Unloading rolls of paper from a horse drawn cart for the Chicago Daily News press. Chicago Daily News negatives collection...
Project Background					<br />Project:	Digitize 55,000 glass negatives from 1902-		1933 out of the 88,000 negative collecti...
What the collection contains (at a glimpse)<br /><ul><li>Street scenes
Buildings under construction
New bridges
Labor strikes
Political conventions
Children and social welfare workers
Working men and women
Prominent politicians
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Glass Plate Negative Preservation


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Class presentation for LIS 2674 - Digital Preservation. Documents the digital preservation of the Chicago Daily New's plate glass negative collection by the Chicago History Society and Library of Congress for the LOC's American Memory collection.

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Glass Plate Negative Preservation

  1. 1. Unloading rolls of paper from a horse drawn cart for the Chicago Daily News press. Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0001448. Courtesy of Chicago History Museum.<br />The preservation and digitization of the Chicago Daily News glass negative collection.<br />http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/cdnhome.html<br />Michael DziabiakLIS 2674March 31, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Project Background <br />Project: Digitize 55,000 glass negatives from 1902- 1933 out of the 88,000 negative collection<br />Partners: Chicago Historical Society (CHS), New-York Historical Society, and the Library of Congress<br />Funding: The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation<br />Amount: $520,000 (approx. $400,000 to the CHS)<br />Duration: 3 years, starting in August 1998<br />Goals: Access and Preservation<br />
  3. 3. What the collection contains (at a glimpse)<br /><ul><li>Street scenes
  4. 4. Buildings under construction
  5. 5. New bridges
  6. 6. Statues
  7. 7. Labor strikes
  8. 8. Political conventions
  9. 9. Children and social welfare workers
  10. 10. Working men and women
  11. 11. Prominent politicians
  12. 12. Socialites
  13. 13. Actors
  14. 14. Athletes
  15. 15. Criminals
  16. 16. Police officers
  17. 17. Firefighters
  18. 18. Judges , lawyers, and defendants
  19. 19. Parades
  20. 20. Victory celebrations
  21. 21. Railroad trains
  22. 22. Steetcars
  23. 23. Horse-drawn wagons
  24. 24. Automobiles
  25. 25. Chicago parks and beaches
  26. 26. Sporting events</li></li></ul><li>Condition of negatives prior to digitization<br />Heavy silver mirroring: oxidation of silver particles causing a bluish sheen<br />Negatives stuck together<br />Broken and cracked glass<br />Chicago Daily News worker Bill Stoneman. Chicago Daily News negatives<br />collection, DN-0083000. Courtesy of Chicago History Museum. <br />
  27. 27. Pre-digitization planning <br />Consulted current standards and scanning methodologies<br />Meet a majority of users’ needs<br />All negatives to be scanned<br />One time scan for each negative<br />Able to retire the original glass negative to temperature controlled storage<br />Men sitting around a table covered with papers in a room, planning the Chicago <br />Daily News Mardi Gras. Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0080281.<br />Courtesy of Chicago History Museum. <br />
  28. 28. Digitization process <br />One master surrogate: TIFF, 8 bits-per-pixel, 600 dpi<br />7 Mb file for 4 x 6 inch negatives<br />12 Mb file for 5 x 7 inch negatives<br />No enhancements made to the master copy. Only minor adjustments to the histogram<br /><ul><li>Two derivatives for Web access</li></ul>JPEG file with 640 pixels on the long edge for 5 x 7 negatives; 500 pixels for 4 x 6 negatives<br />GIF file with 150 pixels on the long edge<br />Contrast adjustments and sharpening enhancements<br /><ul><li>Master and derivative files stored on network and archival CD-ROMS both on and off-site</li></li></ul><li>Digitization outcome <br />Nearly all 55,000 negatives scanned within one year<br />One full-time and three part-time staff averaged 4,000 scan a month<br />Average cost: $2.11 per glass plate<br />29% equipment cost<br />71% staff salaries<br />Cook County Coroner's jury who were investigating the St. Valentine's Day Massacre.<br />Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0087710. Courtesy of Chicago History Museum. <br />
  29. 29. Cataloging the collection <br />Image files received the same identification number as the original glass negatives assigned by the Chicago Daily News staff<br />Detailed research required for most negatives<br />Creation of a full MARC record<br />Library of Congress currently hosting the MARC records and JPEG and GIF files online in the American Memory historical collection<br />Ice covered Eureka building after fire, West Madison Street near Union Street,<br />Near West Side community. Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-007163.<br />Courtesy of Chicago History Museum.<br />
  30. 30. Example record <br />
  31. 31. Benefits of digitization <br />Nearly 80% of never before published images are now available to the general public and research community<br />Cropped and other previous modified images that were published are now available in their entirety<br />Continual contribution of detail and history to the subjects contained in each image added to the records<br /> Assessment and conservation of original glass negatives<br />
  32. 32. Reflection <br />“The Internet creates the potential to add value to primary sources materials by gathering and linking the knowledge of many people with those sources. Online presentation can also increase the research potential of historical image collections simply by bringing together pieces of historical evidence that have long been separated.”<br />-Barbara Orbach Natanson, “Worth a Billion Words? Library of Congress Pictures Online,” 2007<br />Chicago skyline, dark exposure. Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0079326.<br />Courtesy of Chicago History Museum.<br />
  33. 33. Questions <br />What, if any, potential downfalls do you see or foresee in a digitization project such as this? And why?<br /><ul><li>Any questions on the information covered in the presentation?</li></ul>Alderman John E. Scully wrestling with a bear at the Madison Street Carnival with men and boys<br />standing and watching nearby. Chicago Daily News negatives collection, DN-0001220. Courtesy of <br />Chicago History Museum. <br />
  34. 34. References <br />Cook, Matthew. 2000. Economies of scale: digitizing the Chicago Daily News. RLG DigiNews 4, no. 1 (February 15), http://www.worldcat.org/arcviewer/1/OCC/2007/08/08/0000070519/viewer/file199.html#feature2 (accessed March 15, 2010).<br />Jacob, Mark, and Richard Cahan. 2007. Chicago under glass: Early photographs from the Chicago Daily News. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.<br />Library of Congress American Memory. Photographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/cdnhome.html (assessed March 15, 2010).<br />Library of Congress American Memory. Photographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933: About the collection. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/about.html (accessed March 15, 2010).<br />
  35. 35. References cont’d <br />Library of Congress American Memory. Photographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933: Building the digital collection. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/ichihtml/build.html (accessed March 15, 2010).<br />Natanson, Barbara Orbach. 2007. Worth a billon words? Library of Congress pictures online. Journal of American History 94, no. 1: 99-111.<br />Valverde, María Fernanda. 2005. Photographic Negatives: Nature and Evolution of Processes. Rochester: Mellon Advanced Residency Program in Photographic Conservation (George Eastman House/Image Permanence Institute). http://imagepermanenceinstitute.org/shtml_sub/negatives_booklet_web.pdf (access March 15, 2010).<br />