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Chapter 4


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Chapter 4

  2. 2. After studying this chapter, you should be able to do the following: <ul><li>Discuss how biology and socialization contribute to the formation of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the effects of extreme social deprivation on early childhood development. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the stages of cognitive and moral development. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the views of the SELF developed by Cooley, Mead, and Freud. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand Erikson’s stage model of lifelong socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how family, schools, and peer groups contribute to PRIMARY socialization. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Becoming a Person: Biology and Culture <ul><li>Every human being is born with a set of genes, </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: inherited units of biological material . </li></ul><ul><li>The genetic make up creates inherited characteristics. However, most inherited characteristics are acted upon by the environment, both physical and social </li></ul>
  4. 4. NATURE VERSUS NURTURE <ul><li>Nature - Inherited characteristics, these can be thought of as providing tendencies and capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Nurture - Socialization experiences through social interaction of all types. Learned behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are not mutually exclusive but work in tandem to create an individual’s personality. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>DEF: The process of social interaction that teaches the child the intellectual, physical, and social skills needed to function as a member of society, including cultural knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Through socialization children both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn their culture and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire a personality </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. DEPRIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>What we consider typical human behavior does not arise automatically, it must be taught or mimicked. </li></ul><ul><li>For this behavior to develop, Human infants must: </li></ul><ul><li>Develop social attachments and learn to have meaningful interactions and affectionate bonds with others. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ATTACHMENT DISORDER <ul><li>Def: A persons inability to trust people and to form relationships with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted children and institutionalized children are groups that can be affected </li></ul><ul><li>by attachment disorder </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE CONCEPT OF SELF <ul><li>Every individual comes to possess a social identity by occupying statuses in the course of his or her socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Def: Status - is a culturally and socially defined position </li></ul><ul><li>Def: Social identity - is the total of all the statuses that define an individual. </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE CONCEPT OF SELF <ul><li>However, as statuses change a person’s social identity also changes. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the core or constant about a person’s experience that allows one to say, “I am that changing person—changing, but yet somehow the same individual?” This changing yet enduring personal identity is called the self </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE CONCEPT OF SELF <ul><li>The self develops when the individual becomes aware of his or her feelings, thoughts, and behaviors as separate and distinct from those of other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Most researcher’s point to 6 factors in the concept of self: </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE CONCEPT OF SELF <ul><li>6 FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>1. An awareness of the existence, appearance, and boundaries of one’s own body </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ability to refer to one’s own being by using language and other symbols </li></ul><ul><li>3. Knowledge of one’s personal history </li></ul><ul><li>4. Knowledge of one’s needs and skills </li></ul><ul><li>5. The ability to organize one’s knowledge and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>6. The ability to take a step back and look at oneself from others point of view. </li></ul>
  12. 12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF <ul><li>Development of the self requires both cognitive and moral development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development should result in the ability to do abstract reasoning and formal, logical thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral development should result in the taking of a shared view of right and wrong that matches that of the society </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF <ul><li>For Moral Development the point is that the individual must understand and accept the moral order so that individuals in the society know what to expect of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget suggested 4 stages of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>The development of a gender identity is also part of the self concept </li></ul>
  14. 14. THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>FOUR CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIELD </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Horton Cooley- Philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>George Herbert Mead - Philsospher </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud - Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Erikson - Psychologist </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cooley - looking-glass self <ul><li>Other people are a mirror or looking glass for us </li></ul><ul><li>We imagine how our actions appear to others. </li></ul><ul><li>We imagine how other people judge these actions. </li></ul><ul><li>We make some sort of self-judgment based on the presumed judgments of others. </li></ul>
  16. 16. MEAD vs FREUD <ul><li>The self is the sum total of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves and has 2 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>I – The part of the self that wants to have free expression and act spontaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Me – Things learned through socialization about expectations of others that controls or limits ones actions </li></ul><ul><li>The self has 3 separately functioning parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Id – Consisting of drives and instincts </li></ul><ul><li>Superego – Societies norms and moral values </li></ul><ul><li>Ego – Which mediates between the Id and Superego and also searches for acceptable outlets for the Id’s drives to be expressed </li></ul>
  17. 17. MEAD’S 3 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The first or preparatory stage is characterized by the child’s imitating the behavior of others, which prepares the child for learning social-role expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second or play stage , the child has acquired language and begins not only to imitate behavior, but also to formulate role expectations: playing house, cops and robbers, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>In the third or game stage , the child learns that there are rules that specify the proper and correct relationship among the players. </li></ul>
  18. 18. MEAD <ul><li>Significant others </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to those individuals who are most important in our development, such as parents, friends, and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized others </li></ul><ul><li>The viewpoints, attitudes, and expectations of society as a whole, or of a community of people whom we are aware of and who are important to us. </li></ul>
  19. 19. FREUD <ul><li>The drives and instincts of the ID are inherited, and for the most part remain unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>The SUPEREGO is society’s norms and values as learned primarily from parents </li></ul><ul><li>The individual is constantly in conflict with themselves. Additionally, the individual and society are enemies. The EGO tries to mediate and resolve these tensions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. ERICKSON <ul><li>8 Stages of Human Development, each of which include a “crisis” which the Individual must resolve </li></ul><ul><li>TABLE 4-1 Page 85 </li></ul>
  21. 21. EARLY SOCIALIZATION IN AMERICAN SOCIETY <ul><li>FAMILY/DAY CARE ( AGE 0-5 )- Values, norms and ideas presented at this stage are accepted uncritically by the child </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY/SCHOOL ( AGE 5-17 )- The teachings at school try to socialize children in selected skills and knowledge. These can conflict with values from family. </li></ul><ul><li>PEER GROUPS ( AGE 12 on ) Peer attitudes can supplant family and school attitudes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. EARLY SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>MEDIA – All types can influence individual attitudes and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>PEERS – individuals who are your social equal and influence you </li></ul>
  23. 23. PRIMARY SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Primary socialization is normally complete by the time a person reaches adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>DEF: The individual has mastered the basic information and skills required of members of a society. </li></ul>
  24. 24. PRIMARY SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>During this Stage a person has: </li></ul><ul><li>Learned a language and can think logically to some degree </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted the basic norms and values of the culture </li></ul><ul><li>Developed the ability to pattern behavior in terms of these norms and values </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed a culturally appropriate social identity . </li></ul>
  25. 25. ADULT SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>DEF: The process by which adults learn new statuses and roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-socialization is one type of adult socialization. It involves exposure to ideas or values that conflict with what was learned in childhood. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Going to college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religious changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. TOTAL INSTITUTIONS <ul><li>Erving Goffman’s book Asylums </li></ul><ul><li>Environments such as mental hospitals in which the participants are physically and socially isolated from the outside world . </li></ul><ul><li>This environment is more conducive to re-socialization. </li></ul>
  27. 27. GOFFMAN – Total Institutions <ul><li>Features of total institutions that help produce more effective re-socialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation from the outside world </li></ul><ul><li>Spending all of one’s time in the same place with the same people </li></ul><ul><li>Shedding individual identity by giving up old clothes and possessions for standard uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>A clean break with the past </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of freedom of action. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Total Institutions <ul><li>Other institutions that exhibit these features: </li></ul><ul><li>Prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Military Boot Camps </li></ul><ul><li>Religious retreats </li></ul><ul><li>Cults </li></ul>
  29. 29. ADULT SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>As adults are introduced to, or take on, other roles and social interactions, their beliefs about some norms and values may change. </li></ul><ul><li>This then can lead to changes in their behavior and their total social identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Many view this process as a life long endeavor. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ADULT SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>FOUR MAJOR EVENTS: Changes in roles or status that can affect the individuals social identity: </li></ul><ul><li>1. CAREER </li></ul><ul><li>2. MARRIAGE </li></ul><ul><li>3. PARENTHOOD </li></ul><ul><li>4. AGING </li></ul>
  31. 31. Career Development and Identity <ul><li>Entering a career or starting a new job entails stepping into a new social context with its own statuses and roles </li></ul><ul><li>To successfully enter the career requires that a person be socialized to meet the needs of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some job related expectations? </li></ul>
  32. 32. MARRIAGE <ul><li>Marriage can create a new set of expectations and a changed relationship with ones spouse. </li></ul><ul><li>While many young adults do not accept many of the traditional role expectations of marriage, it still will effect their social roles </li></ul><ul><li>What are some expectations of spouses? </li></ul>
  33. 33. PARENTHOOD <ul><li>Can cause a reexamination of the role expectations each partner has of the other, both as a parent and as a spouse. </li></ul><ul><li>Can we name one of each? </li></ul><ul><li>There are societal expectations of parental behavior that differs from non parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Name two social expectations. </li></ul>
  34. 34. AGING <ul><li>When a large part of a person’s social identity revolves around work and family, then retirement and children leaving can create a loss of identity. </li></ul><ul><li>L ate in life many people are forced to acquire a new social identity. This can involve a state of dependency which is damaging to social identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and maintaining a meaningful and positive identity into old age is important. </li></ul>
  35. 35. INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Cooley and Mead saw the individual and society as partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Believe that the individual develops a self only through social relationships, interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>No role for genetic factors </li></ul><ul><li>All ideas and behaviors come from interaction with others in our group </li></ul>
  36. 36. CONFLICT THEORY VIEW OF SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Conflict theorists can view socialization, especially schooling and other social institutions (police, social services) as an attempt by the culture to indoctrinate the individual and attempt to get them to accept the status quo. </li></ul>
  37. 37. STRUCTURAL/FUNCTIONALIST VIEW OF SOCIALIZATION <ul><li>Functionalists would view socialization mostly as it was presented here. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the passing on of needed information to new members to allow the society to function normally and harmoniously. </li></ul>