Computer Definition <ul><li>A general-purpose machine that processes data according to a set of instructions that are stored internally either temporarily or permanently. The computer and all equipment attached to it are called hardware. The instructions that tell it what to do are called "software." A set of instructions that perform a particular task is called a "program" or "software program." </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
A computer is an electronic machine that 1) takes in data and instructions (input) 2) works with the data (processing) 3) puts out information (output) COMPUTER SYSTEMS HARDWARE SOFTWARE PEOPLE MELJUN CORTES
The CPU A central processing unit ( CPU ), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer capable of executing a program. (Knott 1974) It interprets computer program instructions and processes data . CPUs provide the fundamental digital computer trait of programmability , and are one of the necessary components found in computers of any era, along with primary storage and input/output facilities. A CPU that is manufactured as a single integrated circuit is usually known as a microprocessor . MELJUN CORTES
CPU IN MICROCOMPUTERS MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>PENTIUM </li></ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOROLA </li></ul><ul><li>SPARC </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
MHz MELJUN CORTES Abbreviation for m ega h ert z . One MHz represents one million cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors , called the clock speed , is measured in megahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 MHz executes 200 million cycles per second. Each computer instruction requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree, this controls how powerful the microprocessor is. Another chief factor in determining a microprocessor's power is its data width (that is, how many bits it can manipulate at one time).
CPU-BRAIN OF THE COMPUTER In computing , an arithmetic logic unit ( ALU ) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs have inside them very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs. MELJUN CORTES
OUTPUT DEVICES An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer ) to the outside world. MELJUN CORTES
Software Instructions Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible ), it is sometimes called "firmware" to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.
COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>I 1951-1958 VACCUM TUBES, VERY SLOW </li></ul><ul><li>II 1959-1963 SOLID STATE DEVICES, LESS HEAT AND POWER USE </li></ul><ul><li>III 1963-1970 INEGRATED CIRCUITS, MULTIPROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>IV 1971-1987 LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, MICROPROCESSOR </li></ul><ul><li>V ( TODAY) Ga-As CIRCUITRY, PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul>http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml;jsessionid=DEVRBMZJSIWEYQSNDLRCKH0CJUNN2JVN?term=computer&_requestid=485910 link
DATA PROCESSING: <ul><li>SERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><li>MULTITASKING </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>PIPELINING </li></ul>Using a computer to manage or store information.
SERIAL PROCESSING FIRST COME FIRST SERVE, ONE AT A TIME. A technique for solving problems in which a computer begins at the start and works through to the end in a linear fashion MELJUN CORTES
PARALLEL PROCESSING The simultaneous use of more than one CPU to execute a program . Ideally, parallel processing makes a program run faster because there are more engines (CPUs) running it. In practice, it is often difficult to divide a program in such a way that separate CPUs can execute different portions without interfering with each other.
DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. MELJUN CORTES
MULTITASKING MELJUN CORTES In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time
PIPELINING Pipelining is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that can be executed in a unit of time). Pipelining assumes that successive instructions in a program sequence will overlap in execution MELJUN CORTES
ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC , A/D or A to D ) is an electronic integrated circuit, which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current ) to a digital number. The digital output is in binary digital information
<ul><li>PROM </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>EEPROM </li></ul>ROM Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM ) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Because data stored in ROM cannot be modified (at least not very quickly or easily), it is mainly used to distribute software MELJUN CORTES
PROM <ul><ul><li>Programmable read-only memory (PROM), or one-time programmable ROM (OTP), can be written to or programmed via a special device called a PROM programmer . Typically, this device uses high voltages to permanently destroy or create internal links ( fuses or antifuses ) within the chip. Consequently, a PROM can only be programmed once. </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
EPROM <ul><ul><li>Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) can be erased by exposure to strong ultraviolet light (typically for 10 minutes or longer), then rewritten with a process that again requires application of higher than usual voltage. Repeated exposure to UV light will eventually wear out an EPROM, but the endurance of most EPROM chips exceeds 1000 cycles </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
EEPROM <ul><ul><li>Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is based on a similar semiconductor structure to EPROM, but allows its entire contents (or selected banks ) to be electrically erased, then rewritten electrically, so that they need not be removed from the computer </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
RAM RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY <ul><li>SDRAM </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul>Short for S ynchronous DRAM , a type of DRAM that can run at much higher clock speeds than conventional memory. SDRAM actually synchronizes itself with the CPU's bus and is capable of running at 133 MHz d ynamic r andom a ccess m emory
OUTPUT DEVICES IN CT <ul><li>MONITOR </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLOTTER </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
RAID SYSTEMS These systems provide data fault tolerance in event of damage to the CT backup disk Redundant Array of Independent Drives (or Disks ), also known as Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives (or Disks ), ( RAID ) is an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that divide and/or replicate data among multiple hard drives . RAID can be designed to provide increased data reliability and/or increased I/O ( input/output ) performance.
INTERNET PROTOCOL TCP/IP The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It has also been referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite , which is named after two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two networking protocols defined. Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of two developments that began in the 1970s, namely LANs (Local Area Networks) and the Internet, both of which have revolutionized computing.