Ms1 revision guide revised2


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Ms1 revision guide revised2

  1. 1. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESAS MEDIA STUDIESMorecambe Community High SchoolMS1: Media Representations and ResponsesREVISION GUIDE Avoid last minute panic. Start your revision NOW!Question 1 1
  2. 2. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESThis will focus on textual analysis and will test your ability to analyse a media textin detail using appropriate media language. You must be able to not justrecognise the techniques used but also able to analyse and say why they have beenused. You need to be aware of the generic conventions of a range of forms andformats – for example the codes and conventions for certain types of TVprogrammes (e.g. Situation Comedies) or film genres (this could be a sequence ortrailer).The textual analysis question this year will be audio/visual (It could be a film trailer,extract from a film or TV programme, music video, or TV advert) During the viewingtime make sure you organise your notes. Use sub headings similar to the oneswe use in class. Remember to discuss technical codes and narrative & genericcodes.Technical Codes include: • Mise-en-scene (Costumes, props, location, make-up, lighting) • Sound: Soundtrack, theme tune, incidental music, sound effects, ambient sound, dialogue, voiceover • Editing: Cuts, manipulation of time, transitions, slow motion, etc. • Camera Techniques: Types of shot, camera movement and angles. Establishing shot,, close-up, long shot, two shot, high angle, low angle, aerial shot, point of view , pan, tilt, track, dolly, (remember the dance…) zoom/reverse zoom, framing, composition, hand-held, steadicam.Narrative Codes include: • Linear Narrative – plot moves forward in a straight line. • Parallel Action (Non-Linear)– a narrative device in which two scenes are observed as happening at the same time by cutting between them. • Flash back narrative (Non-Linear)Generic Codes & ConventionsGenre is the classification of texts into types. E.G. westerns, horror, comedy,romance, etc. • Codes & Conventions are the elements that the audience will recognise. These include: characters, settings, plots and iconography. • Iconography – signs associated with a genre. e.g. gangster – guns, violence, urban settings, Italians. 2
  3. 3. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESGlossary of termsAudience Consumption – how the audience use the media.Audience Profiling – building a detailed picture of the audience.Demographic Profiling – age, gender, social class.Psychographic Profiling – beliefs, aspirations, lifestyles of the demographicSignifier/Denotation – what is literally in the picture.Signified/Connotations – different meanings and associations with images.Preferred Meaning – texts are constructed to encourage the audience towards aparticular interpretation.Cropping – cutting a picture to focus on a particular part. This can change themeaning,Anchorage – a caption or a heading to fix the meaning of an image.Mise-en-scene is a French word and it means what is the scene or frame. What isput in or left out can make a big difference to the signals we, the audience, receiveabout what sort of film we are watching. The elements in Mise-en-scene to considerare: Setting and Props, Costume, Hair and Make-up, Facial Expressions andBody Language, Lighting and Colour, Positioning of Characters and Objects.High key lighting appears normal and realistic to the eye.Low key lighting produces sharp contrasts between light and dark areas on thescreen. Deep shadows are formed.Diegetic sound is sound within the frame – dialogue, traffic, birds etc.Non-diegetic sound is sound that is not part of the frame – e.g. music used tocreate mood.Intertextuality is when texts refer to other media texts that producers assumeaudiences will recognise. This means that a text will mimic or otherwise copy certainstylistic features of another text. Advertising and music videos rely heavily on theuse of intertextuality to achieve a particular effect. 3
  4. 4. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESShot Types& Camera TechniquesPanning is when the camera stays in same position but turns left to right. You woulduse panning to show the location.Low angle shot is when the camera looks down on the subject which can makethem look vulnerable.High angle looks up at the subject which makes them look powerful.Tracking/Dolly is when the camera follows the subject. Essential in chase scenes.Editing is important because it creates a narrative. It allows the audience to becomeemotionally involved. Editing involves: variety of shots, freeze frames, length ofshots, slow motion, speeding up time, manipulation of time, timing of shotscan amuse or shock audiences, flash backs, inter-cutting between differentscenes.Continuity/invisible editing is when shots placed together to create seamlessaction. This could include action match editing and sound bridges.Transitions are the way shots are linked together.Cut = Switch from shot A to B.Dissolve = Shot B begins to appear as shot A fades away.Fade = Shot A fades to black before shot B appears.Wipe = Shot A is visibly wiped off the screen by shot BPoint of view shot = Represents the view of the character; a subjective camerashotQUESTIONS 2 & 3 4
  5. 5. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESThe focus of questions 2 and 3 can be either representation or audience and thequestion may be stepped. It is important that you take note of the mark allocation ofthe various parts of the question and relate this to the length of your answers.MEDIA AUDIENCESIn preparation for the range of questions that may be asked in relation toaudiences, you need to be aware of: • The different ways in which audiences can be described • How texts construct and position audiences • How different audiences respond to, use and interpret media texts • How different audiences can respond to the same text and how that response can be analysed.Audience theoriesHypodermic syringe Theory- Just like a syringe the media is seen as a powerfulagent ‘injecting’ ideas into a passive audience.Example text: TV advertisingMoral Panics - a mass response to ‘group, person or an attitude that becomesdefined as a threat to society’. Once a threat has been identified a panic is createdthrough press coverage, particularly the tabloid press, and then taken up by othernewspapers and news programmes.Example text: video Games- GTA4, Manhunt 2; film - KidulthoodEncoding /decoding Theory- Audiences vary in their response to media messagesbecause of their social position, gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, experience andbeliefs.Theorist Stuart Hall categorised three kinds of audience response. Dominant – theaudience agree with the dominant values. Negotiated – the audience generallyagree with the dominant values expressed within the preferred reading but they maydisagree with certain aspects according to their social background. Oppositional –the audience disagree with dominant values expressed within the preferred readingof the text.Uses & Gratifications TheoryInstead of researching what the media do to audience it concentrates on how theaudience uses the media. Blumer, McQuail and Brown identified four major types:personal identity, companionship and interaction, information, entertainment anddiversion. Example text: Video games-GTA4; film- Kidulthood (2004)MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS 5
  6. 6. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES • Recognise and analyse representations evident in the extract. • Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of representation and its importance in analysing and understanding media texts. • Develop your response beyond a description of simple representations • Be aware of more complex issues such as; stereotypes, construction, mediation and ideology.Consider mediation as a process:Mediation- three things to look for: 1. Selection- Whatever ends up on the screen much more will have been left out 2. Organisation- The various elements will be organised carefully in ways that real life is not- in visual media this involves mise-en-scene and the organisation of narrative, Any medium you can think of will have an equivalent to these. 3. Focusing- mediation always ends up with us, the audience being pushed towards concentrating on one aspect of the text and ignoring others. If you are watching a film the camera will pan towards an important character, in a tabloid the headlines will scream, for your attentionExample text: British Airways advertisment (2012) 6
  7. 7. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESUltimately, you should aim to discuss more than one medium in your answer s (, TV, video games). Provide detailed textual evidence from our studies. Andremember, even though its 2 ½ hours long, keep focused and keep writing! GoodLuck!Here is a list of texts we have studies and how you could use them in your answer onrepresentation in the media. You should discuss 2 or three in detail from 2 or moredifferent media.Representation of… Texts / contexts to discussMen and Women Video games: GTA4 and Red Dead Redemption(reinforcing masculine stereotypes; aspirational role models) Magazines: FHM/Cosmopolitan (reinforcing/challenging stereotypes) You need to discuss cover, content and article. Be detailed and precise and include issue number Changing roles; new man/woman; patriarchal societies; stereotypingAge Film: Kidulthood (2004)- youth crime, stereotyping/challenging stereotypesEthnicity Film: Kidulthood – Black/afro-Caribbean communities, stereotyping, addressing social problems Video game: GTA4 – Niko Bellic as illegal immigrant (Romanian). Italian American gangsters- stereotypes.Issues Video games GTA4 & Manhunt 2: violent video games, Manhunt 2 banned until censored, graphic depictions of violence glamorised in trailers. GTA4 as a comment on consumerism, crime and mindless patriotism in America Film: Kidulthood- knife crime, ‘demonised’ youth/’hoodie’ culture, social inequality, bullying Magazines: informing hegemonic values/beliefs?Regional/national Video Games: GTA4 – Liberty City (New York) as a placeidentity of moral and social decay. Film: Kidulthood (London; Urban Britain) The Olympics opening ceremony (celebrating identity) 7
  8. 8. MCHS AS MEDIA STUDIES MS1 REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSESFor high grades, this is what the examiners are looking for: 8