MELJUN CORTES Overview of Software


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MELJUN CORTES Overview of Software

  1. 1. Overview of Software 1 • Computer programs: sequences of instructions for the computer • Documentation: describes program functions • Systems software: coordinates the activities of hardware and programs • Application software: helps users solve particular problems MELJUN CORTESMELJUN CORTES
  2. 2. Systems Software
  3. 3. Application Software 3 • Give users the ability to solve problems and perform specific tasks • Interact with systems software; systems software then directs the hardware to perform tasks • Proprietary software: unique program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company • Off-the-shelf software: existing software program that can be purchased • Customized package
  4. 4. Personal Application Software 4 Serves the needs of an individual user Includes personal productivity software Enables users to improve their personal effectiveness
  5. 5. Personal Application Software (continued) 5 Table 2.7: Examples of Personal Productivity Software
  6. 6. Personal Application Software (continued) 6 Table 2.7: Examples of Personal Productivity Software (continued)
  7. 7. Workgroup Application Software 7 Workgroup application software: support teamwork, whether people are in the same location or dispersed around the world Groupware: software that helps groups of people work together more efficiently and effectively
  8. 8. Enterprise Application Software 8 Software that benefits an entire organization Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software: programs that manage a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
  9. 9. Enterprise Application Software (continued) 9 Table 2.10: Examples of Enterprise Application Software
  10. 10. Information, Decision Support, and Specialized Software 10 Used in businesses of all sizes and types to increase profits or reduce costs Available in every industry Example: analysis to increase the cure rate for cancer
  11. 11. Data Management 11 Without data and the ability to process it, an organization could not successfully complete most business activities Data consists of raw facts For data to be transformed into useful information, it must first be organized in a meaningful way
  12. 12. The Hierarchy of Data 12 • Bit (a binary digit): a circuit that is either on or off • Byte: eight bits • Character: basic building block of information – Each byte represents a character – Can be an uppercase letter, lowercase letter, numeric digit, or special symbol • Field: typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activityRecord: a collection of related data fields • File: a collection of related records • Database: a collection of integrated and related files • Hierarchy of data: bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases
  13. 13. The Hierarchy of Data 13 Figure 3.1: The Hierarchy of Data
  14. 14. Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys 14 • Entity: a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintained • Attribute: characteristic of an entity • Data item: value of an attribute • Key: field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record • Primary key: field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record
  15. 15. Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys 15 Figure 3.2: Keys and Attributes
  16. 16. The Database Approach 16 • Traditional approach to database management – separate data files are created for each application • Results in data redundancy (duplication) • Data redundancy conflicts with data integrity • Database approach to database management: – pool of related data is shared by multiple applications • Significant advantages over traditional approach
  17. 17. The Database Approach to Data Management 17 Figure 3.3: The Database Approach to Data Management
  18. 18. The Database Approach Advantages 18 Table 3.1: Advantages of the Database Approach
  19. 19. The Database Approach (continued) 19 Table 3.1: Advantages of the Database Approach (continued)
  20. 20. The Database Approach Disadvantages 20 Table 3.2: Disadvantages of the Database Approach
  21. 21. Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model 21 When building a database, consider: Content: What data should be collected, at what cost? Access: What data should be provided to which users and when? Logical structure: How should data be arranged to make sense to a given user? Physical organization: Where should data be physically located?
  22. 22. Data Modeling 22 • Building a database requires two types of designs – Logical design • Abstract model of how data should be structured and arranged to meet an organization’s information needs – Data model: a diagram of data entities and their relationships – Entity-relationship (ER) diagrams: data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data – Physical design • Fine-tunes the logical database design for performance and cost considerations
  23. 23. ER diagram for a Customer Order Database 23
  24. 24. ER diagram Showing the Relationship between the Manager, Department and Project 24
  25. 25. Implementing the Relational Database Model 25 data elements are placed in two- dimensional tables (relations), which are the logical equivalent of files Each row of a table represents a data entity Columns of the table represent attributes The domain of the database model consists of all of the allowable values for data attributes i
  26. 26. The Relational Database Model 26 Figure 3.5: A Relational Database Model
  27. 27. Manipulating Databases 27 Selecting: eliminates rows according to criteria Projecting: eliminates columns in a table Joining: combines two or more tables Linking: relates or links two or more tables using common data attributes
  28. 28. Manipulating Data (continued) 28 Figure 3.7: Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry
  29. 29. Database Management Systems (DBMS) 29 • Interface between: –Database and application programs –Database and the user • Creating and implementing the right database system ensures that the database will support both business activities and goals • DBMS: a group of programs used as an interface between a database and application programs or a database and the user
  30. 30. Overview of Database Types 30 • Flat file – Simple database program whose records have no relationship to one another • Single user – Only one person can use the database at a time – Examples: Access, FileMaker, and InfoPath • Multiple user – Allows dozens or hundreds of people to access the same database system at the same time – Examples: Oracle, Sybase, and IBM
  31. 31. Distributed Databases 31 Distributed database Data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices Corporations get more flexibility in how databases are organized and used Replicated database Holds a duplicate set of frequently used data
  32. 32. Telecommunications
  33. 33. Basic Concepts of Telecommunications 33 • Telecommunications: electronic transmission of signals for communications • Computer network: communications media, devices, and software needed to connect two or more computer systems or devices • Network types: personal area network (PAN), local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN), wide area network (WAN), and international networks
  34. 34. The Internet 34 Internet: collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information Internet Protocol (IP): communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed Uniform Resource Locator (URL): an assigned address on the Internet for each computer
  35. 35. Business Networks 35 Intranet: internal corporate network built using Internet and World Wide Web standards and protocols Extranet: network based on Web technologies that links selected resources of a company’s intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners
  36. 36. Systems Development
  37. 37. An Overview of Systems Development 37 Managers and employees in all functional areas work together in a business information system Users help and often lead the way with development process Participants in systems development: Determine when a project fails Are critical to systems development success
  38. 38. Participants in Systems Development 38 • Development team consists of the following: – Project managers: coordinate system development effort – Stakeholders: directly or indirectly benefit from the project – Users: interact with the system regularly – Systems analysts: analyze and design business systems – Programmers: modify or develop programs to satisfy user requirements – Various support personnel: specialists, vendors
  39. 39. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals 39 Information systems planning: translating strategic and organizational goals into systems development initiatives Aligning organizational goals and IS goals is critical for any successful systems development effort Determining whether organizational and IS goals are aligned can be difficult
  40. 40. Information Systems Planning and Aligning Corporate and IS Goals (continued) 40 Figure 8.2: Information Systems Planning
  41. 41. Systems Development Life Cycles 41 • The systems development process is also called a systems development life cycle (SDLC) • Common SDLCs – Prototyping – Rapid application development (RAD) Systems • development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development – End-user development any systems • development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by a combination of business managers and users
  42. 42. Systems Development Activities 42 • Systems investigation: – problems and opportunities are identified and considered in light of the goals of the business • Systems analysis: – study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement • Systems design: – defines how the information system will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution • Systems implementation: – creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the systems design, assembling them, and placing the new or modified system into operation • Systems maintenance and review: – ensures that the system operates as intended and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs