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Chapter 3Determining Feasibility andManaging Analysis andDesign Activities     Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
Major Topics •   Project initiation •   Determining project feasibility •   Project scheduling •   Managing project activi...
Project Initiation   Projects are initiated for two broad   reasons:     • Problems that lend themselves to systems       ...
Organizational Problems     Identify problems by looking for the following     signs: •   Check output against performance...
Organizational Problems(Continued) • Observe behavior of employees     • High absenteeism.     • High job dissatisfaction....
Organizational Problems(Continued) • Listen to feedback from vendors,    customers, and suppliers     • Complaints.     • ...
Project Selection    Five specific criteria for project selection:     • Backed by management.     • Timed appropriately f...
Possibilities for Improvement    Many possible objectives exist including:     •   Speeding up a process.     •   Streamli...
Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG) • A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to     assess the impact of any improvements     t...
Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)(Continued) • Current or proposed systems are listed     on the left. •   Objectives are list...
Feasibility • A feasibility study assesses the     operational, technical, and economic     merits of the proposed project...
Technical Feasibility • Technical feasibility assesses whether     the current technical resources are     sufficient for ...
Economic Feasibility • Economic feasibility determines     whether the time and money are     available to develop the sys...
Operational Feasibility • Operational feasibility determines if the     human resources are available to     operate the s...
Activity Planning • Activity planning includes:     • Selecting a systems analysis team.     • Estimating time required to...
Estimating Time • Project is broken down into phases. • Further project is broken down into tasks or     activities. •   F...
Gantt Charts • Easy to construct and use. • Shows activities over a period of time.Kendall &    2005 PearsonKendall      P...
Gantt Chart ExampleKendall &   2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall   3-18
PERT Diagram  PERT-Program Evaluation and Review   Technique     • PERT diagrams show precedence, activities that        m...
PERT Diagram ExampleKendall &   2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall   3-20
PERT Diagram Advantages • Easy identification of the order of     precedence •   Easy identification of the critical path ...
Timeboxing • Timeboxing sets an absolute due date     for project delivery. •   The most critical features are developed  ...
Personal Information ManagerSoftware   Personal information manager (PIN)   software is useful for scheduling   activities...
Team Management • Teams often have two leaders:     • One who leads members to accomplish         tasks.     •   One conce...
Goal Setting • Successful projects require that     reasonable productivity goals for     tangible outputs and process act...
Ecommerce ProjectManagement   Ecommerce and traditional software   project management differences:     • The data used by ...
Project Failures    Project failures may be prevented by:     • Training.     • Experience.     • Learning why other proje...
Extreme Programming   Extreme programming (XP) takes good   systems development practices to the   extreme.Kendall &   200...
Extreme Programming Variables    Extreme programming has four    variables that the developer can control:     • Time.    ...
Extreme ProgrammingKendall &   2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall   3-30
Extreme Programming Activities     The activities of extreme programming     are:     •   Coding.     •   Testing.     •  ...
Extreme Programming CorePractices     There are four core practices in      extreme programming:     •   A short release t...
Roles in Extreme ProgrammingKendall &   2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall   3-33
Roles in Extreme Programming    There are a 7roles played in XP:     • Programmer.     • Customer.     • Tester.     • Tra...
The Planning Game • The planning game defines rules to help     formulate the development team and     customer relationsh...
XP Development Process • XP projects are interactive and     incremental. •   The five Stages of XP development are:     •...
XP Development ProcessKendall &   2005 PearsonKendall     Prentice Hall   3-37
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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03

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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03

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MELJUN CORTES SAD ch03

  1. 1. Chapter 3Determining Feasibility andManaging Analysis andDesign Activities Systems Analysis and DesignMELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. Major Topics • Project initiation • Determining project feasibility • Project scheduling • Managing project activities • Manage systems analysis team membersKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-2
  3. 3. Project Initiation Projects are initiated for two broad reasons: • Problems that lend themselves to systems solutions. • Opportunities for improvement through • Upgrading systems. • Altering systems. • Installing new systems.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-3
  4. 4. Organizational Problems Identify problems by looking for the following signs: • Check output against performance criteria • Too many errors. • Work completed slowly. • Work done incorrectly. • Work done incompletely. • Work not done at all.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-4
  5. 5. Organizational Problems(Continued) • Observe behavior of employees • High absenteeism. • High job dissatisfaction. • High job turnover.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-5
  6. 6. Organizational Problems(Continued) • Listen to feedback from vendors, customers, and suppliers • Complaints. • Suggestions for improvement. • Loss of sales. • Lower sales.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-6
  7. 7. Project Selection Five specific criteria for project selection: • Backed by management. • Timed appropriately for commitment of resources. • It moves the business toward attainment of its goals. • Practicable. • Important enough to be considered over other projects.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-7
  8. 8. Possibilities for Improvement Many possible objectives exist including: • Speeding up a process. • Streamlining a process. • Combining processes. • Reducing errors in input. • Reducing redundant storage. • Reducing redundant output. • Improving system and subsystem integration.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-8
  9. 9. Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG) • A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to assess the impact of any improvements to the existing system. • It can increase awareness of the impacts made on the achievement of corporate objectivesKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-9
  10. 10. Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)(Continued) • Current or proposed systems are listed on the left. • Objectives are listed on the top. • Red arrows indicate a positive impact. • Green arrows indicate implementation.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-10
  11. 11. Feasibility • A feasibility study assesses the operational, technical, and economic merits of the proposed project. • There are three types of feasibility: • Technical feasibility. • Economic feasibility. • Operational feasibility.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-11
  12. 12. Technical Feasibility • Technical feasibility assesses whether the current technical resources are sufficient for the new system. • If they are not available, can they be upgraded to provide the level of technology necessary for the new system.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-12
  13. 13. Economic Feasibility • Economic feasibility determines whether the time and money are available to develop the system. • Includes the purchase of: • New equipment. • Hardware. • Software.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-13
  14. 14. Operational Feasibility • Operational feasibility determines if the human resources are available to operate the system once it has been installed. • Users that do not want a new system may prevent it from becoming operationally feasible.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-14
  15. 15. Activity Planning • Activity planning includes: • Selecting a systems analysis team. • Estimating time required to complete each task. • Scheduling the project. • Two tools for project planning and control are Gantt charts and PERT diagrams.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-15
  16. 16. Estimating Time • Project is broken down into phases. • Further project is broken down into tasks or activities. • Finally project is broken down into steps or even smaller units. • Time is estimated for each task or activity. • Most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic estimates for time may be used.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-16
  17. 17. Gantt Charts • Easy to construct and use. • Shows activities over a period of time.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-17
  18. 18. Gantt Chart ExampleKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-18
  19. 19. PERT Diagram PERT-Program Evaluation and Review Technique • PERT diagrams show precedence, activities that must be completed before the next activities may be started. • Once a diagram is drawn it is possible to identify the critical path, the longest path through the activities. • Monitoring critical path will identify shortest time to complete the project.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-19
  20. 20. PERT Diagram ExampleKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-20
  21. 21. PERT Diagram Advantages • Easy identification of the order of precedence • Easy identification of the critical path and thus critical activities • Easy determination of slack time, the leeway to fall behind on noncritical pathsKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-21
  22. 22. Timeboxing • Timeboxing sets an absolute due date for project delivery. • The most critical features are developed first and implemented by the due date. • Other features are added later.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-22
  23. 23. Personal Information ManagerSoftware Personal information manager (PIN) software is useful for scheduling activities and includes features such as: • Telephone and fax number lists. • To-do lists. • Online calendars.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-23
  24. 24. Team Management • Teams often have two leaders: • One who leads members to accomplish tasks. • One concerned with social relationships. • The systems analyst must manage: • Team members. • Their activities. • Their time and resources.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-24
  25. 25. Goal Setting • Successful projects require that reasonable productivity goals for tangible outputs and process activities be set. • Goal setting helps to motivate team members.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-25
  26. 26. Ecommerce ProjectManagement Ecommerce and traditional software project management differences: • The data used by ecommerce systems is scattered across the organization. • Ecommerce systems need a staff with a wide variety of skills. • Partnerships must be built externally and internally well ahead of implementation. • Security is of utmost importance.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-26
  27. 27. Project Failures Project failures may be prevented by: • Training. • Experience. • Learning why other projects have failed.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-27
  28. 28. Extreme Programming Extreme programming (XP) takes good systems development practices to the extreme.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-28
  29. 29. Extreme Programming Variables Extreme programming has four variables that the developer can control: • Time. • Cost. • Quality. • Cost. • These are balanced for a project.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-29
  30. 30. Extreme ProgrammingKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-30
  31. 31. Extreme Programming Activities The activities of extreme programming are: • Coding. • Testing. • Listening. • Designing.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-31
  32. 32. Extreme Programming CorePractices There are four core practices in extreme programming: • A short release time. • Working a 40-hour week. • Having an onsite customer. • Pair programming.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-32
  33. 33. Roles in Extreme ProgrammingKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-33
  34. 34. Roles in Extreme Programming There are a 7roles played in XP: • Programmer. • Customer. • Tester. • Tracker. • Coach. • Consultant. • Big Boss.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-34
  35. 35. The Planning Game • The planning game defines rules to help formulate the development team and customer relationship. • Limits uncertainty. • Two players: the development team and the business customer. • Customers decide what to tackle first.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-35
  36. 36. XP Development Process • XP projects are interactive and incremental. • The five Stages of XP development are: • Exploration. • Planning. • Iterations to the first release. • Productionizing. • Maintenance.Kendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-36
  37. 37. XP Development ProcessKendall & 2005 PearsonKendall Prentice Hall 3-37

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