The secret of instructional design also implies an order for creating a lesson: Ensure that the performance learned will fulfill a real need.Specify the real-world performance goal.Create the test and describe it in the form of an instructional objective.Produce the essential content.Create the lesson plan, i.e., the method to help students learn.Check to see if all elements are purposefully integrated.Test the lesson to see if it produces learning, transfers to real world performance, and solves the problem.
MEAS Course on E-Learning: 2 Designing online instruction based on student needs
Designing InstructionBased on Student Needs Karen Vignare Michigan State University
Objectives• Understand the purpose of Instructional Design• Recognize different design processes• Apply Instructional Design to your Learners• Use technology or templates to help with Instructional Design
Instructional Design• Instructional design is defined as the systematic process of trying to make instruction more effective, efficient and appealing• Any instructor can practice it but there are experts and it is a growing field of employment• It requires focusing more on the learner’s needs to determine how to effectively instruct
Modified Needs Analysis The Secret of Instructional Design is …(Adapted from Powerful Principles of Instructions, … Consistency among all parts of the instruction. Yelon, Stephen S. Longman Publishers, 1996.)
Modified Needs Analysis• Identify problem • What do we know about the community • Where are the gaps• Discussion of content • SMEs • Feedback from targeted audience • What content currently exists• Peer review/beta testing • Technical feedback • Subject area feedback • Standards checklist
Instructional Design and Learning Theories• Learning theories study how people learn • Behaviorism—structured behavior resembles linear learning • Constructivism –learning is created from previous knowledge and new instructional processes • Cognitive Science provides more information about appropriate scaffolding for learners • Social Learning (Constructivism)—Learning is social activity and team based approaches are best
Tying Learning and Design Together• Most instructional design is based on a learning theory• Online design is often driven by technology but often by pedagogy• Recognizing the learning environment is complex and interrelated is often difficult• Theories like Community of Inquiry try to pull these elements together
Client Designs • FCIB International Credit & Risk Management • Instructor-led online courses • Peer-to-peer interaction • Cohort based
MHU IntroductionClient Designs• My Horse University • Self-paced courses • DVDs • Webcasts • Monthly newsletter • Sponsorships/ Partnerships
Customizations• The RIGHT Experience • Technology • Interactivity • Learning strategy/process/consistency • Organizing around a need • Making content reusable
Technology and Templates• http://wikieducator.org/Main_Page
YOUR Turn• Design a lesson/module/week of instruction• Define your students—examples, include full-time, live on or near campus, have no previous knowledge• What are the objectives of the instruction?• What resources will you have?• What will you need to assess?• What should students be able to do as a result of the instruction
Discussion• How is using instructional design different than normal preparation for courses?
Summary• Introduced Instructional Design• Shared several types of Design methods• Applied instructional design to a course• Used technology or templates to help with Instructional Design
References• Bransford, John. How People Learn: Bridging Research and Practice• Gagné, Robert, Nine Events of Instruction• Vygotsky, Lev, Social constructivism• http://www.instructionaldesign.org/
DisclaimerThis presentation was made possible by thegenerous support of the American peoplethrough the United States Agency forInternational Development, USAID. Thecontents are the responsibility of theauthor(s) and do not necessarily reflect theviews of USAID or the United StatesGovernment.