Indian Art Before 1200

5,627 views

Published on

Chapter 6

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Indian Art Before 1200

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Paths to Enlightenment: The Art of South and Southeast Asia before 1200 Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e
  2. 2. South and Southeast Asia
  3. 3. Goals <ul><li>Understand the late Neolithic origins of Indian and Southeast Asian art and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the indigenous beliefs and the beginnings of Buddhism and Hinduism influenced the art and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify hallmarks of architecture from Hindu and Buddhist monuments. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the varying appearances of the human figure in art. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify hallmarks of temple and monastic architecture in Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the role of the monarchs in Southeast Asia in the middle ages. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 6.1 India and Pakistan <ul><li>Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the artistic influences of the Gandhara and Mathura regions of the Kushan dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the Buddhist and Hindu imagery and temples of the Gupta dynasty and afterwards in India. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Indus Valley <ul><li>Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 6-1 Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE.
  7. 7. Figure 6-2 Robed male figure, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite, 6 7/8” high. National Museum of Pakistan, Karachi.
  8. 8. Figure 6-3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, from Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600–1900 BCE. Steatite coated with alkali and baked, approx. 1 3/8” X 1 3/8”. National Museum, New Delhi.
  9. 9. Art and Architecture in the Early Dynasties <ul><li>Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the construction and purpose of the Buddhist Stupa. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 6-4 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, ca. 250 BCE. Polished sandstone, approx. 7’ high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath.
  11. 11. Figure 6-5 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE (View from the east).
  12. 12. The Early Art of Buddhism <ul><li>Understand how the early art of Buddhism relates to pre-Hindu ideas and imagery. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why abstract imagery – the wheel, the bohdi tree -- is also used in early Buddhism. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 6-7 Yakshi, detail of eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, mid first century BCE to early first century CE.
  14. 14. Figure 6-8 Interior (left), section (top right), and plan (bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE.
  15. 15. Gandhara and Mathura <ul><li>Examine the design traditions and influences in the Buddhist art from Gandhara. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand why the Buddhist art from Mathura presents a different tradition. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 6-9 Meditating Buddha, from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Gray schist, 3’ 7 1/2” high. Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh.
  17. 17. Figure 6-10 The life and death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, second century CE. Schist, 2’ 2 3/8” X 9’ 6 1/8”. Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
  18. 18. Figure 6-11 Buddha seated on lion throne, from Mathura, India, second century CE. Red sandstone, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Archaeological Museum, Muttra.
  19. 19. Figure 6-12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, from Sarnath, India, second half of fifth century. Tan sandstone, 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Sarnath.
  20. 20. Figure 6-14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century.
  21. 21. Figure 6-15 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early fifth century. Relief approx 22’ X 13’; Vishnu 12’ 8” high.
  22. 22. Art of the Guptas <ul><li>Examine the Buddhist and Hindu imagery of the painted caves of Ajanta. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore ideas of Buddhist and Hindu coexistence in Shiva and Vishnu imagery. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 6-16 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, late sixth century.
  24. 24. Figure 6-17 Shiva as Mahadeva, Cave 1, Elephanta, India, ca. 550–575. Basalt, Shiva 17’ 10” high.
  25. 25. Figure 6-18 Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century.
  26. 26. Figure 6-19 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta, detail of facade of the Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century.
  27. 27. Figure 6-20 Rock-cut temples, Mamallapuram, India, second half of seventh century. From left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, and Draupadi rathas.
  28. 28. Figure 6-21 Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010
  29. 29. Figure 6-22 Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000. (View looking northwest and plan).
  30. 30. Figure 6-23 Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000.
  31. 31. Figure 6-24 Shiva as Nataraja, bronze in the Naltunai Ishvaram Temple, Punjai, India, ca. 1000.
  32. 32. The Belief Systems <ul><li>Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The Vedas: great religious knowledge written in Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>The Upanishads: samsara, karma, moksha (nirvana) </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism: an outgrowth of indigenous beliefs coupled with the Vedas and the Upanishads, codified between 8-500 bce. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism: a reaction to indigenous beliefs begun with the preaching of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha after 500 bce. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 6.2 Southeast Asia <ul><li>Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Art of Southeast Asia <ul><li>Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 6-25 Death of the Buddha (Parinirvana), Gal Vihara, near Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, eleventh to twelfth century. Granulite, Buddha approx. 46’ long.
  36. 36. Figure 6-26 Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca. 800.
  37. 37. The Human Image in Southeast Asia <ul><li>Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Figure 6-27 Harihara, from Prasat Andet, Cambodia, early seventh century. Stone, 6’ 3” high. National Museum, Phnom Penh.
  39. 39. The Khmer Kingship <ul><li>Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 6-29 Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, first half of twelfth century.
  41. 41. Figure 6-31 Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia, ca. 1200.
  42. 42. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What ideologies in Buddhism and Hinduism determined the appearance of figures in art and architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the Buddha’s appearance change in different places and time periods? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that the Gandharan style is the result of Alexander the Great and the Greeks contact with India? Explain why or why not (or to what extent). </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of the Stupa and how is it similar or different from other large scale architecture we have examined? </li></ul>

×