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MELJUN CORTES Intro to Computer System

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MELJUN CORTES Intro to Computer System

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MELJUN CORTES Intro to Computer System

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers MELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. Tomographic Reconstruction MELJUN CORTES
  3. 3. DATA RECONSTRUCTION--COMPUTER MELJUN CORTES
  4. 4. Computer Definition <ul><li>A general-purpose machine that processes data according to a set of instructions that are stored internally either temporarily or permanently. The computer and all equipment attached to it are called hardware. The instructions that tell it what to do are called &quot;software.&quot; A set of instructions that perform a particular task is called a &quot;program&quot; or &quot;software program.&quot; </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  5. 5. At Most Basic MELJUN CORTES
  6. 6. A computer is an electronic machine that 1) takes in data and instructions (input) 2) works with the data (processing) 3) puts out information (output) COMPUTER SYSTEMS HARDWARE SOFTWARE PEOPLE MELJUN CORTES
  7. 7. MELJUN CORTES
  8. 8. MELJUN CORTES
  9. 9. HARDWARE-PHYSICAL COMPONENTS MELJUN CORTES
  10. 10. HARDWARE ORGANIZATION INPUT MELJUN CORTES
  11. 11. The CPU A central processing unit ( CPU ), or sometimes simply processor, is the component in a digital computer capable of executing a program. (Knott 1974) It interprets computer program instructions and processes data . CPUs provide the fundamental digital computer trait of programmability , and are one of the necessary components found in computers of any era, along with primary storage and input/output facilities. A CPU that is manufactured as a single integrated circuit is usually known as a microprocessor . MELJUN CORTES
  12. 12. CPU IN MICROCOMPUTERS MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>PENTIUM </li></ul><ul><li>AMD </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOROLA </li></ul><ul><li>SPARC </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  13. 13. MHz MELJUN CORTES Abbreviation for m ega h ert z . One MHz represents one million cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors , called the clock speed , is measured in megahertz. For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 MHz executes 200 million cycles per second. Each computer instruction requires a fixed number of cycles, so the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the microprocessor can execute. To a large degree, this controls how powerful the microprocessor is. Another chief factor in determining a microprocessor's power is its data width (that is, how many bits it can manipulate at one time).
  14. 14. SPEED OF PROCESSORS <ul><li>MHz (MICRO) </li></ul><ul><li>GHz (MICRO) </li></ul><ul><li>MIPS (MINI, MAINFRAME) </li></ul><ul><li>BIPS (MINI, MAINFRAME) </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  15. 15. CPU-BRAIN OF THE COMPUTER In computing , an arithmetic logic unit ( ALU ) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs have inside them very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs. MELJUN CORTES
  16. 16. MELJUN CORTES
  17. 17. INPUT DEVICES MELJUN CORTES
  18. 18. OUTPUT DEVICES An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer ) to the outside world. MELJUN CORTES
  19. 19. OUTPUT & INPUT DEVICES MELJUN CORTES
  20. 20. INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT MELJUN CORTES
  21. 21. inputs MELJUN CORTES
  22. 22. Software Instructions Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form, such as programs, data, protocols, etc. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible ), it is sometimes called &quot;firmware&quot; to indicate that it falls into an uncertain area somewhere between hardware and software.
  23. 23. SOFTWARE <ul><li>SYSTEM SOFTWARE </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION SOFTWARE </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  24. 24. SYSTEM SOFTWARE (OPERATING SYSTEM) <ul><li>WINDOWS </li></ul><ul><li>MAC OS </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>LINUX </li></ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul><ul><li>NOVELL </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  25. 25. APPLICATION SOFTWARE <ul><li>BASIC </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL </li></ul><ul><li>C++ </li></ul><ul><li>JAVA </li></ul><ul><li>LOGO </li></ul><ul><li>FORTRAN </li></ul><ul><li>PASCAL </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  26. 26. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>ABACUS </li></ul><ul><li>1642 PASCAL’S ARITHMETIC MACHINE </li></ul><ul><li>1694 LEIBNITZ’S CALCULATING MACHINE </li></ul><ul><li>1822 BABBAGE’S DIFFERENCE ENGINE </li></ul><ul><li>1890 HOLLERITH’S ELECTRONIC TABULATOR </li></ul><ul><li>1944 MARK1 </li></ul><ul><li>1946 ENIAC ( USED VALVE TUBES 18,000) </li></ul><ul><li>1951 UNIVAC COMPUTER </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  27. 27. COMPUTER GENERATIONS <ul><li>I 1951-1958 VACCUM TUBES, VERY SLOW </li></ul><ul><li>II 1959-1963 SOLID STATE DEVICES, LESS HEAT AND POWER USE </li></ul><ul><li>III 1963-1970 INEGRATED CIRCUITS, MULTIPROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>IV 1971-1987 LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, MICROPROCESSOR </li></ul><ul><li>V ( TODAY) Ga-As CIRCUITRY, PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul>http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml;jsessionid=DEVRBMZJSIWEYQSNDLRCKH0CJUNN2JVN?term=computer&_requestid=485910 link
  28. 28. COMPUTERS CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>SUPERCOMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>MAINFRAME </li></ul><ul><li>MINI </li></ul><ul><li>MICRO </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  29. 29. DATA PROCESSING: <ul><li>SERIAL </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTED </li></ul><ul><li>MULTITASKING </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>PARALLEL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>PIPELINING </li></ul>Using a computer to manage or store information.
  30. 30. SERIAL PROCESSING FIRST COME FIRST SERVE, ONE AT A TIME. A technique for solving problems in which a computer begins at the start and works through to the end in a linear fashion MELJUN CORTES
  31. 31. PARALLEL PROCESSING The simultaneous use of more than one CPU to execute a program . Ideally, parallel processing makes a program run faster because there are more engines (CPUs) running it. In practice, it is often difficult to divide a program in such a way that separate CPUs can execute different portions without interfering with each other.
  32. 32. PARALLEL PROCESSING MELJUN CORTES
  33. 33. DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING Distributed computing is a method of computer processing in which different parts of a program are run simultaneously on two or more computers that are communicating with each other over a network. MELJUN CORTES
  34. 34. MULTITASKING MELJUN CORTES In multitasking, only one CPU is involved, but it switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time
  35. 35. MULTIPROCESSING MELJUN CORTES
  36. 36. PIPELINING Pipelining is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that can be executed in a unit of time). Pipelining assumes that successive instructions in a program sequence will overlap in execution MELJUN CORTES
  37. 37. THE BINARY NUMBER SYSYTEM <ul><li>7 = 0111 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>10 = 1010 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  38. 38. ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC , A/D or A to D ) is an electronic integrated circuit, which converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage (or current ) to a digital number. The digital output is in binary digital information
  39. 39. ADC MELJUN CORTES
  40. 40. ADC/DAC ADC DIGITAL PROCESSOR ADC MELJUN CORTES
  41. 41. ADC SAMPLER QUANTIZER CODER ANALOG DIGITAL MELJUN CORTES
  42. 42. VOICE RECOGNITION SYSTEM MELJUN CORTES
  43. 43. PROCESSING HARDWARE <ul><li>PROCESSORS </li></ul><ul><li>MEMORY- ROM & RAM </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  44. 44. MICROPROCESSORS: BRAIN OF THE COMPUTER. DATA FROM THE MICROPROCESSOR IS STORED IN MEMORY. MELJUN CORTES
  45. 45. DATA FLOW PROCESSOR MEMORY BUS MELJUN CORTES
  46. 46. MELJUN CORTES
  47. 47. <ul><li>PROM </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>EEPROM </li></ul>ROM Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM ) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Because data stored in ROM cannot be modified (at least not very quickly or easily), it is mainly used to distribute software MELJUN CORTES
  48. 48. PROM <ul><ul><li>Programmable read-only memory (PROM), or one-time programmable ROM (OTP), can be written to or programmed via a special device called a PROM programmer . Typically, this device uses high voltages to permanently destroy or create internal links ( fuses or antifuses ) within the chip. Consequently, a PROM can only be programmed once. </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  49. 49. EPROM <ul><ul><li>Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) can be erased by exposure to strong ultraviolet light (typically for 10 minutes or longer), then rewritten with a process that again requires application of higher than usual voltage. Repeated exposure to UV light will eventually wear out an EPROM, but the endurance of most EPROM chips exceeds 1000 cycles </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  50. 50. EEPROM <ul><ul><li>Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is based on a similar semiconductor structure to EPROM, but allows its entire contents (or selected banks ) to be electrically erased, then rewritten electrically, so that they need not be removed from the computer </li></ul></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  51. 51. RAM RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY <ul><li>SDRAM </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM </li></ul>Short for S ynchronous DRAM , a type of DRAM that can run at much higher clock speeds than conventional memory. SDRAM actually synchronizes itself with the CPU's bus and is capable of running at 133 MHz d ynamic r andom a ccess m emory
  52. 52. OUTPUT DEVICES IN CT <ul><li>MONITOR </li></ul><ul><li>PRINTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLOTTER </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  53. 53. STORAGE HARDWARE <ul><li>FLOPPY DISKS </li></ul><ul><li>CD </li></ul><ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>MAGNETIC TAPES </li></ul><ul><li>HARD DISK </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  54. 54. STORAGE HARDWARE MELJUN CORTES
  55. 55. RAID SYSTEMS These systems provide data fault tolerance in event of damage to the CT backup disk Redundant Array of Independent Drives (or Disks ), also known as Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives (or Disks ), ( RAID ) is an umbrella term for computer data storage schemes that divide and/or replicate data among multiple hard drives . RAID can be designed to provide increased data reliability and/or increased I/O ( input/output ) performance.
  56. 56. DATA TRANSMISSION
  57. 57. COMMUNICATION DEVICES <ul><li>MODEM </li></ul><ul><li>NIC </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  58. 58. MODEM MELJUN CORTES
  59. 59. COMMUNICATION SPEEDS BAUD/SECOND <ul><li>VOICE BAND 110-9600 </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIUM BAND 9600-256000 </li></ul><ul><li>BROAD BAND 256-1000000 </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  60. 60. NETWORK TOPOLOGIES <ul><li>BUS </li></ul><ul><li>STAR </li></ul><ul><li>RING </li></ul><ul><li>HIERACHICAL </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  61. 61. BUS NETWORK
  62. 62. STAR NETWORK MELJUN CORTES
  63. 63. RING NETWORK MELJUN CORTES
  64. 64. HIERARCHICAL NETWORK MELJUN CORTES
  65. 65. NETWORKS <ul><li>LAN </li></ul><ul><li>MAN </li></ul><ul><li>WAN </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES
  66. 66. INTERNET-1959 MELJUN CORTES
  67. 67. INTERNET PROTOCOL TCP/IP The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It has also been referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite , which is named after two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two networking protocols defined. Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of two developments that began in the 1970s, namely LANs (Local Area Networks) and the Internet, both of which have revolutionized computing.
  68. 68. DR. BERNERS-LEE WWW MELJUN CORTES
  69. 69. COMMUNICATION
  70. 70. PACS-PICTURE ARCHIVING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM SYSTEM FOR: ARCHIVING, TRANSMITTING, VIEWING, AND MANIPULATING IMAGES MELJUN CORTES
  71. 71. PACS MELJUN CORTES
  72. 72. COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS <ul><li>HL-7 HEALTH LEVEL 7 ( HIS & RIS) </li></ul><ul><li>DICOM-DIGITAL IMAGING & COMMUNICATIO IN MEDICINE (PACS) </li></ul>MELJUN CORTES

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