PROFESSIONALETHICS INENGINEERINGEthics in Research
Research ethicsprovides guidelines for the responsible conduct of the researchers in any area of specializationeducates and monitors scientists conducting research to ensure a high ethical standard.involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific researchThese include the design and implementation of research involving human and animal experimentation, various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific misconduct (such as fraud, fabrication of data and plagiarism), whistle blowing; regulation of research, etc.
Research ethicsR esearch ethics is most developed as a concept in medical research.Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project.Competition is an important factor in research, and may be both a good thing and a bad thing. The first thing to do before designing a study is to consider the potential cost and benefits of the research.
Research misconduct is the process of identifying and reporting unethical or unsound researchThree practices : Fabrication - creating research data illegitimately Falsification - altering data inappropriately Plagiarism - presenting the words and ideas of others without attribution - is the act of passing off somebody else’s ideas, thoughts, pictures, theories, words, or stories as your own. If a researcher plagiarizes the work of others, they are bringing into question the integrity, ethics, and trustworthiness of the totality of his or her research..
Other Issues:Whistle blowing is one mechanism to help discover misconduct in research.What about errors and negligence?Peer review is the process in which an author (or authors) submits a written manuscript or article to a journal for publication and the journal editor distributes the article to experts working in the same, or similar, scientific discipline. The two most important ethical concepts in the peer review process are confidentiality and protection of intellectual property
Other Issues:Authorship is the process of deciding whose names belong on a research paper. In many cases, research evolves from collaboration and assistance between experts and colleagues. Some of this assistance will require acknowledgement and some will require joint authorshipData management contributes to the integrity of research and can be easily overlooked by researchers on the referencesthree issues: 1) the ethical and truthful collection of reliable data; 2) the ownership and responsibility of collected data; and, 3) retaining data and sharing access to collected data with colleagues and the public
Other Issues:R S AR W E E CH ITHH AN S J CTS UM UB ERespect for Persons – Inform Consent ed Informed consent exists to ensure that all research involving human subjects allows for voluntary participation by subjects who understand what participation entailsInformed consent means that people approachedand asked to participate in a research
Ten (10) basic ethical principles1. Research participants must voluntarily consent to researchparticipation2. Research aims should contribute to the good of society3. Research must be based on sound theory and prior animal testing4. Research must avoid unnecessary physical and mental suffering5. No research projects can go forward where serious injury and/or death are potential outcomes
Ten (10) basic ethical principles6. The degree of risk taken with research participants cannot exceedanticipated benefits of results7. Proper environment and protection for participants is necessary8. Experiments can be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons9. Human subjects must be allowed to discontinue their participation at any time10. Scientists must be prepared to terminate the experiment if there is cause to believe that continuation will be harmful or result in injury or death From Nuremberg Guidelines
Questions about authorshipand citation Who can be a co-author of a report or article? Does authorship order matter? If a published article has a mistake, which authors are responsible? Why? Is a citation required for a well-known fact, theory, or principle?
Questions about peer review What are the obligations of a reviewer of a manuscript or proposal? What information in a manuscript should be considered confidential? Why? Why are the identities of reviewers hidden? When can a professor who is asked to review a manuscript delegate the task to a graduate student?
Questions about datamanagement Who owns experimental data? How should data be collected, recorded, and protected to ensure integrity? To what extent should data be shared with other researchers? Do these answers change when the research is sponsored by an industrial firm?
TRUE or FALSE : Write letter C if thestatement is correctotherwise write letter Z1. Plagiarism is considered to be on the same level as stealing from the author that which he or she originally created2. The rules of plagiarism does not apply to graphics, and other visuals from all traditional forms of publication and include modern forms of publications as well3. Reviewers should not know the author (or authors) they are reviewing, and the author (or authors) should not be told the names of the reviewers.4. Colleagues who are part of a research group or team butdo not meet the contributions requirement may still be listed as authors5. Ethical data collection refers to collecting data in a way that does not harm or injure someone
TRUE or FALSE : Write letter C if thestatement is correct otherwise write letter Z6. Assigning and ensuring responsibility for collecting and maintaining data is not important ethical considerations when conducting a research project7. Research misconduct can be the result of criminal behavior.8. One of the requirements for informed consent is compulsory participation9. Research ethics is most developed as a concept in engineering research10. Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project
1. An act of making up data, results or experiments2. The appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit13. An act of changing or misrepresenting of data or experiments14. One mechanism to help discover misconduct in research.15. An important factor in research, and may be both a good thing and a bad thing
KEY1. C 11. 11. Fabrication2. Z3. C 12. Plagiarism4. Z 13. Falsification5. C 14. Whistle blowing6. Z 15. competition7. C8. Z9. Z10. C