MELJUN CORTES Chapter11 E_Commerce

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MELJUN CORTES Chapter11 E_Commerce

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MELJUN CORTES Chapter11 E_Commerce

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Payment Systems For Electronic Commerce Electronic Commerce,MELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. ObjectivesIn this chapter, you will learn about:• The basic functions of online payment systems• The use of payment cards in electronic commerce• The history and future of electronic cashElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 2
  3. 3. Objectives (continued)• How electronic wallets work• The use of stored-value cards in electronic commerce• Internet technologies and the banking industryElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 3
  4. 4. Online Payment Basics• Cash, checks, credit cards, and debit cards account for more than 90 percent of all consumer payments in the United States• Most popular consumer electronic transfers are automated payments of – Auto loans – Insurance payments – Mortgage payments made from consumers’ checking accountsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 4
  5. 5. Payment Methods for all Types of U.S. Consumer Transactions, 2005 Projections Electronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 5
  6. 6. Online Payment Basics (continued)• Scrip – Digital cash minted by a company instead of by a government – Cannot be exchanged for cash – Like a gift certificate that is good at more than one storeElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 6
  7. 7. Payment Cards• Describe all types of plastic cards used to make purchases• Credit card – Has spending limit based on a user’s credit historyElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 7
  8. 8. Payment Cards (continued)• Debit card – Removes an amount from a cardholder’s bank account – Transfers it to the seller’s bank account• Charge card – Carries no spending limit – Amount charged is due at the end of the billing periodElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 8
  9. 9. Advantages and Disadvantages of Payment Cards• Advantage – Worldwide acceptance – Built-in security for merchants• Disadvantage – Payment card service companies charge merchants per-transaction fees and monthly processing feesElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 9
  10. 10. Payment Acceptance and Processing• Steps followed once a merchant receives a consumer’s payment card information – Merchant authenticates payment card – Merchant checks with payment card issuer • To ensure that credit or funds are available • Puts a hold on the credit line or the funds needed to cover the charge – Settlement occursElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 10
  11. 11. Open and Closed Loop System• Closed loop systems – Card issuer pays merchants that accept the card directly and does not use an intermediary• Open loop systems – Involve three or more parties – Systems using Visa or MasterCard are examplesElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 11
  12. 12. Merchant Accounts• To process payment cards for Internet transactions an online merchant must set up a merchant account• New merchant must supply – Business plan – Details about existing bank accounts – Business and personal credit historyElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 12
  13. 13. Processing Payments Online• InternetSecure – Provides secure payment card services• First Data – Provides merchant payment card processing services with the following programs • ICVERIFY, PCAuthorize, and WebAuthorize• Banks connect to an Automated Clearing House (ACH) through highly secure, private leased telephone lines Electronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 13
  14. 14. Processing a Payment Card TransactionElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 14
  15. 15. Electronic Cash• Term that describes any value storage and exchange system created by a private entity that – Does not use paper documents or coins – Can serve as a substitute for government-issued physical currency• Attractive in two arenas – Sale of goods and services of less than $10 – Sale of higher-priced goods and services to those without credit cardsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 15
  16. 16. Micropayments and Small Payments• Micropayments – Internet payments for items costing from a few cents to approximately a dollar• Small payments – Payments of less than $10Electronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 16
  17. 17. Privacy and Security of Electronic Cash• Concerns about electronic payment methods include – Privacy and security – Independence – Portability – Convenience• Advantages of electronic cash – Independent and portableElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 17
  18. 18. Holding Electronic Cash: Online and Offline Cash• Online cash storage – Trusted third party is involved in all transfers of electronic cash – Holds consumers’ cash accounts• Offline cash storage – Virtual equivalent of money kept in a wallet – No third party is involved in the transaction• Double-spending – Spending electronic cash twiceElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 18
  19. 19. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electronic Cash• Advantages of electronic cash – Transactions are more efficient – Transfer on the Internet costs less than processing credit card transactions• Disadvantages of electronic cash – Use provides no audit trail – Problem of money laundering arises – Susceptible to forgeryElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 19
  20. 20. Providing Security for Electronic Cash• Cryptographic algorithms – Keys to creating tamperproof electronic cash that can be traced back to its origins• Anonymous electronic cash – Electronic cash that cannot be traced back to the person who spent it• Creating truly anonymous electronic cash – Requires a bank to issue electronic cash with embedded serial numbersElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 20
  21. 21. Detecting Double Spending of Electronic CashElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 21
  22. 22. Electronic Cash Systems• CheckFree – Largest online bill processor in the world – Provides online payment processing services• Clickshare – An electronic cash system aimed at magazine and newspaper publishersElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 22
  23. 23. Electronic Cash Systems (continued)• PayPal – Provides payment processing services to businesses and to individuals – Peer-to-peer (P2P) payment system • Free payment clearing service for individualsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 23
  24. 24. PayPal Payment Method SearchOption on eBay Main Search PageElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 24
  25. 25. Electronic Wallets• Hold credit card numbers, electronic cash, owner identification, and contact information• Give consumers the benefit of entering their information just once• Make shopping more efficientElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 25
  26. 26. Electronic Wallets (continued)• Server-side electronic wallet – Stores a customer’s information on a remote server belonging to a particular merchant or wallet publisher• Client-side electronic wallet – Stores a consumer’s information on his or her own computerElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 26
  27. 27. Microsoft .NET Passport• An electronic wallet operated by Microsoft• Passport consists of four integrated services – Passport single sign-in service (SSI) – Passport Wallet service – Kids Passport service – Public profilesElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 27
  28. 28. Microsoft .NET Passport Home PageElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 28
  29. 29. Yahoo! Wallet• Server side electronic wallet offered by Yahoo!• Lets users store information about several major credit and charge cards• Many industry observers and privacy rights activist groups are concerned about electronic walletsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 29
  30. 30. W3C Micropayment Standards Development Activity• Common Markup for Micropayment Per-Fee- Links – Standards developed by W3C Electronic Commerce Interest Group (ECIG) – Provide extensible and interoperable way to embed micropayment information in a Web page• Extensible system – One that developers can add to (or extend) without voiding any earlier work on the systemElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 30
  31. 31. W3C Proposed Micropayment HTML TagsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 31
  32. 32. The ECML Standard• Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML) – Users can enter credit card and address information once into an ECML-capable electronic wallet – Users control access to their ECML electronic wallets Electronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 32
  33. 33. Stored-Value Cards• Can be an elaborate smart card with a microchip that records currency balance• Common stored-value cards – Prepaid phone, copy, subway, and bus cardsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 33
  34. 34. Magnetic Strip Cards• Cannot send or receive information• Cannot increment or decrement value of cash stored on the card• Processing must be done on a device into which the card is inserted• Smart card – Better suited for Internet payment transactionsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 34
  35. 35. Smart Cards• Stored-value cards• Can hold private user data, such as financial facts• Can store about 100 times more information than a magnetic strip plastic card• Safer than conventional credit cardsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 35
  36. 36. Octopus Smart Card Information on the Hong Kong Citybus SiteElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 36
  37. 37. Smart Cards (continued)• Smart Card Alliance – Promotes benefits of smart cards – Promotes widespread acceptance of multiple- application smart card technology – Members include companies in banking, financial services, computer technology, and healthcare – Promotes compatibility among smart cards, card reader devices, and applicationsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 37
  38. 38. Internet Technology and the Banking Industry• Paper checks – Used to make the largest dollar volume payments• Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (Check 21) – Permits banks to eliminate the movement of physical checks entirelyElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 38
  39. 39. Phishing Attacks• Basic structure – Attacker sends e-mail messages to a large number of recipients – Message states that an account has been compromised and the matter should be corrected – Message includes a link – User enters a login name and password, which the perpetrator captures – Once inside a victim’s account, the perpetrator can access personal informationElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 39
  40. 40. Phishing Attack Countermeasures• Most important step that companies can take today – Educate Web site users• Many companies contract consulting firms that specialize in anti-phishing work• Anti-phishing technique – Monitor online chat rooms used by criminalsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 40
  41. 41. Summary• Most popular forms of payment on the Internet – Credit card – Debit card – Charge cards (payment cards)Electronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 41
  42. 42. Summary (continued)• Electronic cash – Form of online payment – Slow to catch on in the United States – Especially useful for making micropayments – Advantages • Portable, anonymous, and usable for international transactionsElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 42
  43. 43. Summary (continued)• Electronic wallets – Provide convenience to online shoppers – Eliminate the need to reenter payment card and shipping information at a site’s electronic checkout counter• Smart cards – Intended to replace the collection of plastic cards people now carry• Phishing expeditions – Create significant threat to online financial institutions and their customersElectronic Commerce, Sixth Edition 43

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