MELJUN CORTES IPO & Context Diagram


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MELJUN CORTES IPO & Context Diagram

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MELJUN CORTES IPO & Context Diagram

  3. 3. What is it?  The IPO diagram is a visual representation of a process or activity.  It lists input variables and output characteristics.
  4. 4. Why use it?  IPO diagram is useful in defining a process and recognizing the input variables and responses/ outputs.
  5. 5. When to use it?  Understand what inputs are needed to achieve each specific output.
  6. 6. Definition of terms INPUT is the data flowing into the system from outside. PROCESSING is the action of manipulating the input into a more useful form. OUTPUT is the information flowing out of the system. FEEDBACK occurs when the outcome has an influence on the input.
  7. 7. Some Examples (Attendance system in school) INPUT: The teacher takes register to see who is not in today. PROCESSING: The data is loaded into the school database and processed to create attendance record of each pupil. OUTPUT: Print out of a student who has been absent. FEEDBACK: The teachers needs to find out why the student has been absent and the reason recorded in the input once more. It will also hopefully cause the pupil to have better attendance record.
  8. 8. Some Examples [cont.] Album title Artist name Artist ID A person types data into a database system by means of a keyboard Query report The keystrokes being entered by the typist is converted into ASCII format that the computer can understand. Display or print lists of albums produced by particular artists The keystrokes being entered are immediately shown on the typist’s monitor so she can see what is being entered.
  9. 9. Some Examples [cont.] Client Finished product Design Making Material Pay Workers Adhesives Tools Workers   Set tools Check quality Happy customer
  10. 10. 11 Context Diagram  Is the highest level view of a system, similar to Block Diagram, showing a, possibly software-based, system as a whole and its inputs and outputs from/to external factors.  Shows the entire system as a single process. Interactions with users and other external entities are shown as dataflow.  They do not show the major functional processes but are particularly useful for agreeing the system boundary.  Documents the system’s boundaries by highlighting its sources and destinations. Documenting the system’s boundaries by drawing a context diagram helps the analyst, the user, and the responsible managers visualize alternative high-level logical system designs. Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  11. 11. 12 Purpose of Context Diagram 1. It clarifies to the user audience the analyst's understanding of the scope of the proposed system, the kinds of users the system will have, and the data coming out from and going into the system. A surprising number of misunderstandings are exposed at this early stage. 2. It motivates and establishes a framework for the more complicated next level (below). Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  12. 12. 13 How are Context Diagram Drawn  Context diagrams are typically drawn using labeled boxes to represent each of the external entities and another labeled box to represent the system being developed. The relationship is drawn as a line between the entities and the system being developed. The relationships are labeled with a subject-verbobject format.  Context diagrams can also use many different drawing types to represent external entities. They can use oval, stick figures, pictures, clip art or any other representation to convey meaning. Decision trees and data storage are represented in system flow diagrams. Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  13. 13. 14 Symbols Used on Diagrams Process Inquiries External Entities •processes are shown rounded corners as squares with •external entities (the people with whom the process interacts) •Relationship or what we call data flows- it shows the relationship between external entities and the process. Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  14. 14. 15 How are Context Diagram Drawn When drawing a context diagram, you: Firstly, draw and name a single process box that represents the entire system. Next, identify and add the external entities that communicate directly with the process box. Do this by considering origin and destination of the resource flows and data flows. Finally, add the resource flows and data flows to the diagram. Note: In drawing the context diagram you should only be concerned with the most important information flows. These will be concerned with issues such as: how orders are received and checked, with providing good customer service and with the paying of invoices. Remember that no business process diagram is the definitive solution - there is no absolute right or wrong. Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  15. 15. 16 ‘terminator’ for input/output flows s Order Go od s 0 ----------------------------SALES PROCESS Process Context Diagram & IPO Diagram , CUSTOMER Or de rs SUPPLIER its vis n, ti o o es om eri Pr li v de flow of inputs and outputs to and from processes
  16. 16. 17 Order CUSTOMER In - Stock Request Payment Status Message Invoice 0 Shipping Order Order System Inventory Reports ACCOUNTING Context Diagram & IPO Diagram WAREHOUSE Shipping Confirmation
  17. 17. 18 Payroll Check Accounting Department Employee 0 Time Sheet Tax Form Context Diagram & IPO Diagram Payroll System Payroll Report
  18. 18. 19 Context Diagram & IPO Diagram
  19. 19. 20 Book Details Book Supplier Book Order Book Request 0 Library System Availability & Advice Book Reservation Inquiry Borrower Number Context Diagram & IPO Diagram Borrowe r
  20. 20. 21 Context Diagram & IPO Diagram