Presentation2.pptx

M
WELCOME TO WEEK 4 - THURSDAY
Resaearch Proposal and Writing a literature review
OVERVIEW
• What is a research proposal?
• What is a literature review?
Presentation2.pptx
WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
• A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s
important, and how you will conduct your research.
WHAT IS THE FORMAT OF A RESEARCH
PROPOSAL?
• A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research
plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward
you choose to take.
WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF A
RESEARCH PROPOSAL?
• The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most
proposals will contain at least these elements:
• Title page
• Introduction
• Literature review
• Research design
• Reference list
WHAT IS THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL
LENGTH
The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or
master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD
dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more
detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your
work.
INTRODUCTION
Introduce your topic
Give necessary background and context
Outline your problem statement and research question
To guide your introduction, include information about:
• Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
• How much is already known about the topic
• What is missing from this current knowledge
• What new insights your research will contribute
• Why you believe this research is worth doing
LITERATURE REVIEW
As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most
important research on your topic. A strong literature review shows your reader that your
project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re
not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using
existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.
In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in
the field by:
• Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
• Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
• Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Following the literature review, restate your main objectives. This brings
the focus back to your own project. Next, your research
design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and
the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions
BUILDING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
METHODOLOGY
Research type- Qualitative or quantitative?
Original data collection or primary and secondary source analysis?
Descriptive, correlational, or experimental research design?
Population and sample Who or what will you study (e.g., high school students in New
York; local newspaper archives 1976-80)?
How will you select your subjects (e.g., probability sampling, non-probability sampling)?
When and where will you collect your data?
Research methods What data collection tools and procedures will you use
(e.g., surveys, interviews, observational studies, experiments)?
Why?
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE
• To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential
implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you
aim to contribute and why it matters.
• For example, your results might have implications for:
• Improving best practices
• Informing policymaking decisions
• Strengthening a theory or model
• Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
• Creating a basis for future research
LITERATURE REVIEW
• a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a
topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also
called synthesis).
• the research (scholarship) in a given field. You will often see the terms
“the research,” “the scholarship,” and “the literature” used mostly
interchangeably.
PICKING A TOPIC
• An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically
has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses
the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart
from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a
new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes,
and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps
HOW IS A LITERATURE REVIEW
DIFFERENT FROM A RESEARCH PAPER?
• An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically
has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses
the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart
from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a
new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes,
and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps in the
current literature. Before writing a literature review, a student should look for a
model from a relevant journal or ask the instructor to point to a good example.
• Picking a Topic
FINDING RELEVANT LITERATURE
With the advent of electronic databases like JSTOR, Academic Search Complete,
Lexis/Nexis, and Project Muse, it has become relatively easy to find relevant and
trustworthy sources for a literature review essay. These and many more scholarly
databases are available in the Library
When searching these databases, the writer needs to use keywords or phrases that
are as closely associated with the topic as possible. Searching with one or two
phrases surrounded by quotation marks (for example, “Civil War” in tandem with
“economic impact”) will help to hone in on the most relevant results, as only
articles that contain those two specific phrases will be found.
INTRODUCTION
1. Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature
review.
2. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic.
3. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles.
BODY OF THE REVIEW
1. Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature
review.
2. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic.
3. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles.
CONCLUSION
1. Summarizes the major themes that emerged in the review and identifies areas
of controversy in the literature.
2. Pinpoints strengths and weaknesses among the articles (innovative methods
used, gaps in research, problems with theoretical frameworks, etc.).
3. Concludes by formulating questions that need further research within the topic
and provides some insight into the relationship between that topic and the
larger field of study or discipline.
1 of 19

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Presentation2.pptx

  • 1. WELCOME TO WEEK 4 - THURSDAY Resaearch Proposal and Writing a literature review
  • 2. OVERVIEW • What is a research proposal? • What is a literature review?
  • 4. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL • A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.
  • 5. WHAT IS THE FORMAT OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL? • A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.
  • 6. WHAT IS THE OBJECTIVE OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL? • The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements: • Title page • Introduction • Literature review • Research design • Reference list
  • 7. WHAT IS THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL LENGTH The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.
  • 8. INTRODUCTION Introduce your topic Give necessary background and context Outline your problem statement and research question To guide your introduction, include information about: • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers) • How much is already known about the topic • What is missing from this current knowledge • What new insights your research will contribute • Why you believe this research is worth doing
  • 9. LITERATURE REVIEW As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own. In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by: • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship
  • 10. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following the literature review, restate your main objectives. This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions
  • 11. BUILDING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL METHODOLOGY Research type- Qualitative or quantitative? Original data collection or primary and secondary source analysis? Descriptive, correlational, or experimental research design? Population and sample Who or what will you study (e.g., high school students in New York; local newspaper archives 1976-80)? How will you select your subjects (e.g., probability sampling, non-probability sampling)? When and where will you collect your data? Research methods What data collection tools and procedures will you use (e.g., surveys, interviews, observational studies, experiments)? Why?
  • 12. CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE • To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters. • For example, your results might have implications for: • Improving best practices • Informing policymaking decisions • Strengthening a theory or model • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs • Creating a basis for future research
  • 13. LITERATURE REVIEW • a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis). • the research (scholarship) in a given field. You will often see the terms “the research,” “the scholarship,” and “the literature” used mostly interchangeably.
  • 14. PICKING A TOPIC • An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps
  • 15. HOW IS A LITERATURE REVIEW DIFFERENT FROM A RESEARCH PAPER? • An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps in the current literature. Before writing a literature review, a student should look for a model from a relevant journal or ask the instructor to point to a good example. • Picking a Topic
  • 16. FINDING RELEVANT LITERATURE With the advent of electronic databases like JSTOR, Academic Search Complete, Lexis/Nexis, and Project Muse, it has become relatively easy to find relevant and trustworthy sources for a literature review essay. These and many more scholarly databases are available in the Library When searching these databases, the writer needs to use keywords or phrases that are as closely associated with the topic as possible. Searching with one or two phrases surrounded by quotation marks (for example, “Civil War” in tandem with “economic impact”) will help to hone in on the most relevant results, as only articles that contain those two specific phrases will be found.
  • 17. INTRODUCTION 1. Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature review. 2. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic. 3. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles.
  • 18. BODY OF THE REVIEW 1. Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature review. 2. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic. 3. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles.
  • 19. CONCLUSION 1. Summarizes the major themes that emerged in the review and identifies areas of controversy in the literature. 2. Pinpoints strengths and weaknesses among the articles (innovative methods used, gaps in research, problems with theoretical frameworks, etc.). 3. Concludes by formulating questions that need further research within the topic and provides some insight into the relationship between that topic and the larger field of study or discipline.

Editor's Notes

  1. Introduction The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why. Your introduction should: Introduce your topic Give necessary background and context Outline your problem statement and research questions To guide your introduction, include information about: Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers) How much is already known about the topic What is missing from this current knowledge What new insights your research will contribute Why you believe this research is worth doing
  2. Literature review As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own. In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by: Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship
  3. Research design and methods Following the literature review, restate your main objectives. This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.
  4. Building a research proposal methodology Research type Qualitative or quantitative? Original data collection or primary and secondary source analysis? Descriptive, correlational, or experimental research design? Population and sample Who or what will you study (e.g., high school students in New York; local newspaper archives 1976-80)? How will you select your subjects (e.g., probability sampling, non-probability sampling)? When and where will you collect your data? Research methods What data collection tools and procedures will you use (e.g., surveys, interviews, observational studies, experiments)? Why?
  5. Contribution to knowledge To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters. For example, your results might have implications for: Improving best practices Informing policymaking decisions Strengthening a theory or model Challenging popular or scientific beliefs Creating a basis for future research
  6. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis). The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature (i.e., the study of works of literature such as novels and plays). When we say “literature review” or refer to “the literature,” we are talking about the research (scholarship) in a given field. You will often see the terms “the research,” “the scholarship,” and “the literature” used mostly interchangeably. A literature review is a survey of scholarly articles, books, or other sources that pertain to a specific topic, area of research, or theory. The literature review offers brief descriptions, summaries, and critical evaluations of each work, and does so in the form of a well organized essay. Scholars often write literature reviews to provide an overview of the most significant recent literature published on a topic. They also use literature reviews to trace the evolution of certain debates or intellectual problems within a field. Even if a literature review is not a formal part of a research project, students should conduct an informal one so that they know what kind of scholarly work has been done previously on the topic that they have selected. How Is a Literature Review Different from a Research Paper? An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps in the current literature. Before writing a literature review, a student should look for a model from a relevant journal or ask the instructor to point to a good example.
  7. How Is a Literature Review Different from a Research Paper? An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps in the current literature. Before writing a literature review, a student should look for a model from a relevant journal or ask the instructor to point to a good example. Picking a Topic First, the writer needs to pick a topic that she finds compelling and that is relevant to the course. Second, the topic should be relatively narrow so that it does not overwhelm the writer. For example, the literature on the causes of the U.S. Civil War is much too vast for a short review essay. A review of recent scholarship published on the economic impact of secession on the Confederacy is probably narrow enough for a relatively short essay. In most cases, students will need to clear a topic with the instructor before proceeding to make sure that it is a relevant topic of the proper scope. Finding Relevant Literature With the advent of electronic databases like JSTOR, Academic Search Complete, Lexis/Nexis, and Project Muse, it has become relatively easy to find relevant and trustworthy sources for a literature review essay. These and many more scholarly databases are available on the Brooklyn College Library website here: http://dewey.brooklyn.cuny.edu/resources/?view=databases When searching these databases, the writer needs to use keywords or phrases that are as closely associated with the topic as possible. Searching with one or two phrases surrounded by quotation marks (for example, “Civil War” in tandem with “economic impact”) will help to hone in on the most relevant results, as only articles that contain those two specific phrases will be found. Evaluating the Literature After students have found a number of articles or books related to a topic, they will evaluate them to determine which ones seem to make the most important contributions to the scholarship on the topic. For undergraduate students, this step is often difficult since they are not experts and are just beginning to learn about major themes and debates within a field. Nonetheless, by asking some of the questions below, student writers can make a pretty well educated assessment about whether or not an article contributes something significant to the relevant area of scholarship. In addition, evaluating articles with these questions will be helpful in figuring out how to organize the material later when composing the essay. Questions to Ask about Individual Articles Handout IV Does the article have a clear thesis statement? Is that thesis supported by a well organized argument that uses convincing evidence? What strategies or methodologies does the author use in the article? Was the article published in a respected academic journal? (Undergraduates should ask their instructor to identify the leading journals in the field. Databases like JSTOR tend to carry only journals with good scholarly reputations.) Is the author someone who seems reliable? Might the author have some sort of agenda or ideological motivation that might affect the way the argument is presented? (A Google search can be useful.) How recently was the article published? In rapidly changing fields, research can become dated quickly, so it is generally preferable to use articles published within the past five years or so. (In some cases, the instructor may tell students to use older articles with newer ones to trace how ideas and debates have changed over time.) What original contribution does the article make to the discussion about the topic? Organizing a Literature Review A successful literature review should have three parts that break down in the following way: A. INTRODUCTION Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature review. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles. B. BODY OF THE REVIEW Groups articles into thematic clusters, or subtopics. Clusters may be grouped together chronologically, thematically, or methodologically (see below for more on this). Proceeds in a logical order from cluster to cluster. Emphasizes the main findings or arguments of the articles in the student’s own words. Keeps quotations from sources to an absolute minimum. B. CONCLUSION Summarizes the major themes that emerged in the review and identifies areas of controversy in the literature. Pinpoints strengths and weaknesses among the articles (innovative methods used, gaps in research, problems with theoretical frameworks, etc.). Concludes by formulating questions that need further research within the topic, and provides some insight into the relationship between that topic and the larger field of study or discipline. Creating Clusters or Subtopics Chronological Groupings: With this method, you can group material according to when it was published or the time period the material addresses. For example, for a literature review about post-1965 immigration to New York City, you might group the material that addresses the 1960s and 1970s in one section, and the 1980s and 1990s in another. This method works well in essays that trace the evolution of a certain theme or idea over time, but can be less coherent in other contexts. Thematic Groupings: In this approach, sections might be organized around particular subthemes within the essay’s topic. For the post-1965 immigration essay mentioned above, you might organize separate sections on literature dealing with different ethnic groups: Asians, Eastern Europeans, Mexicans, etc. Methodological Groupings: A methodological approach differs from the two above in that it does not focus so much on the content, but the “methods” of the researcher or writer. In the above example, authors who interpret demographic data from the census might be put in one group, while another group might be formed around work that uses ethnographic approaches.
  8. How Is a Literature Review Different from a Research Paper? An academic research paper attempts to develop a new argument, and typically has a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, the author uses the literature review to show how his or her new insights build upon and depart from existing scholarship. A literature review by itself does not try to make a new argument based on original research, but rather summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques the arguments and ideas of others, and points to gaps in the current literature. Before writing a literature review, a student should look for a model from a relevant journal or ask the instructor to point to a good example. Picking a Topic First, the writer needs to pick a topic that she finds compelling and that is relevant to the course. Second, the topic should be relatively narrow so that it does not overwhelm the writer. For example, the literature on the causes of the U.S. Civil War is much too vast for a short review essay. A review of recent scholarship published on the economic impact of secession on the Confederacy is probably narrow enough for a relatively short essay. In most cases, students will need to clear a topic with the instructor before proceeding to make sure that it is a relevant topic of the proper scope.
  9. Finding Relevant Literature With the advent of electronic databases like JSTOR, Academic Search Complete, Lexis/Nexis, and Project Muse, it has become relatively easy to find relevant and trustworthy sources for a literature review essay. These and many more scholarly databases are available on the Brooklyn College Library website here: http://dewey.brooklyn.cuny.edu/resources/?view=databases When searching these databases, the writer needs to use keywords or phrases that are as closely associated with the topic as possible. Searching with one or two phrases surrounded by quotation marks (for example, “Civil War” in tandem with “economic impact”) will help to hone in on the most relevant results, as only articles that contain those two specific phrases will be found.
  10. \ A. INTRODUCTION Defines and identifies the topic and establishes the reason for the literature review. Points to general trends in what has been published about the topic. Explains the criteria used in analyzing and comparing articles.
  11. B. BODY OF THE REVIEW Groups articles into thematic clusters, or subtopics. Clusters may be grouped together chronologically, thematically, or methodologically (see below for more on this). Proceeds in a logical order from cluster to cluster. Emphasizes the main findings or arguments of the articles in the student’s own words. Keeps quotations from sources to an absolute minimum. B.
  12. CONCLUSION Summarizes the major themes that emerged in the review and identifies areas of controversy in the literature. Pinpoints strengths and weaknesses among the articles (innovative methods used, gaps in research, problems with theoretical frameworks, etc.). Concludes by formulating questions that need further research within the topic, and provides some insight into the relationship between that topic and the larger field of study or discipline. Creating Clusters or Subtopics Chronological Groupings: With this method, you can group material according to when it was published or the time period the material addresses. For example, for a literature review about post-1965 immigration to New York City, you might group the material that addresses the 1960s and 1970s in one section, and the 1980s and 1990s in another. This method works well in essays that trace the evolution of a certain theme or idea over time, but can be less coherent in other contexts. Thematic Groupings: In this approach, sections might be organized around particular subthemes within the essay’s topic. For the post-1965 immigration essay mentioned above, you might organize separate sections on literature dealing with different ethnic groups: Asians, Eastern Europeans, Mexicans, etc. Methodological Groupings: A methodological approach differs from the two above in that it does not focus so much on the content, but the “methods” of the researcher or writer. In the above example, authors who interpret demographic data from the census might be put in one group, while another group might be formed around work that uses ethnographic approaches.