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Scientometrics class


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Scientometrics class

  1. 1. Scientometrics MD AZIZUR RAHMAN Dept. of LIS Pondicherry University
  2. 2. Unit 1: Evolution of the concept of Informetrics :Librametry, Bibliometry, Scientometrics, Webometrics. Unit 2:Theory and Laws: Zipfs Law, Lotka’s Law Bradford’s Law, Price Theory and circulation theory
  3. 3.  The term Scientometrics originated as a Russian term for the application of quantitative methods to the history of science.  In 1969, Vassily V. Nalimov & Z. M. Mulchenko coined the Russian equivalent of the term ‘scientometrics’ (‘naukometriya’) (Nalimov & Mulchenko, 1969).  As the name would imply, this term is mainly used for the study of all aspects of the literature of science and technology.  The term had gained wide recognition after the foundation of the journal Scientometrics by Tibor Braun in 1978 .
  4. 4. 4 Professor V.V. Nalimov (1910-1997)
  5. 5.  The term Scientrometrics is a field which applies quantitative methods to the study of science as an information process.  It is the science of measuring the “quality “of science.  It is often done using bibliometrics which is a measurement of the impact of scientific publication.  It includes all quantitative aspects of the science of science, communication in science, and science policy.  It deals with analysis, evaluation and graphic representation of science and technology information. It tells “Who is doing what and where?”  Thus scientrometrics is a part of the sociology of science and has application in science policy making. What is Scientrometrics?
  6. 6. Nalimov and Mulchenko defined scientometrics as “the application of quantitative methods which are dealing with the analysis of science viewed as an information process”. Scientometrics is the science of measuring and analyzing science ("Scientometrics," 2010). Definitions
  7. 7.  According to Pouris (1989), ‘Scientrometrics is the application of quantitative techniques(system analysis, mathematical and statistical techniques etc.) to scientific communication(science output, science policy, science administration etc.) with the objectives of;  Developing science indicators;  Measuring the impact of science on society; and  Comparing the output as well as the impact of science at national and international levels.
  8. 8. Thus Scientometrics involves studies in : I. Sociology of science II. History of science III. Growth of science and scientific institutions IV. Behaviour of science and scientists. V. Science policy and decision- making
  9. 9. People , Institutions Text, Journals Content, Theories Different perspectives in the study of Science and Technology
  10. 10. • Modern scientometrics is mostly based on the work of Derek J. de Solla Price and Eugene Garfield. The latter founded the Institute for Scientific Information, which is heavily used for scientometric analysis. Eugene Garfield Derek J. de Solla Price
  11. 11.  Studied the exponential growth of science and the half-life of scientific literature; together with the formulation of Price's Law.  In his book entitled “Little Science – Big Science” (1963), Derek J. de Solla Price analysed the recent system of science communication and thus presented the first systematic approach to the structure of modern science applied to the science as a whole. Derek J. de Solla Price
  12. 12.  Scientometrics utilizes quantitative analysis and science mapping to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature.  There are two main procedures: performance analysis and science mapping.  Performance analysis aims at evaluating groups of scientific actors (countries, universities, departments, researches) and the impact of their activity on the basis of bibliographic data.
  13. 13. • Science mapping aims at displaying the structural and dynamic aspects of scientific research. A science map is used to represent the cognitive structure of a research field.
  14. 14. • Journal Impact Factor: Measure of the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a given period of time. • H-index: impact of individual scientists rather than journals: Measuring the number of an individual Scientist's impact and citation record. • Measuring the Level of Non-Citation: Uses the level of non citation of articles within a journal as a measure of quality. • Page Rank Algorithm: (used in web-metrics (Google)) Used to provide greater weight to citations from journals that have high impact than citations from lower-impact journals. Scientometric Indicators
  15. 15. The quantitative as well as qualitative analysis of any Scientometrics study, such as citation mapping, visualization, bibliographic coupling, co- authorship network, co-words mapping etc. are carried out by using Scientometrics tools. This tools are very much useful for Scientrometricians for mapping their parameters in any accept of their study. Scientometrics tools
  16. 16. Tool Purpose Type Authormap It is used for citation mapping and visualization Web tool Bibcouple It is used for visualization of the bibliographic coupling among authors Software application Citespace It is used for visualizing patterns and trends in scientific literature Map Fulltext It is software for co-word mapping of full texts Software application HitCite Bibliographic analysis and visualization software Software
  17. 17. Authormap - citation mapping and visualization
  18. 18. Citespace visualizing patterns and trends in scientific literature
  19. 19. for co-word mapping using full texts
  20. 20. 23 What is Scientific Productivity ? = INPUT OUTPUT Scientists Buildings Equipments Communication Tools Salary etc. Publications Patents Books Technology Transfers, Instruments Designed, Royalty earned etc.
  21. 21. 24 Factors that affect Productivity Environment Resources Mentors Age of Researchers Experience No. of Researchers Mobility of Researchers in search of better prospects Avenues for individual growth
  22. 22. 25 Why Evaluation? when Private or Govt. Bodies are asked to award large sum to scientists for research activity. Those in-charge of making such decisions (Policy Makers) feel uneasy about having to base their decisions only on guess and on the personal experiences of previous science administrators.
  23. 23. 26 Who wants Evaluation? Science Policy Makers Science Fund Managers Institutes for rewarding outstanding contributions Awarding the scientific projects for conducting research
  24. 24. 27 What can be Evaluated? Country Departments/Divisions Institutes Universities Individuals
  25. 25. 28 Methods of Evaluations? Quantitative Analysis Qualitative analysis No. of scientific publications No of Patents filed No of Technology transfers etc. Peer Review (Judges Rating) Citation Analysis etc.
  26. 26. 29 Examples of Scientific Productivity Publication productivity is one of the important indicators to help us to know the scientific standing of a country among other countries of the world,Institutions among other institutions, Individual scientists among other scientists.
  27. 27. Nuclear S & T : A Global Perspective (INIS 1970-2002) United-States Japan Germany United-Kingdom France USSR India RussianFederation Italy China Canada Brazil Switzerland Poland Netherlands Australia Sweden Czechoslovakia Austria Mexico 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 Numberofpublications Countries India is at 7th position
  28. 28. 31 Romania Korea The Netherlands Belgium Sweden Italy Switzerland Brazil China Austria USSR Australia Russian Federation Canada United Kingdom India France Japan Germany United State 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 Number of Publications India’s Position in Mass Spectrometry Research in Nulear Science & Technology Lists top 20 countries 81 countries actively engaged in research Produced 10913 publications- USA is the top producing country with 2247 (18.11%), followed by, Germany with 1333 (10.74%), Japan with 820 (6.61%), France with 525 (4.23%) India with 460 (3.71%), and United Kingdom 440 (3.55%) publications . India is at 5th Position
  29. 29. 32 India’s Position in Electrochemistry Research as per SCI (1982-2005) India is at 11th position
  30. 30. 33 USA JAPAN GERMANY FRANCE PEOPLES-R-CHINA ENGLAND ITALY RUSSIA CANADA SPAIN INDIA POLAND 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Global View of Research in Raman Spectroscopy Numberofpublications Country India is at 11th position
  31. 31. 34 India’s Position in Vacuum Science & Technology In Nuclear Science &Technology INIS (1982-2005)  Lists top 20 countries  110 countries actively engaged in research  produced 12027 publications-USA is the top producing country with 1936, followed by Japan with 1770 publications, France with 8929 (8.63%) publications, Germany with 1147 publications, Russian Federation with 971, Peoples-R-China with 808 publications, and England with 474. India ranked tenth among other countries with 400 publications. India is at 10th position Sweden Taiwan Australia Spain Switzerland Ukraine Brazil Poland Canada Korea India Austria Italy United Kingdom France China Russian Federation Germany Japan United State 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Number of Publications
  32. 32. Questions ?
  33. 33. Thank You