MD AZIZUR RAHMAN
Dept. of LIS
Unit 1: Evolution of the concept of Informetrics
:Librametry, Bibliometry, Scientometrics,
Unit 2:Theory and Laws: Zipfs Law, Lotka’s Law
Bradford’s Law, Price Theory and circulation
The term Scientometrics originated as a Russian term for
the application of quantitative methods to the history of
In 1969, Vassily V. Nalimov & Z. M. Mulchenko coined the
Russian equivalent of the term ‘scientometrics’
(‘naukometriya’) (Nalimov & Mulchenko, 1969).
As the name would imply, this term is mainly used for the
study of all aspects of the literature of science and
The term had gained wide recognition after the
foundation of the journal Scientometrics by Tibor Braun
in 1978 .
The term Scientrometrics is a field which applies quantitative
methods to the study of science as an information process.
It is the science of measuring the “quality “of science.
It is often done using bibliometrics which is a measurement of
the impact of scientific publication.
It includes all quantitative aspects of the science of science,
communication in science, and science policy.
It deals with analysis, evaluation and graphic representation
of science and technology information. It tells “Who is doing
what and where?”
Thus scientrometrics is a part of the sociology of science and
has application in science policy making.
What is Scientrometrics?
Nalimov and Mulchenko defined scientometrics as
“the application of quantitative methods which are
dealing with the analysis of science viewed as an
Scientometrics is the science of measuring and
analyzing science ("Scientometrics," 2010).
According to Pouris (1989), ‘Scientrometrics is the
application of quantitative techniques(system
analysis, mathematical and statistical techniques
etc.) to scientific communication(science output,
science policy, science administration etc.) with the
Developing science indicators;
Measuring the impact of science on society; and
Comparing the output as well as the impact of
science at national and international levels.
Thus Scientometrics involves studies in :
I. Sociology of science
II. History of science
III. Growth of science and scientific institutions
IV. Behaviour of science and scientists.
V. Science policy and decision- making
Different perspectives in the study of Science and Technology
• Modern scientometrics is mostly based on the work
of Derek J. de Solla Price and Eugene Garfield. The
latter founded the Institute for Scientific Information,
which is heavily used for scientometric analysis.
Eugene Garfield Derek J. de Solla Price
Studied the exponential growth of science and the
half-life of scientific literature; together with the
formulation of Price's Law.
In his book entitled “Little Science – Big Science”
(1963), Derek J. de Solla Price analysed the recent
system of science communication and thus
presented the first systematic approach to the
structure of modern science applied to the science as
Derek J. de Solla Price
Scientometrics utilizes quantitative analysis and
science mapping to describe patterns of publication
within a given field or body of literature.
There are two main procedures: performance analysis
and science mapping.
Performance analysis aims at evaluating groups of
scientific actors (countries, universities, departments,
researches) and the impact of their activity on the
basis of bibliographic data.
• Science mapping aims at displaying the structural
and dynamic aspects of scientific research. A science
map is used to represent the cognitive structure of a
• Journal Impact Factor: Measure of the frequency with
which the "average article" in a journal has been cited
in a given period of time.
• H-index: impact of individual scientists rather than
journals: Measuring the number of an individual
Scientist's impact and citation record.
• Measuring the Level of Non-Citation: Uses the level of
non citation of articles within a journal as a measure of
• Page Rank Algorithm: (used in web-metrics (Google))
Used to provide greater weight to citations from
journals that have high impact than citations from
The quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of any
Scientometrics study, such as citation mapping,
visualization, bibliographic coupling, co- authorship
network, co-words mapping etc. are carried out by using
Scientometrics tools. This tools are very much useful for
Scientrometricians for mapping their parameters in any
accept of their study.
Tool Purpose Type
Authormap It is used for citation mapping
Bibcouple It is used for visualization of the
bibliographic coupling among
Citespace It is used for visualizing patterns
and trends in scientific literature
Fulltext It is software for co-word
mapping of full texts
HitCite Bibliographic analysis and
Authormap - citation mapping and visualization
Citespace visualizing patterns and trends in scientific literature
What is Scientific Productivity ?
Royalty earned etc.
Factors that affect Productivity
Age of Researchers
No. of Researchers
Mobility of Researchers in search of
Avenues for individual growth
when Private or Govt. Bodies are asked to award
large sum to scientists for research activity.
Those in-charge of making such decisions
(Policy Makers) feel uneasy about having to base
their decisions only on guess and on the personal
experiences of previous science administrators.
Who wants Evaluation?
Science Policy Makers
Science Fund Managers
Institutes for rewarding outstanding contributions
Awarding the scientific projects for conducting
What can be Evaluated?
Methods of Evaluations?
Quantitative Analysis Qualitative analysis
No. of scientific publications
No of Patents filed
No of Technology transfers etc.
Peer Review (Judges Rating)
Citation Analysis etc.
Examples of Scientific Productivity
Publication productivity is one of the important
indicators to help us to know the scientific
standing of a country among other countries of the
world,Institutions among other institutions, Individual
scientists among other scientists.
Nuclear S & T : A Global Perspective
India is at 7th position
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Number of Publications
India’s Position in Mass Spectrometry Research in Nulear Science & Technology
Lists top 20 countries
81 countries actively engaged in research
Produced 10913 publications- USA is the top producing country with 2247
(18.11%), followed by, Germany with 1333 (10.74%), Japan with 820 (6.61%),
France with 525 (4.23%) India with 460 (3.71%), and United Kingdom 440
(3.55%) publications .
India is at 5th Position
India’s Position in Electrochemistry
Research as per SCI (1982-2005)
India is at 11th position
Global View of Research
in Raman Spectroscopy
India is at 11th position
India’s Position in Vacuum Science & Technology In
Nuclear Science &Technology INIS (1982-2005)
Lists top 20 countries
110 countries actively engaged in research
produced 12027 publications-USA is the top producing country with 1936,
followed by Japan with 1770 publications, France with 8929 (8.63%) publications,
Germany with 1147 publications, Russian Federation with 971, Peoples-R-China
with 808 publications, and England with 474. India ranked tenth among other
countries with 400 publications.
India is at 10th position
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Number of Publications