COMPUTERS AS AIDS TO
MELJUN CORTESMELJUN CORTES
A computer is a system. It is a
combination of related parts
performing a unified job of receiving
inputs, processing the information and
transforming into a new kind of result.
Computers are now being used as
teaching aids to help individuals to
learn. They serve to access
information for learning, as well as to
promote the formation of new ideas.
HARDWARE : the visible, physical information
processing machines. This refers to technical
equipment, such as the computer Compact Disc
(CD) player, LCD panel, scanner, modem,
keyboard, printer, disc drive, and other physical
SOFTWARE: the programs (word processing, drawing
programs, disc, games, etc.) that run the
hardware. Software is stored in floppy disc, hard
drives, CD ROMS, videodiscs, videotape,
audiotape, and other learning resources. Software
makes the hardware function.
INTERFACE: A device that connects various hardware
to allow them to work together, such as a
computer and printer.
INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY: Technology that
enables teachers and students to interact with the
technology by stopping and starting, viewing select
pieces of video or answering questions, thus
effecting the output of the technology. For
example, when viewing an interactive video about
the Philippine Revolution, a student can view the
Battle of Tirad Pass, jump to a document written
about the battle, then view select biographies of
NON-INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY: Technology that
a person cannot actively interact with other than
viewing. For example, watching a video on the
Philippine flora and fauna.
MULTIMEDIA: The use of a variety of hardware and
software, usually including a combination of
computer data, graphic, audio and video.
HYPERMEDIA: A combination of buttons, fields and
text. The student explores a subject in any order
(linear or sequential presentation of material) and
to whatever depth desired. Hypertext/hypermedia
material provides a view of information that better
reflects the interconnectedness of knowledge for a
richer, interactive learning experience.
DISTANCE LEARNING: Broadcast information
programs that links students with teachers. It
eliminates the need for long-distance travel,
especially in rural areas where formal
education is not available.
NETWORK: A system of linking schools, areas
and people across a country or continents.
Data may be transmitted via cable, telephone
lines and modems allowing students to do
extensive research through access using
computer, libraries and other resources across
the country and world without leaving one’s
INTERNET: An international electronic network
connecting schools and universities, military,
government and commercial computer users
through thousand of computer network. The
INTERNET is the main connector of all sub-
networks. Some examples of sub-networks
include: BITNET (Because It’s Time NETwork.)
EARN (European Academic Research
Network), USENET, ARPANET, CSNET, and
ELECTRONIC MAIL (e-mail): Electronic messages
are sent as files via the telephone lines by
modem or via networks from one computer to
another, and are directed through a computer
address. Each member in the network receives
e-mail. It is faster than the post office, doesn’t
waste paper, and -messages are retrieved and
stored at the user’s convenience. Users use an
e-mail address for ex. BFRAZEE@Trinity.Educ.
VIRTUAL REALITY: A computer generated three-
dimensional, multisensory, interactive
environment through which students move by
wearing a specially wired helmet or goggles, by
gesturing with a special glove, and by moving
their eyes. It seems as though one is virtually
there and utilizes sophisticated hardware and
MODEM: The machine that enables the computer to
communicate with other computers or network
over the telephone lines.
SCANNER: this machine photocopies images and
translates them into images your computer
CD PLAYER: this machines allows the playing and
retrieving of information from CD-ROM disc.
MOUSE: An input device that interfaces with the
computer to access data by clicking a button on
the mouse to a prompt or picture on the monitor.
Other input devices include the keyboard,
keypad, light pen, joystick and monitor touch.
LASER DISCS: also known as video discs, these
softwares are capable of storing 54,000 pages of
information on a twelve-inch disc similar to a
record. Laser discs also have information,
graphics and sound that is displayed and heard
on the computer monitor. These are easily
updated and may soon replace textbooks as a
primary teaching tool.
COMPACT-DISC, READ-ONLY-MEMORY (CD-
ROM): These smaller discs incorporate hi-quality
sound, pictures and full motion video.
Encyclopedia Britanica holds and entire
encyclopedia of nine milliion words, 5000
articles, 63000 entries, 15000 photographs etc.
COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) OR
INTEGRATED LEARNING SYSTEM (ILS):
Software programs that include tests and
practice problems that are used and stored in the
ART PROCESSING: allow students to draw with a
mouse, choose from templates or color pre-
HYPERCARD: A hypercard program allows non-
programs to custom-make instructional materials
for students. Experienced students can use
hypercard to create reports or projects. It
combines buttons, fields, scripting, sound, and
Advantages of the Computer
a. It allows students to learn at their own pace by
control over the rate and sequence of learning.
b. Learning is reinforced by way of high speed
c. There is a positive affective eliminate for
learning, esp. for slow learners.
d. Color, music, and animated graphics add realism
and appeal to drill exercises, laboratory activities,
e. Progress in learning is easily monitored with the
record keeping ability of computers.
Limitations of Computers
a. Computerized instruction is relatively expensive.
b. There is some lag in the production and design
of computers for instruction.
c. Creativity may be stifled if creative or original
responses are ignored by the linear, lock-step
control learning process in the case of run-of-the-
mill computer instruction materials.
d. The “novelty effect” associated with computer-
assisted instruction may decrease as computers
are made more easily available at home and the