Ch. 34

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Ch. 34

  1. 1. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e Chapter 34 From the Modern to the Post-Modern and Beyond: Art of the Later 20th Century 1
  2. 2. Map of the World in 1945 2
  3. 3. Map of the World in 2000 3
  4. 4. Goals• Understand the shift of the Western art center and the growing interests in multiculturalism in art.• Understand the theories of Modernist formalism and their rejection in Postmodernism.• Recognize the various Modernist and Postmodernist styles, artists, and representative works of art.• Recognize the development of Modernist and Postmodernist styles in architecture.• Understand the cultural and self-criticism inherent in Postmodern art and architecture. 4
  5. 5. 34.1 World War II and Its Aftermath• Understand the shift of the Western art center from Paris to New York as a result of world events during the after World War II.• Recognize the interest in multiculturalism and the acceptance of art forms beyond the Western canon.• Examine the theories of Modernist formalism, post- modernism, and abstract expressionism. 5
  6. 6. 34.2 Post-War Expressionism• Examine the issues, themes, and forms of Post-War Expressionist art. 6
  7. 7. Figure 34-1 FRANCIS BACON, Painting, 1946. Oil andpastel on linen, 6’ 5 7/8‖ x 4’ 4‖. Museum of ModernArt, New York (purchase). 7
  8. 8. Figure 34-2 JEAN DUBUFFET, Vie Inquiète (Uneasy Life), 1953. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3‖ x 6’ 4‖. Tate Gallery,London. 8
  9. 9. Figure 34-3 ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, Man Pointing, 1947.Bronze no. 5 of 6, 5’ 10‖ x 3’ 1’ 5 5/8‖. Nathan Emory CoffinCollection of the Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines. (Purchasedwith funds from the Coffin Fine Arts Trust.) 9
  10. 10. 34.3 Modernist Formalism• Understand the origins of modernist formalism and its theoretical basis.• Recognize the formal elements of the art styles known as Abstract Expressionism, Post-Painterly Abstractionism, and Minimalism.• Identify individual artists and representative works of art. 10
  11. 11. Abstract Expressionism• Understand Abstract Expressionism as the first major art style to be developed in the United States.• Examine the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction. 11
  12. 12. Figure 34-4 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Oil, enamel, and aluminum paint oncanvas, 7’ 3‖ x 9’ 10‖. National Gallery of Art, Washington (Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund). 12
  13. 13. Figure 34-5 Photo of Jackson Pollock painting. 13
  14. 14. Figure 34-6 WILLEM DE KOONING,Woman I, 1950–1952. Oil on canvas, 6’ 37/8‖ x 4’ 10‖. Museum of Modern Art, NewYork (purchase). 14
  15. 15. Chromatic Abstract Expressionist• Examine the formal elements and quieter aesthetics of chromatic abstraction in contrast to the gestural. 15
  16. 16. Figure 34-7 BARNETT NEWMAN, Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1950–1951. Oil on canvas, 7’ 11 3/8‖ x 17’ 9 1/4‖. Museumof Modern Art, New York (gift of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heller). 16
  17. 17. Figure 34-8 MARKROTHKO, No. 14, 1961 Oilon canvas, 9’ 6‖ x 8’ 9‖. SanFrancisco Museum of ModernArt, Helen Crocker RussellFund Purchase. 17
  18. 18. Figure 34-9 David Smith, Cubi XIX,1964. Stainless steel. 18
  19. 19. Post-Painterly Abstraction• Examine the formal elements of the style described by Clement Greenberg as the cool and rational Post-Painterly Abstraction. 19
  20. 20. Figure 34-10 ELLSWORTH KELLY, Red Blue Green, 1963. Oil on canvas, 6’ 11 5/8‖ x 11’ 3 7/8‖. Collection Museumof Contemporary Art, San Diego (gift of Dr. and Mrs. Jack M. Farris). 20
  21. 21. Figure 34-11 FRANK STELLA, Nunca Pasa Nada, 1964. Metallic powder in polymer emulsion on canvas, 9’ 2‖ x 18’ 41/2‖. Collection of Lannan Foundation. 21
  22. 22. Figure 34-12 HELEN FRANKENTHALER, Bay Side, 1967. Acrylic on canvas, 6’ 2‖ x 6’ 9‖. Private Collection, NewYork. 22
  23. 23. Figure 34-13 MORRIS LOUIS, Saraband, 1959. Acrylic resin on canvas, 8’ 5 1/8‖ x 12’ 5‖. Solomon R. GuggenheimMuseum, New York. 23
  24. 24. Minimalist Abstraction• Examine the formal elements of Minimalism, a predominantly sculptural movement and its emphasis on objecthood. 24
  25. 25. Figure 34-14 TONY SMITH, Die, 1962. Steel, 6’ x 6’ x 6’. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Jane Smith inhonor of Agnes Gund). 25
  26. 26. Figure 34-15 DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Brass and colored fluorescentplexiglass on steel brackets, ten units, 6 1/8‖ x 2’ x 2’ 3‖ each, with 60 intervals.Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington (gift ofJoseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972). Art copyright © Donald Judd Estate/Licensed by VAGA,New York, NY. 26
  27. 27. Figure 34-16 MAYA YING LIN, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C., 1981–1983. Black granite, each wing246’ long. 27
  28. 28. 34.4 Alternatives to Modernist Formalism • Examine the expressive qualities of directions in sculptural forms outside of Minimalism. • Examine the development of Performance Art and Happenings, combining two- and three-dimensional art forms along with other arts. • Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object. 28
  29. 29. Expressive Sculpture• Understand the ideas, feelings, and forms of sculpture in contrast to the Minimalist forms. 29
  30. 30. Figure 34-17 LOUISE NEVELSON, Tropical Garden II, 1957–1959. Wood painted black, 5’ 11 1/2‖ x 10’ 11 3/4‖ x 1’.Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 30
  31. 31. Figure 34-18 LOUISE BOURGEOIS, Cumul I, 1969. Marble, 1’ 10 3/8‖ x 4’ 2‖ x 4’. Musée National d’Art Moderne,Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Copyright © Louise Bourgeois/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 31
  32. 32. Figure 34-19 EVA HESSE, Hang-Up,1965–1966. Acrylic on cloth over wood andsteel, 6’ x 7’ x 6’ 6‖. Art Institute of Chicago,Chicago (gift of Arthur Keating and Mr. andMrs. Edward Morris by exchange). 32
  33. 33. Figure 34-20 GEORGE BRECHT, Event Scores. 33
  34. 34. Performance Art and Happenings• Examine the innovative forms of Performance Art and Happenings which combined two- and three-dimensional art along with other arts. 34
  35. 35. Figure 34-21 KAZUO SHIRAGA, Making a Work with His Own Body, 1955. Mud. 35
  36. 36. Figure 34-22 CAROLEE SCHNEEMAN, Meat Joy,1964. Photograph of performance at Judson Church,New York. 36
  37. 37. Figure 34-23 JOSEPH BEUYS, How to Explain Pictures to aDead Hare, 1965. Photograph of Performance art. SchmelaGallery, Düsseldorf. 37
  38. 38. Figure 34-24 JEAN TINGUELY, Homage toNew York, 1960, just prior to its self-destruction inthe garden of the Museum of Modern Art, NewYork. 38
  39. 39. Conceptual Art• Examine the development of Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object and the idea itself as a work of art. 39
  40. 40. Figure 34-25 JOSEPH KOSUTH, One and Three Chairs, 1965. Wooden folding chair, photographic copy of a chair, andphotographic enlargement of a dictionary definition of a chair; chair, 2’ 8 3/8‖ x 1’ 2 7/8‖ x 1’ 8 7/8‖; photo panel, 3’ x 2’1/8‖; text panel, 2’ 2’ 1/8‖. Museum of Modern Art, New York (Larry Aldrich Foundation Fund). 40
  41. 41. Figure 34-26 BRUCENAUMAN, The True ArtistHelps the World by RevealingMystic Truths (Window or WallSign), 1967. Neon with glasstubing suspension frame, 4’ 11‖ x4’ 7‖ x 2‖. Private collection. 41
  42. 42. 34.5 Art for the Public• Understand the growing interest in the communicative power of art in reaction to art that had alienated the public.• Understand Pop Art’s interest in traditional artistic devices and consumerism.• Examine Superrealism and its fidelity to optical fact.• Understand the development of site specific art forms known as Environmental Art or earth works. 42
  43. 43. Pop Art• Understand the popular trends of traditional artistic devices and consumerism in Pop Art. 43
  44. 44. Figure 34-27 RICHARDHAMILTON, Just What Is ItThat Makes Today’s HomesSo Different, So Appealing?,1956. Collage, 10 1/4‖ x 93/4‖. Kunsthalle Tübingen,Tübingen, Germany. 44
  45. 45. Figure 34-28 JASPER JOHNS, Flag, 1954–1955, dated on reverse 1954. Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted onplywood, 3’ 6 1/4‖ x 5’ 5/8‖. Museum of Modern Art, New York (gift of Philip Johnson in honor of Alfred H. Barr, Jr.).Copyright © Jasper Johns/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. 45
  46. 46. Figure 34-29 ROBERTRAUSCHENBERG, Canyon, 1959. Oil,pencil, paper, fabric, metal, cardboardbox, printed paper, printedreproductions, photograph, wood, painttube, and mirror on canvas, with oil onbald eagle, string, and pillow, 6’ 9 3/4‖ x5’ 10‖ x 2’. Sonnabend Collection.Copyright © Untitled Press,Inc./Licensed by VAGA, New York. 46
  47. 47. Figure 34-30 ROYLICHTENSTEIN,Hopeless, 1963. Oil oncanvas, 3’ 8‖ x 3’ 8‖.Kunstmuseum, Basel(permanent loan fromthe Ludwig FoundationCollection). 47
  48. 48. Figure 34-31 ANDY WARHOL, Green Coca-ColaBottles, 1962. Oil on canvas, 6’ 10 1/2‖ x 4’ 9‖.Collection of Whitney Museum of American Art, NewYork (purchase, with funds from the Friends of theWhitney Museum of American Art). 48
  49. 49. Figure 34-32 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Oil, acrylic, and silk-screen enamel on canvas. Tate Gallery,London. 49
  50. 50. Figure 34-33 CLAES OLDENBURG, photo of one-person show at the Green Gallery, New York, 1962. 50
  51. 51. Superrealism• Examine Superrealism, its fidelity to optical fact and attention to minute detail and commonplace objects. 51
  52. 52. Figure 34-34 AUDREY FLACK, Marilyn, 1977. Oil over acrylic on canvas, 8’ x 8’. Collection of the University of ArizonaMuseum, Tucson (museum purchase with funds provided by the Edward J. Gallagher, Jr. Memorial Fund). 52
  53. 53. Figure 34-35 CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait, 1967–1968. Acrylic on canvas, 8’ 11‖ x6’ 11‖ x 2‖. Collection Walker Art Center,Minneapolis (Art Center Acquisition Fund,1969). 53
  54. 54. Figure 34-36 DUANEHANSON, SupermarketShopper, 1970. Polyesterresin and fiberglasspolychromed in oil, withclothing, steel cart, andgroceries, life-size.Nachfolgeinstitut, NeueGalerie, SammlungLudwig, Aachen. 54
  55. 55. Site Specific Art• Understand the development of Environmental and Site Specific Art as an outgrowth of ecological and environmental concerns. 55
  56. 56. Figure 34-37 ROBERT SMITHSON, Spiral Jetty, 1970. Black rock, salt crystals, earth, red water (algae) at Great SaltLake, Utah. 1,500’ x 15’ x 3 1/2’. Estate of Robert Smithson; courtesy James Cohan Gallery, New York; collection of DIACenter for the Arts, New York. 56
  57. 57. Figure 34-39 RICHARD SERRA, Tilted Arc, 1981.Cor-Ten steel, 12’ x 120’ x 2 1/2‖. Installed FederalPlaza, New York City by the General ServicesAdministration, Washington D.C. Removed by the U.S.Government 1989. 57
  58. 58. 34.6 New Models for Architecture• Examine the organic and fluid forms developed as new models for modernist architecture.• Recognize the distinctions between the works of Modernist and Postmodern architects. 58
  59. 59. Figure 34-40 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (exterior view from the northwest), NewYork, 1943–1959 (photo 1962). 59
  60. 60. Figure 34-41 FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT, Interior ofthe Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York,1943–1959. 60
  61. 61. Figure 34-42 LE CORBUSIER, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950–1955. 61
  62. 62. Figure 34-43 LE CORBUSIER, Interior of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France, 1950–1955. 62
  63. 63. Figure 34-44 JOERN UTZON, Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia, 1959–1972. Reinforced concrete; height ofhighest shell, 200’. 63
  64. 64. Figure 34-45 EERO SAARINEN, Trans World Airlines terminal, Kennedy Airport, New York, 1956–1962. 64
  65. 65. Figure 34-46 LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE andPHILIP JOHNSON, Seagram Building, New York, 1956–1958. 65
  66. 66. Figure 34-47 SKIDMORE, OWINGS AND MERRILL, Sears Tower, Chicago, 1974. 66
  67. 67. Figure 34-48 CHARLES MOORE, Piazzad’Italia, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1976–1980. 67
  68. 68. Figure 34-49 PHILIP JOHNSON and JOHNBURGEE with Simmons Architects, associatedarchitects, a model of the AT&T Building, New York,1978–1984. 68
  69. 69. Postmodern Architecture• Examine the elements and issues of Postmodern architecture in its use of classical and colonial forms as well as later deconstructivist forms. 69
  70. 70. Figure 34-50 MICHAEL GRAVES, The Portland Building, Portland, Oregon, 1980. 70
  71. 71. Figure 34-51 ROBERT VENTURI, JOHN RAUCH and DENISE SCOTT BROWN, house in Delaware (west elevation),1978–1983. 71
  72. 72. Figure 34-52 RICHARD ROGERS and RENZO PIANO, Georges Pompidou National Center of Art and Culture (the―Beaubourg‖), Paris, 1977. 72
  73. 73. Figure 34-53 GÜNTER BEHNISCH, Hysolar Institute Building, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1987. 73
  74. 74. Figure 34-54 FRANK GEHRY, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain, 1997. 74
  75. 75. 34.7 Postmodernism in Painting, Sculpture, and New Media • Understand the inclusion of traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness in Postmodern art. • Examine Neo-expressionist interest in intense emotions and in the physicality of paint and media combinations. • Understand the contemporary political content of feminist and cultural heritage art. • Examine the use of new video and digital technologies available in the making of art. • Understand cultural criticism as inherent to Postmodernism. 75
  76. 76. Postmodern Painting and Other Media• Understand the traditional elements, historical references, and artistic self-consciousness.• Examine Neo-expressionist intense emotions and the physicality of media combinations. 76
  77. 77. Figure 34-55 JULIAN SCHNABEL, The Walk Home, 1984–1985. Oil, plates, copper, bronze, fiberglass, and bondo onwood, 9’ 3‖ x 19’ 4‖. Broad Art Foundation and the Pace Gallery, New York. 77
  78. 78. Figure 34-56 SUSAN ROTHENBERG, Tattoo, 1979. Acrylic, flashe on canvas, 5’ 7‖ x 8’ 7 1/8‖ x 1 1/4‖. CollectionWalker Art Center, Minneapolis (purchased with the aid of funds from Mr. and Mrs. Edmond R. Ruben, Mr. and Mrs. JuliusE. Davis, the Art Center Acquisition Fund and the National Endowment for the Arts, 1979). 78
  79. 79. Figure 34-57 ANSELM KIEFER, Nigredo, 1984. Oil paint on photosensitized fabric, acrylic emulsion, straw, shellac,relief paint on paper pulled from painted wood, 11’ x 18’. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia (gift of Friends of thePhiladelphia Museum of Art). 79
  80. 80. Figure 34-58 CHRIS OFILI, The Holy VirginMary, 1996. Paper collage, oil paint, glitter,polyester resin, map pins, elephant dung on linen,7’ 11‖ x 5’ 11 5/16‖. The Saatchi Collection,London. 80
  81. 81. Postmodern Art as Political Weapon• Understand the social content and political statements of feminist art along with innovative and expressive use of materials.• Understand the use of art to express gender and cultural heritage issues, as well as the experimental forms and innovative use of materials. 81
  82. 82. Figure 34-59 JUDY CHICAGO, The Dinner Party, 1979. Multimedia, including ceramics and stitchery, 48’ x 48’ x 48’installed. 82
  83. 83. Figure 34-60 MIRIAM SCHAPIRO, Anatomy of a Kimono (section), 1976. Fabric and acrylic on canvas, 6’ 8‖ x 8’ 6‖.Collection of Bruno Bishofberger, Zurich. 83
  84. 84. Figure 34-61 CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still#35, 1979. Black-and-white photograph, 10‖ x 8‖.Metro Pictures, New York. 84
  85. 85. Figure 34-62 BARBARA KRUGER, Untitled(Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face), 1983.Photostat, red painted frame, 6’ 1‖ x 4’ 1‖.Courtesy of Mary Boone Gallery, New York. 85
  86. 86. Figure 34-63 ANA MENDIETA, Flowers on Body,1973. Color photograph of earth/body work with flowers,executed at El Yaagul, Oaxaca, Mexico . Courtesy of theEstate of Ana Medieta and Galerie Lelong, New York. 86
  87. 87. Figure 34-64 HANNAH WILKE, S.O.S.—Starification Object Series, 1974-82. 10 Black-and-white photographs with 15chewing-gum sculptures in Plexiglas cases mounted on ragboard, from a series originally made for S.O.S. Mastication Boxand used in an exhibition-performance at The Clocktower, January 1, 1975, 3’ 5‖ x 5’ 8‖. 87
  88. 88. Figure 34-65 KIKI SMITH, Untitled, 1990. Beeswaxand microcrystalline wax figures on metal stands, femalefigure installed height 6’ 1 1/2‖ and male figure installedheight 6’ 4 15/16‖. Collection Whitney Museum ofAmerican Art, New York (purchase, with funds from thePainting and Sculpture Committee). 88
  89. 89. Figure 34-66 FAITHRINGGOLD, Who’s Afraid ofAunt Jemima?, 1983. Acrylic oncanvas with fabric borders, quilted,7’ 6‖ x 6’ 8‖. Private collection. 89
  90. 90. Figure 34-67 ADRIAN PIPER, Cornered, 1988. Mixed-media installation of variable size; video monitor, table, and birthcertificates. Collection of Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago. 90
  91. 91. Figure 34-68 LORNA SIMPSON, Stereo Styles, 1988. 10 black-and-white Polaroid prints and 10 engraved plastic plaques,5’ 4‖ x 9’ 8‖ overall. Collection of Raymond J. Learsy, Sharon, Connecticut. 91
  92. 92. Figure 34-69 MELVIN EDWARDS, Tambo,1993.Welded steel, 2 4 1/8" x 2 1 1/4" . SmithsonianAmerican Art Museum,Washington, D.C. 92
  93. 93. Figure 34-70 DAVID HAMMONS, Public Enemy, installation at Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1991. Photographs,balloons, sandbags, guns, and other mixed media. 93
  94. 94. Figure 34-71 JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH, Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People), 1992. Oil and mixedmedia on canvas, 5’ x 14’ 2‖. Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, Virginia (museum purchase 93.2). 94
  95. 95. Figure 34-72 LEON GOLUB, Mercenaries (IV), 1980. Acrylic on linen, 10’ x 19’ 2‖. Collection Mr. and Mrs. UlrichMeyer, Chicago. 95
  96. 96. Figure 34-73 MAGDALENAABAKANOWICZ, artist with Backs, atthe Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville deParis, Paris, France, 1982. Copyright ©Magdalena Abakanowicz/Licensed byVAGA, New York, NY/MarlboroughGallery, NY. 96
  97. 97. Figure 34-74 DAVID WOJNAROWICZ, "When I Put My Hands On Your Body", 1990. Gelatin-silver print and silk-screened text on museum board, 2’ 2‖ x 3’ 2‖. Collection of Tom Rauffenbart. 97
  98. 98. Figure 34-75 KRZYSZTOF WODICZKO, TheHomeless Projection, 1986–1987. Outdoor slideprojection at the Soldiers and Sailors Civil War Memorial,Boston, organized by First Night, Boston. 98
  99. 99. Figure 34-76 NAM JUNE PAIK, Video still from Global Groove, 1973. 3/4 videotape, color, sound, 30 minutes.Collection of the artist. 99
  100. 100. Figure 34-77 DAVID EM, Nora, 1979. Computer-generated color photograph, 1’ 5‖ x 1’ 11‖. Private collection. 100
  101. 101. Figure 34-78 JENNY HOLZER, Untitled (Selections from Truisms, Inflammatory Essays, The Living Series, TheSurvival Series, Under a Rock, Laments, and Child Text), 1989. Extended helical tricolor LED electronic display signboard,16‖ x 162’ x 6‖. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, December 1989–February 1990 (partial gift of the artist,1989). 101
  102. 102. New Technologies for Art• Examine the expressive use of video and digital technologies by Postmodern artists. 102
  103. 103. Figure 34-79 BILL VIOLA, The Crossing, 1996.Installation with two channels of color videoprojection onto screens 16’-high. 103
  104. 104. Figure 34-86 MATTHEW BARNEY,Cremaster cycle, installation at theSolomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2003. 104
  105. 105. Criticism of Commodity Culture, Art History, and Art Institutions• Understand Postmodernist criticism of contemporary commodity culture, and criticism of galleries and museums.• Examine Postmodern art that draws attention to global social injustice and world problems. 105
  106. 106. Figure 34-80 TONY OURSLER, Mansheshe, 1997.Ceramic, glass, video player, videocassette, CPJ-200 video projector,sound, 11‖ x 7‖ x 8‖ each. Courtesy the artist and Metro Pictures, New York. 106
  107. 107. Figure 34-81 JEFF KOONS, Pink Panther, 1988. Porcelain, 3’5‖ x 1’ 8 1/2‖ x 1’ 7‖. Collection Museum of Contemporary Art,Chicago (Gerald S. Elliot Collection). 107
  108. 108. Figure 34-82 MARK TANSEY, A Short History of Modernist Painting, 1982. Oil on canvas, three panels, each 4’ 10‖ x3’ 4‖. 108
  109. 109. Figure 34-83 ROBERT ARNESON, California Artist, 1982. Glazed stoneware, 5’8 1/4‖ x 2’ 3 1/2‖ x 1’ 8 1/4‖. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (gift of theModern Art Council). Copyright © Estate of Robert Arneson/Licensed by VAGA,New York, NY. 109
  110. 110. Figure 34-84 HANS HAACKE, MetroMobiltan, 1985. Fiberglass construction, three banners, and photomural, 11’ 8‖ x20’ x 5’. Collection Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. 110
  111. 111. Figure 34-85 GUERRILLA GIRLS, The Advantages of Being A Woman Artist, 1988. Poster. 111
  112. 112. Discussion Questions How are the two main processes of Abstract Expressionism different? Name and processes and one artist for each. What do Minimalist sculptors mean by the concept of objecthood? What is meant by Conceptual Art and the elimination of the object? Why do you think Modernist art and architecture alienated the public? Do you agree that Postmodern art and architecture are more in tune to the public’s interests? In what ways has new technology already changed our perception of what art is? 112

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