31. Propagation ModesDirect-Wave All Frequencies 31
  32. 32. Propagation ModesGround-Wave ELF-VLF-LF-MF Below 30 HZ – 3 MHz 32
  33. 33. Propagation Modes Sky-Wave MF-HF (VHF) - 300 KHz – 30+ MHz• Can allow global point-to-point communications and broadcasting• Varies with: Frequency Time of day Season Solar activity (11-year Cycle) 33
  34. 34. PART 2 34
  35. 35. Guglielmo Marconi•Born 1874•Wealthy Italian father•Wealthy Irish mother (Jamison)•Tech. Institute at Leghornincluded telegraphy•Inspired by Hertz’s Obituary in 1894 35
  36. 36. Marconi at Villa GrifonePhotos and drawings from Early Radio by Peter R. Jensen 36
  37. 37. Marconi Developments•1896 Moves to Great Britain•Sept. 1896, 2.8Km, Salisbury Plain•Mar. ‘97, 14Km, Bristol Channel•Late 1898, 29Km, Isle of Wright 37
  38. 38. Marconi 1896 38
  39. 39. 39
  40. 40. Patent 7777Application filed 12 April 1900 From The Wonders of Wireless Telegraphy J. A. Fleming, London, 1913 40
  41. 41. Passive Receivers 41
  42. 42. The Fleming ValveJohn Ambrose Fleming3 (1849 - 1945) 42
  43. 43. We need a reliableAmplifier! 43
  44. 44. From The Wonders of WirelessTelegraphyJ. A. Fleming, London, 1913 44
  45. 45. The Audion Lee Deforest1906 45
  46. 46. An Audion Radio Receiver 46
  47. 47. Armstrong Edwin Howard Armstrong 47
  48. 48. The Regenerative Circuit “Great amplification obtained at once!” 48
  49. 49. Regen Prototype Demonstrated to Sarnoff at the Marconi station at Belmar 49
  50. 50. Radiotelephone 50
  51. 51. The Birth of Broadcasting 51
  52. 52. Timeline 52
  53. 53. VLF = Very Low Frequency FREQUENCY3 KHz 20 KHz 30 KHz Audio 20Hz – 20KHz NTSC Horizontal Osc. 15.734 KHz Submarine Communications 53100 Km WAVELENGTH 10 Km
  54. 54. LF = Low Frequency FREQUENCY30 KHz 200 KHz 300 KHz “Atomic” Clocks 60KHz Long-Wave Broadcast 148.5 to 283.5 KHz Aircraft Beacons 5410 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  55. 55. MF = Medium Frequency FREQUENCY 300 KHz 1000 KHz 2 MHz 3 MHz 160 M Ham “Standard” AM Broadcast 540 to 1700 KHzAircraftBeacons 55 10 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  56. 56. HF = High Frequency FREQUENCY3 MHz 10 MHz 20MHz 30MHz Ham Short-wave Broadcast 5610 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  57. 57. VHF = Very High Frequency FREQUENCY30 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 300 MHz Ham TV TV 2-6 7-13 FM Broadcast 5710 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  58. 58. UHF = Ultra-High Frequency FREQUENCY300 MHz 1000 MHz 2 GHz 3 GHZ UHF TV WiFi etc. 2.4 GHz Analog Cell Phone Digital Cellphone Keyless Entry 315 MHz GPS 1.575 GHz 5810 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  59. 59. UHF = Ultra-High Frequency FREQUENCY300 MHz 1 GHz 2 GHz 3 GHz Ham TV 14-92 FM Broadcast 5910 Km WAVELENGTH 1000 m
  60. 60. Repeating Hertz’s Experiments Transmitter Receiver MatchingTransformer 60
  61. 61. Transmission ReceiverTransmitter 61
  62. 62. ReflectionTransmitter Receiver 62
  63. 63. Standing WavesTransmitter Receiver 63
  64. 64. Standing Waveshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_wave 64
  65. 65. Calculationsλ (lambda) (Wavelength) = C (Speed of Light) / Frequency C λ= F C = λ∗F 65

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