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MELJUN CORTES computer organization_lecture_chapter2_parts_personal_computer

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MELJUN CORTES computer organization_lecture_chapter2_parts_personal_computer

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MELJUN CORTES computer organization_lecture_chapter2_parts_personal_computer

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The Visible PC MELJUN CORTESMELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Overview In this chapter, you will learn to Describe how the PC works Identify the essential tools of the trade and avoid electrostatic discharge (ESD) Identify the major internal and external components of a PC Identify the different connectors on a typical PC system unit
  3. 3. How the PC Works Input Output Processing
  4. 4. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved How the PC Works Software Operating system (Windows, MAC OS X, Linux) Applications (PowerPoint, Word, Outlook, Internet Explorer) Hardware Pieces you can touch (mouse, monitor, motherboard, etc.)
  5. 5. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved How the PC Works Computer functions through four stages: Input provides the computer with data  Keyboard and mouse Processing occurs when the computer processes or manipulates your data Output is provided as the result of processing your data  Monitor, printer, speakers Storage is how you keep your data for later use  Hard drive, CD-ROM disc, floppy diskette
  6. 6. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved How the PC Works The Art of the PC Technician Hardware and software interact to accomplish the four stages Your goal is to understand all the parts and how they interact in the various stages  By understanding how it works, you’re better able to fix it when it breaks Broken PC PC tech Fixed PC
  7. 7. Tools of the Trade and ESD Avoidance
  8. 8. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved PC Tool Kit The basic tech toolkit: a Phillips-head screwdriver Most toolkits contain a few other items It’s a good idea to include Magnifying glass Small flashlight
  9. 9. IT Essentials CompTIA A+ Essentials
  10. 10. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Electrostatic Discharge Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the passage of a static electrical charge into your PC or a PC component such as a RAM stick Static electricity can destroy sensitive parts of a PC ESD damage is much more prevalent in dry, cool environments
  11. 11. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Anti-static Tools Anti-static wrist strap  Keeps you and the PC at the same electrical potential to prevent ESD Anti-static mats  Used temporarily to place parts taken out of your PC Anti-static bags  Used to store electrical components from your PC Always unplug a PC when you work on it. Don’t just turn it off.
  12. 12. The Complete PC
  13. 13. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved External Connections Plug goes into a port Port/jack accepts a plug Connector can be either a port or a plug
  14. 14. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved DIN Connectors DIN connectors are round and come in two sizes: DIN Mini-DIN Always a female connector Used frequently by a keyboard or mouse
  15. 15. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved USB Connectors Universal Serial Bus (USB) Used by many devices today Devices are hot-swappable  You can insert or remove the device while the PC is powered on USB B plugs into devices USBA plugs into computers USB B USB A
  16. 16. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved FireWire Connectors FireWire connectors move data at incredibly high speeds Also known as IEEE 1394 Popular with video applications Uses 6-wire connector (note the rounded edge) Hot-swappable
  17. 17. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved DB Connectors DB connectors have a slight D-shape Male DB connectors have pins Female DB connectors have sockets Oldest type of connector in the PC
  18. 18. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved RJ Connectors Registered jack or RJ connectors RJ-11 used by telephone lines RJ-45 used in network interface cards (NICs)
  19. 19. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Audio Connectors Audio connectors are used on sound cards Used to connect speakers, microphones, and other audio devices
  20. 20. Devices and Their Connectors
  21. 21. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Cards vs. Onboard Connectors exposed on rear and front of PCs Some connectors attach directly to motherboard Some connectors attach to boards that plug into motherboard
  22. 22. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Keyboard Keyboards connect into dedicated mini-DIN (usually purple) or USB Plugs and ports usually purple
  23. 23. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Video Cards Video cards connect to monitors S-Video connector (left) Digital video interface (DVI) connector (center) 15-pin female DB connector (right) Newer High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)
  24. 24. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Sound Cards Sound cards Convert digital information into sound Convert sound from a microphone into digital data Mini-audio jacks for speakers and microphones DB-15 connector for a joystick or musical instrument Newer Sony/Phillips Digital Interface Format (S/PDIF)
  25. 25. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Network Cards Networks: groups of PCs connected together Network interface cards (NICs) typically on motherboard (can be expansion card) Typical connector is RJ-45
  26. 26. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Mouse A mouse enables you to select graphical items on a screen Connects through mini-DIN port (usually light green) or USB port (most common) Trackball may be used instead of mouse
  27. 27. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Modem Modems convert analog telephone signals into digital data and vice versa Internal modems are expansion cards External modems connect to a serial port Uses two RJ-11 sockets  One to the telephone jack in the wall  One to a telephone if you wish
  28. 28. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Serial Ports Serial ports are used to add external devices to a PC Accept and transmit serial data Male DB-9 or DB-25 Largely replaced by USB
  29. 29. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Printer Printers output data from the PC onto paper Historically used a female DB-25 Today printers almost exclusively use a USB or FireWire port
  30. 30. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Joystick Joysticks are used almost exclusively to play games on the computer Originally designed as an input device to be used like a mouse Connector typically orange Most joysticks now use USB
  31. 31. Inside the System Unit
  32. 32. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Case The case houses all of the internal components Protects internal components External connections in front and rear Provides access to storage devices such as CDs
  33. 33. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved CPU Central processing unit (CPU) Also called a microprocessor Performs calculations CPUs generate a lot of heat Cooling fan and/or heat sink used to keep them cool
  34. 34. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved CPU Makes Intel AMD Models Celeron Athlon Sempron Pentium • CPUs come in different packages – Pin grid array (PGA) • Most common today
  35. 35. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved RAM Random access memory (RAM) Stores programs and data currently used by the CPU Measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB) Each piece or module of RAM is called a stick  Dual inline memory module (DIMM) most common today
  36. 36. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Motherboard The motherboard is a thin, flat piece of circuit board Everything connects directly or indirectly to the motherboard Contains sockets for the CPU, RAM, power, and external devices such as mice, printers, and keyboards Expansion slots allow the addition of new components
  37. 37. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Power Supply Provides electrical power to PC components Uses 110VAC power from the wall outlet Has power connectors for the motherboard and other devices Uses a fan to keep itself and the PC cool inside Safety Alert  High voltage capacitor holds power after unplugged
  38. 38. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Floppy Drive The floppy drive uses floppy diskettes to store data Connects to the computer via a ribbon cable Connects to the floppy controller on the motherboard Uses a connector from the power supply
  39. 39. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Hard Drive Hard drives store programs and data not currently in use by the CPU Capacity quoted in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB) A typical PC has one hard drive but may contain more Common types include  Parallel AT attachment (PATA)  Serial AT attachment (SATA)  Small computer system interface (SCSI) Uses a power cable from the power supply
  40. 40. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Optical Media Two groups CD  Stores about 700 MB  CD-ROM (read only)  CD-R, CD-RW (allows writing to CD) DVD  Stores about 4 GB of data  DVD-ROM, DVD+R, DVD-R, DVD+RW, DVD-RW
  41. 41. © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

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