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Beneficial and Harmful Effects
of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
Case: Smart Agriculture and Risk Management
PhD Mikko Ahonen
PhD Mikko Ahonen:
Hardell, L., Koppel, T., Carlberg, M.,
Ahonen, M., & Hedendahl, L. (2016).
Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm
Central Railway Station in Sweden and
some medical aspects on public exposure
to RF fields. International Journal of
Oncology, 49(4), 1315–1324.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633090
- Has worked as a researcher 30 years (University of Tampere,
Finland & Mid Sweden University, Sweden).
- In (Smart) Agriculture projects in 1990s & 2022-2023
- Bioelectromagnetics research 2008-2023,
in professor, MD Lennart Hardell’s research group.
- Responsible for measurements and dosimetry
- Example of research :
Table of Contents – Part 1
 Introduction: Natural non-ionizing radiation and
it’s effect on plants, insects and animals
 Solar storms and earth’s magnetic field
 Applying electricity to plants and effects on growth
 Researchers of plant physiology
(Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose & Co )
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Table of Contents – Part 2
 Base Stations & routers and their pulsed microwave
radiation effects on plants, insects and animals
 Sustainability challenges of 5G/6G
 Sensors and antennas, IoT (including Bluetooth & Wi-Fi)
and their effects on stress of animals and plants
 Risk management practices for Smart Agriculture.
Part 1: Introduction
Natural non-ionizing radiation
and it’s importance
Natural radiation,
special focus on the non-ionizing part
Earth’s magnetic field
– An introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgtIdttfGVw
Picture: From Youtube video of ‘Professor Dave explains’ -series
Sun wind has shaped
earth’s magnetosphere,
magnetic field lines ...
and life on earth.
Picture: NASA
https://www.nasa.gov/image-article/earths-magnetosphere-3/
Geomagnetic disturbances
(caused by sun storms)
 Birds have navigation faults (Beason & Nichols,1984)
 Effect on bacteria, viruses and mold (Blakemore, 1975)
 Heart- and blood pressure problems (Belov et al. (1998), Chernouss et al.
(2001), Dimitrova et al. (2004), Otto et al. (1982). [esp. humans]
 Effect on functioning and mental health (Becker et al. (1961), Friedman et al.
(1963), Dimitrova et al. (2002), Kay (1994), Krivelyova and Robotti (2003),
Persinger (1987), Raps (1999), Srivastava et al. (1980), Gordon & Berk (2003).
[esp. human]
 Causes: Sun flares  Changed DC magnetic field on earth + increased
radiofrequency radiation + changed air ionization.
Sun Storms can be followed
(in advance)
PhD Mikko Ahonen
https://auroraforecast.is/kp-index/
https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/planetary-k-index
Earth magnetic field (MF)
in Nordic countries
~50 µT DC (Direct Current)
- Picture: Anomaly area (even +1064 nT) in Alnö, Sweden
- Airplane measurements, DC Magnetic field:
https://apps.sgu.se/kartvisare/kartvisare-magnetfalt.html , https://hakku.gtk.fi
Migrating birds: Disturbances in magnetic
field suspected when birds go astray
Picture: PhysOrg,
https://phys.org/news/2023-01-migrating-birds-disturbances-magnetic-field.html
Have you tested with a compass?
(magnetised springs in a bed, DC MF-anomaly)
Recommendations (for humans): https://www.baubiologie.de/downloads/richtwerte-schlafbereiche-15.pdf
Schumann Resonance – Prof. W. O. Schumann
Global natural electromagnetic resonance that connects the Earth's surface
and the ionosphere
7.83 Hz , 14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz, 27.3 Hz
Dominant frequency
7,83 Hz
Very weak level: 1-10 nT, 0,3 µW/m²
Overview: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002191699400075Y
http://www.scribd.com/doc/228596266
http://magbase.rssi.ru/REFMAN/SPPHTEXT/schumann.html
A documentary about Schumann Resonance
Resonance – Beings of Frequency
https://youtu.be/rJUfFQWRIso?t=129
Natural radiofrequency radiation – Schumann Resonance – 7.83 Hz –
EEG-synch- required by human beings – < 0,3 µW/m² (a very tiny RF level)
P.S. Not the whole film is excellent, but the Schumann resonance part is informative.
What happens when
natural EMFs are removed?
Research done in the Max Planck Institute in the 1960’s
In a bunker (Faraday cage) both humans and animals observed.
Lighting changes did not much affect circadian rhythm. BUT when natural
EMFs (including Schumann resonance) were removed, the rhythm
changed to 33 hour. Caused several stress-related symptoms.
Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969), Tatsis et al. (2021)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004896972102742X
 By producing an artificial Schumann resonance in the bunker
(~10 Hz frequency, 8,3 µW/m² power density * ), the 24
hour rhythm returned.
 (Natural) EMFs have a Zeitgeberfunktion / effect on Circadian
Rhythm
* Comment: 8,3 µW/m² is about 1/1.000.000-part of official ICNIRP guideline for EMFs.
Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969)
- A Schumann-generator needed, designed for
space travel
- For health reasons (to synchronise brain, EEG
for circadian rhythm)
- Both for the Sojuz & Apollo -programs
- Professor Yuri Grigoriev, RNCNIRP
EEG
http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=20022
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1015637127504
Brain waves and Schumann Resonance?
13 Hz to 40 Hz
8 Hz to 13 Hz
4 Hz to 8 Hz
0 Hz to 4 Hz
Connection: Persinger, M. A., & Saroka, K. S. (2015). Human Quantitative
Electroencephalographic and Schumann Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of
Spectral Power Densities: Implications for Interactive Information Processing.
Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 06(02), Article 02.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jsip.2015.62015
Effects of Moon on plants – theories:
- Gravitational force
- Light from the full moon
- At full moon earth’s magnetotail is changed 
Electric field on earth is changed
Bevington, M. (2015). Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere. Pathophysiology, 22(4), 211–
222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2015.08.005
Mikko Ahonen – Online Educa Berlin 2008
Effect of moon to plants
- Semmens (1923 & 1947): Germination of the seeds
of mustard (Sinapis spp.) strongly accelerated by the effect of
moonlight.
- Kolisko (studies between 1927-1935), demonstrated the
variations in growth of plants according to the lunar synodic
rhythm. The seeds of lettuce, white cabbage, tomato etc. sown 2
days before the full moon showed better germination and
stronger growth.
- Spiess (1994) using trials lasting even 6 years, provides
statistical confirmation of lunar
variations in the case of cultivated annuals, winter rye,
radish, carrot, potato, bean, and mustard.
Moon calendar for farming and gardening:
https://www.rhythmofnature.net/gardener-calendar
Heavy debate, whether moon has effect on plants, continues:
Mayoral, O., Solbes, J., Cantó, J., & Pina, T. (2020).
What Has Been Thought and Taught on the Lunar Influence on Plants in Agriculture?
Perspective from Physics and Biology. Agronomy, 10(7), Article 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070955
Versus
Sivasankari J. & Thimmaiah, A. (2021). Lunar rhythms in agriculture - review on scientific perspectives.
Int J Complement Alt Med. 14(2):81‒85. https://medcraveonline.com/IJCAM/IJCAM-14-00536.pdf
Sferics, cold and warm -front,
Föhn-wind, in kHz-range
Before the front: 0,27 µW/m² ,
During Sferics: 27 µW/m²
(causes headache, tiredness, depression for some people,
also pain in amputated limbs)
(Lotmar et al., 1969; Reiter, 1960; König, 1974)
Typical frequencies
- During Atmospherics (Sferics)
Picture: Schippke (2001)
Simulated Sferics in a laboratory: Decrease in EEG alpha power
Schienle et al. (1998) http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_12_3_schienle.pdf
Several kHz
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Famous researcher and inventor from Calcutta, India.
Also radio-inventor, before Marconi.
Worked with plants and electricity.
His findings: Electricity stimulated growth
of certain plants. Was first to measure also
EMFs f-r-o-m plants and demonstrated
the nervous system of plants.
- J.C. Bose. The Nervous Mechanism of Plants. (1926). Nature, 118(2975), 654–655. https://doi.org/10.1038/118654a0
- J.C. Bose, "On the determination of the wavelength of electric radiation by a diffraction grating,"
Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 60, pp.167-178, 1897. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspl.1896.0031
- Meher, W. (2010). The Scientific Sufi —The Life and Times of Jagadish Chandra Bose. Penguin Random House India.
https://www.penguin.co.in/book/the-scientific-sufi/
Man-made electromagnetic fields
- overlapping natural non-ionizing radiation
- Blackman (1923): 100 picoampere currents, just 1 hour/day,
maximised growth of barley, while chronic exposure was detrimental.
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.1923.0034
- Lemström (1904); electricity stimulated growth of wheat, rye, barley
- while stunted growth of peas and carrots.
- Bose (1915 ); In plants one microampere, and in animals a third of
a microampere, was enough to slow or speed up nerve
impulses by about 20 percent. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1915.0010
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Man-made electromagnetic fields – 20th century
Picture: Dr. Gerd Oberfeld
Agriculture 4.0 – EMF-Interest here on:
Internet of Things (IoT), Unmanned Aerial
Vehicles (Drones) and Robotics
Picture source and a view on Agriculture 4.0:
Mitra, A., Vangipuram, S. L. T., Bapatla, A. K., Bathalapalli, V. K. V. V., Mohanty, S. P., Kougianos, E.,
& Ray, C. (2022). Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Agriculture (arXiv:2201.04754).
arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2201.04754
Sustainable development
-definition
“Development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs”
(United Nations General Assembly, 1987, p. 43).
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Video about environmental
effects of RF radiation
http://vimeo.com/17268728
Pulsed RF radiation – effect on bees?
Harst, Kuhn & Stever (2006)
More studies: http://www.livingplanet.be/emranimals.htm
A DECT -base station next to the hive caused disorientation in bees.
And large amount of colonies could not return to the hive.
More about bees and pulsed RF radiation
Favre (2011) RF exposure from mobile
technologies change worker bees’ piping signal
(changes communication among bees).
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s1359
2-011-0016-x
Lopatina et al. (2019) Wi-Fi had effect on food
search and bees’ short term memory
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0013
873819010032
Odemer & Odemer (2019) RF radiation altering
pupal development in bee hives
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.154
),
Video: CNN,
Colony Collapse Disorder (2010)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XPKt6DExKQ
Considerations: IoT and transmitters in
Cow collars & body
Balmori, A. (2024). Radio-tracking systems emit pulsed waves
that could affect the health and alter the orientation of animals.
Journal for Nature Conservation, 77. January 2024. Early online,
126520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2023.126520
Note: Radio-tracking systems use higher power, but still the study
is worth reading because of animal-attached transmitters.
About RFID, embedded chips and animal harm :
Albrecht, K. (2010). Microchip-induced tumors in laboratory rodents and dogs: A review
of the literature 1990–2006. 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and
Society, 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISTAS.2010.5514622
Trees and
pulsed radiofrequency (RF) radiation
Historical German document,
Waldschäden:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/60849109/
Trees and plants act as optimal antennas:
http://livingplanet.be/emrplants.htm
Picture: Trees’ leaves, which are
not in the shadow/cover of the building ,
are damaged.
While branches and leaves which are
in the cover are not damaged.
Waldmann-Selsam, C., Balmori-de la Puente, A., Breunig, H., & Balmori, A. (2016).
Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. The
Science of the Total Environment, 572, 554–569.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045
Wi-Fi router effects on plants
Havas, M., & Symington, M. S. (2016). Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on
Germination and Growth of Broccoli, Pea, Red Clover and Garden Cress
Seedlings: A Partial Replication Study. Current Chemical Biology, 10(1), 65–
73.
More on plants’ stress response and Wi-Fi:
https://www.emf-portal.org/en/search/results?query=wi-fi+AND+plant&languageIds%5B%5D=en
Microwaving water and watering plants with it
 Detrimental effect on growth?
Alattar, E. M., Elwasife, K. Y., Radwan, E. S., & Alagha, A. M. (2018). EFFECT OF MICROWAVE TREATED WATER ON
THE GROWTH OF CORN (ZEA MAYS) AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) SEEDLINGS. ROMANIAN J. BIOPHYS,
Vol. 28, Issue. 3(Vol. 28, Issue. 3). https://iugspace.iugaza.edu.ps/handle/20.500.12358/26229
The WHO/International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency (RF)
electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic
humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk
glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer,
associated with wireless phone use.
IARC/WHO risk classification, 2011:
http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf
(Classification covers all RF-transmittters. Combined effect? Dose-response?)
Instituto Ramazzini – World biggest RF-animal study – Heart
tumors – Max 50 V/m - Only 1 antenna !
U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) study 
Classification: Clear evidence of heart tumors (2018).
https://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newsroom/releases/2018/november1/index.cfm
https://doi.org/10.1002/em.22343
 Falcioni et al. 2018:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29530389
Picture: IEEE
Epidemiological studies of humans
Radio and TV-transmitters:
Effect: Dolk et al. (1997a), Hocking & Gordon (2003),
Ha et al. (2007), Mascarinec et al. (1994, Michelozzi et al. (2002),
Morton & Phillips (1983), Park et al. (2004)
[Mostly increased leukemias and lymphomas]
No effect: Dolk et al. (1997b), Mersenich et al. (2008)
Mobile Phone Base Stations:
Effect: Abdel-Rassoul et al. (2007),
Eger et al. (2004), Hutter et al. (2006),
Navarro et al. (2003), Santini et al. (2003),
Wolf & Wolf (2004), Blettner et al. (2008), Dode et al. (2011),
Rodrigues et al. (2021)
[great variety: from headaches to breast cancer]
No effect: Meyer et al. (2006), Berg-Beckhoff et al. (2009)
Our review of base stations: Khurana et al. (2010)
+ own interest: http://www.chronicexposure.org
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20662418
Reviews: Effect on bees, birds and plants
- Radiofrequency (RF) radiation
Already 4 reviews indicate harmful effects:
Cucurachi et al. (2013)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261519
Balmori (2009)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264463
Sivani & Sudarsanam (2012)
http://www.biolmedonline.com/Articles/Vol4_4_2012/V
ol4_4_202-216_BM-8.pdf
Levitt, Lai & Manville (2021)
https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0026
(Note: Several fertility-related findings)
Picture & Report from India:
https://tinyurl.com/MoEFGovIndia
1/1000-part of ICNIRP guidelines
causes disorientation for birds (Engels et al., 2014)
 A real problem close to base stations and radars ?
Engels, S., Schneider, N.-L., Lefeldt, N., Hein, C. M., Zapka, M., Michalik, A., … Mouritsen, H. (2014).
Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Nature, 509(7500), 353–356.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v509/n7500/full/nature13290.html
Wiltschko et al. (2015): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540238 , Kavokin et al. (2014): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24942848
Picture: Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise in the huts before (red) and after (blue) installation of shielding
 Shielding corrected the magnetic compass functioning of birds.
Our research showed very high RF-levels in a big city
Koppel, T., Ahonen, M., Carlberg, M., & Hardell, L. (2022). Very high radiofrequency radiation at
Skeppsbron in Stockholm, Sweden from mobile phone base station antennas positioned close to
pedestrians’ heads. Environmental Research, 208, 112627.
 Insects missing in some cities, RF radiation one possible reason?
Perhaps unsustainable 5G/6G
projects/activities?
 5G Smart Farming Tour ,
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOipZehNkJA
 Farming Paradise, https://farmingparadise.com/5g-future-
farming
 EU-funded Hexa-X is a broad collaborative initiative to
frame the 6G research agenda + digital twin, https://hexa-
x.eu
Comment: Strange sustainability views for Internet-of-Agro-
Things or for Agriculture 4.0 !
PhD Mikko Ahonen
“Development”
 From 4G (LTE) to real 5G
Soure: xgpforum.com
Comment: A mobile phone base station used to have (even in 4G) only some antennas.
Massive MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output
There can be hundreds of antennas
in a 5G/6G MMW basestation!
"Our simulation results suggest the
downlink of a Fifth Generation Cellular
Mobile Communications (5G) system can
generate significantly higher power
density (PD) and specific absorption rate
(SAR) than the previous generations of
wireless systems."
Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2019). Mitigation of human EMF
exposure in downlink of 5G. Annals of Telecommunications,
74(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-018-0696-6
Bild: Törnevik, ITU 2017
A huge amount of antennas makes it (almost) impossible
to drive 5G MMW in countries with healthier guidelines.
Safety zone 115 meters!
 Safety area 115 meters around antennas !!
Source: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/Workshops-and-
Seminars/20171205/Documents/S3_Christer_Tornevik.pdf
When there is a plan to use 5G/6G MMW-implementations:
Good to know: Millimeter waves (MMW) have an effect on
bacteria  they become more sensitive to biologically active
chemicals, but also to antibiotics.
Additionally, MMWs have an effect on cell membrane structure,
permeability and functionality.
Soghomonyan, D., Trchounian, K., & Trchounian, A. (2016). Millimeter waves or
extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their
effects on bacteria? Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(11), s. 4761–4771.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7538-0
Belyaev, I. Y., Shcheglov, V. S., Alipov, E. D., & Ushakov, V. D. (2000). Nonthermal effects of
extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vivo-dependence on
physical, physiological, and genetic factors. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and
Techniques, 48(11), 2172–2179. https://doi.org/10.1109/22.884211
+ our contribution:
Ahonen, M., Lehto, T. & Koppel, T. (2019). Radiotaajuisen säteilyn vaikutus hiivasienten, homeiden ja
mikrobien kasvuun (The effect of radiofrequency radiation on the growth of yeast, mold and microbes).
Sisäilmastoseminaari 2019 (Indoor Air 2019 Conference), SIY Raportti (Report) 37, p. 375-380
" … above 6 GHz would
lead to an increase in
absorbed power
between 3–370%.
....This could lead to
changes in insect
behaviour, physiology,
and morphology."
 Biggest absorption
in bees at 24 GHz
(5G MMW in 26 GHz)
Picture: Thielens et al. (2018). Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHz.
Scientific Reports, 8(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22271-3
Beamforming – many antennas directed to the same spot
"However, since the radiation is concentrated into selected portions of
territory, there may be an increase of EMFs in these points".
Chiaraviglio, L., Cacciapuoti, A. S., Martino, G. D., Fiore, M., Montesano,
M., Trucchi, D., & Melazzi, N. B. (2018). Planning 5G Networks Under EMF
Constraints: State of the Art and Vision. IEEE Access, 6, 51021–51037.
https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2868347
Thermal-based acute (6 minutes) ICNIRP-guideline
vs.
Biological, non-thermal 24/7 guidelines/recommendations
Please, note: ICNIRP-level is 100-1.000.000 times higher! : http://www.icnirp.de
EMF Scientist Appeal. 200 researchers contact in 2015 the UN and require lower levels:
http://www.emfscientist.org
European Academy of Environmental Medicine (EUROPAEM) & RF radiation:
https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0011
RF Radiation
power density
levels
With Beamforming and Massive MIMO
RF-exposure can be detrimental at current
(ICNIRP) guidelines
Neufeld, E., & Kuster, N. (2018). Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits
for Time-varying 5g Radiofrequency Exposure Based on
Analytical Models and Thermal Dose.
Health Physics, 115(6), 705–711. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338
“The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000
tolerated by the ICNIRP guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage
after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing
exposure guidelines.”
More research funding needed to study
hormon profiles and genetic damage close to
base stations
Gandhi, G., Kaur, G., & Nisar, U. (2014).
A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals
residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 1–11.
https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2014.933349
Zothansiama et al. (2017). Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage
and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the
vicinity of mobile phone base stations.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 36(3), 295–305.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2017.1350584
Eskander, E. F., Estefan, S. F., & Abd-Rabou, A. A. (2012).
How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones
affect human hormone profiles?
Clinical Biochemistry, 45(1–2), 157–161.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.11.006
Biological effects -> “right” combination of Power,
Frequency & Modulation
Oxidative stress and radiofrequency radiation
Picture: PhD Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen (thanks)
Yakymenko, I., Tsybulin, O., Sidorik, E., Henshel,
D., Kyrylenko, O., & Kyrylenko, S. (2016). Oxidative
mechanisms of biological activity of low-
intensity radiofrequency radiation.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 35(2), 186–
202.
https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557
56
Power
Frequency
Modulation
Mikko Ahonen – Online Educa Berlin 2008
https://www.connexionfrance.com/article/French-news/French-court-orders-4G-antenna-switch-off-over-cow-health-concerns
Earlier research:
Cow cataracts caused by
RF-transmitters:
Löscher and Käs (1998)
Wenzel et al. (2002)
Löscher (2003)
Hassig et al. (2009)
http://emf-portal.org
GSM
Quickest way to test damages? Expose banana
flies with pulsed(!) microwaves under their
developmental phases:
Egg  Larva  Pupa  Fly
Margaritis et al. (2014). Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 33(3), 165–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2013.800102
+ Check also: Odemer, R., & Odemer, F. (2019). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation
(RF-EMF) on honey bee queen development and mating success. The Science of the Total
Environment, 661, 553–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.154
Damages in flies from 0,3 V/m  from 238 µW/m2
(Very low RF levels! With Bluetooth. New focus on IoT?)
Margaritis et al. (2014). Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker
responding to EMF sources. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine,
33(3), 165–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2013.800102
The 5G Appeal – 200 researchers warn:
“We the undersigned, …, recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the
fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for
human health and the environment have been fully investigated by
scientists independent from industry.
5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic
fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications
already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the
environment. “
http://www.5gappeal.eu
ICNIRP
International Commission
on Non-Ionizing
Radiation ‘Protection’
(a German foundation, http://www.icnirp.de)
Behind macro-level heating (only!)
focused guidelines
Honorary chair & founder:
Michael Repacholi
Makes reviews for: FCC, SSM Sweden etc.
Have had members in
EU SCHEER (SCENIHR) + COST 281
International EMF Project in WHO
Earlier chief: Michael Repacholi
Currently chief: Emilie Deventer
- Early funding from mobile industry *
- Utilised Industry-damage-control
partner Gradient Corp for
health reviews **
Uses ICNIRP as
the only (!)
“in-house expert”
Provides a review
of guidelines
“environmental
health criteria
(EHC)”
New nature-focused RF-guidelines urgently needed,
from r-e-a-l-l-y independent people and organisations
https://microwavenews.com/docs/MWN.11(9)-06.pdf
http://www.emfcall.org
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504984/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849947/
https://tinyurl.com/drop-ab
http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3148
http://estsjournal.org/article/view/41/33
http://www.emfscientist.org
Risk-management tips 1/5:
Antenna/sensor design
 Use directional, narrow-beam antennas, instead of omni-
directional (when antenna is close to animal or plant). This
minimises the exposure of the animal.
 If needed, use RF shielding materials towards the animal.
 Focus on power management of the antenna and sensor.
Verify that antenna is not transmitting in power-save –
mode.
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Risk-management tips 2/5:
RF Power level
When adjusting power of antennas, consider biologically meaningful
levels (<100 µW/m2 (peak)) or less while exposing plants/animals 24/7)
Example: EUROPAEM (2016) levels.
https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0011
Risk-management tips 3/5:
Drones
 With drones, minimise exposure time. Run drones as much
as possible based on GPS-coordinates, without additional
mobile data connections. Avoid swarms. This way drone-
based RF-emissions can be minimised.
 If low-latency, high speed millimeter wave (MMW) networks
are needed for drones, then activate such a
network/antenna system only for a small period of time
with low power level and then shut it down. (for
explanation, check MMW slides)
PhD Mikko Ahonen
This Photo by Unknown
Author is licensed under CC
BY-SA-NC
Risk-management tips 4/5:
Digital Twin
 Digital Twin implementations with 5G/6G can be
especially harmful for bees and cows.
 Consider NB-IoT Technology
(https://www.narrowband.com/what-is-narrowband-iot ) or
similar instead of very polluting Autonomous Digital Twin
technologies.
 Implement autonomous tractor and other vehicle
activities
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032121000964) in a
narrow area and if possible use minimally
pulsed/modulated technology.
PhD Mikko Ahonen
Imge: ai4agri.nl
Risk-management tips 5/5:
Limiting legal responsibility
 Since there are already several court cases pending and for
example the FCC is requested to provide healthier
guidelines: https://ehtrust.org/in-historic-decision-federal-court-finds-fcc-failed-to-
explain-why-it-ignored-scientific-evidence-showing-harm-from-wireless-radiation/
 Worth checking : Pearce, J. M. (2020). Limiting liability with
positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular
phone towers. Environmental Research, 181, 108845.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108845
 Operators and other companies/organisations can
effectively limit their liability by minimising RF exposure,
also in smart agriculture projects.
PhD Mikko Ahonen
PhD Mikko Ahonen
E-mail: mikko.ahonen [ät] tutanota.com
Telephone/SMS/Signal/Telegram:
+358-45-146 5345
Info & publications:
http://www.mikkoahonen.com
Questions and comments welcome!
P.S. With this slideset and with my presentations to agriculture university
audiences from India and Finland I express my gratitude to
Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose’s lifetime work and his inspiration.

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Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) - Case: Smart Agriculture and Risk Management

  • 1. Beneficial and Harmful Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Case: Smart Agriculture and Risk Management PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 2. PhD Mikko Ahonen: Hardell, L., Koppel, T., Carlberg, M., Ahonen, M., & Hedendahl, L. (2016). Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields. International Journal of Oncology, 49(4), 1315–1324. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633090 - Has worked as a researcher 30 years (University of Tampere, Finland & Mid Sweden University, Sweden). - In (Smart) Agriculture projects in 1990s & 2022-2023 - Bioelectromagnetics research 2008-2023, in professor, MD Lennart Hardell’s research group. - Responsible for measurements and dosimetry - Example of research :
  • 3. Table of Contents – Part 1  Introduction: Natural non-ionizing radiation and it’s effect on plants, insects and animals  Solar storms and earth’s magnetic field  Applying electricity to plants and effects on growth  Researchers of plant physiology (Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose & Co )
  • 5. Table of Contents – Part 2  Base Stations & routers and their pulsed microwave radiation effects on plants, insects and animals  Sustainability challenges of 5G/6G  Sensors and antennas, IoT (including Bluetooth & Wi-Fi) and their effects on stress of animals and plants  Risk management practices for Smart Agriculture.
  • 6. Part 1: Introduction Natural non-ionizing radiation and it’s importance
  • 7. Natural radiation, special focus on the non-ionizing part
  • 8. Earth’s magnetic field – An introduction: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IgtIdttfGVw Picture: From Youtube video of ‘Professor Dave explains’ -series Sun wind has shaped earth’s magnetosphere, magnetic field lines ... and life on earth. Picture: NASA https://www.nasa.gov/image-article/earths-magnetosphere-3/
  • 9. Geomagnetic disturbances (caused by sun storms)  Birds have navigation faults (Beason & Nichols,1984)  Effect on bacteria, viruses and mold (Blakemore, 1975)  Heart- and blood pressure problems (Belov et al. (1998), Chernouss et al. (2001), Dimitrova et al. (2004), Otto et al. (1982). [esp. humans]  Effect on functioning and mental health (Becker et al. (1961), Friedman et al. (1963), Dimitrova et al. (2002), Kay (1994), Krivelyova and Robotti (2003), Persinger (1987), Raps (1999), Srivastava et al. (1980), Gordon & Berk (2003). [esp. human]  Causes: Sun flares  Changed DC magnetic field on earth + increased radiofrequency radiation + changed air ionization.
  • 10. Sun Storms can be followed (in advance) PhD Mikko Ahonen https://auroraforecast.is/kp-index/ https://www.swpc.noaa.gov/products/planetary-k-index
  • 11. Earth magnetic field (MF) in Nordic countries ~50 µT DC (Direct Current) - Picture: Anomaly area (even +1064 nT) in Alnö, Sweden - Airplane measurements, DC Magnetic field: https://apps.sgu.se/kartvisare/kartvisare-magnetfalt.html , https://hakku.gtk.fi
  • 12. Migrating birds: Disturbances in magnetic field suspected when birds go astray Picture: PhysOrg, https://phys.org/news/2023-01-migrating-birds-disturbances-magnetic-field.html
  • 13. Have you tested with a compass? (magnetised springs in a bed, DC MF-anomaly) Recommendations (for humans): https://www.baubiologie.de/downloads/richtwerte-schlafbereiche-15.pdf
  • 14. Schumann Resonance – Prof. W. O. Schumann Global natural electromagnetic resonance that connects the Earth's surface and the ionosphere 7.83 Hz , 14.3 Hz, 20.8 Hz, 27.3 Hz Dominant frequency 7,83 Hz Very weak level: 1-10 nT, 0,3 µW/m² Overview: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002191699400075Y http://www.scribd.com/doc/228596266 http://magbase.rssi.ru/REFMAN/SPPHTEXT/schumann.html
  • 15. A documentary about Schumann Resonance Resonance – Beings of Frequency https://youtu.be/rJUfFQWRIso?t=129 Natural radiofrequency radiation – Schumann Resonance – 7.83 Hz – EEG-synch- required by human beings – < 0,3 µW/m² (a very tiny RF level) P.S. Not the whole film is excellent, but the Schumann resonance part is informative.
  • 16. What happens when natural EMFs are removed? Research done in the Max Planck Institute in the 1960’s In a bunker (Faraday cage) both humans and animals observed. Lighting changes did not much affect circadian rhythm. BUT when natural EMFs (including Schumann resonance) were removed, the rhythm changed to 33 hour. Caused several stress-related symptoms. Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969), Tatsis et al. (2021) https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004896972102742X
  • 17.  By producing an artificial Schumann resonance in the bunker (~10 Hz frequency, 8,3 µW/m² power density * ), the 24 hour rhythm returned.  (Natural) EMFs have a Zeitgeberfunktion / effect on Circadian Rhythm * Comment: 8,3 µW/m² is about 1/1.000.000-part of official ICNIRP guideline for EMFs. Source: Wever (1969), Dowse and Palmer (1969)
  • 18. - A Schumann-generator needed, designed for space travel - For health reasons (to synchronise brain, EEG for circadian rhythm) - Both for the Sojuz & Apollo -programs - Professor Yuri Grigoriev, RNCNIRP EEG http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=20022 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1015637127504
  • 19. Brain waves and Schumann Resonance? 13 Hz to 40 Hz 8 Hz to 13 Hz 4 Hz to 8 Hz 0 Hz to 4 Hz Connection: Persinger, M. A., & Saroka, K. S. (2015). Human Quantitative Electroencephalographic and Schumann Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of Spectral Power Densities: Implications for Interactive Information Processing. Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 06(02), Article 02. https://doi.org/10.4236/jsip.2015.62015
  • 20. Effects of Moon on plants – theories: - Gravitational force - Light from the full moon - At full moon earth’s magnetotail is changed  Electric field on earth is changed Bevington, M. (2015). Lunar biological effects and the magnetosphere. Pathophysiology, 22(4), 211– 222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2015.08.005
  • 21. Mikko Ahonen – Online Educa Berlin 2008 Effect of moon to plants - Semmens (1923 & 1947): Germination of the seeds of mustard (Sinapis spp.) strongly accelerated by the effect of moonlight. - Kolisko (studies between 1927-1935), demonstrated the variations in growth of plants according to the lunar synodic rhythm. The seeds of lettuce, white cabbage, tomato etc. sown 2 days before the full moon showed better germination and stronger growth. - Spiess (1994) using trials lasting even 6 years, provides statistical confirmation of lunar variations in the case of cultivated annuals, winter rye, radish, carrot, potato, bean, and mustard.
  • 22. Moon calendar for farming and gardening: https://www.rhythmofnature.net/gardener-calendar Heavy debate, whether moon has effect on plants, continues: Mayoral, O., Solbes, J., Cantó, J., & Pina, T. (2020). What Has Been Thought and Taught on the Lunar Influence on Plants in Agriculture? Perspective from Physics and Biology. Agronomy, 10(7), Article 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10070955 Versus Sivasankari J. & Thimmaiah, A. (2021). Lunar rhythms in agriculture - review on scientific perspectives. Int J Complement Alt Med. 14(2):81‒85. https://medcraveonline.com/IJCAM/IJCAM-14-00536.pdf
  • 23. Sferics, cold and warm -front, Föhn-wind, in kHz-range Before the front: 0,27 µW/m² , During Sferics: 27 µW/m² (causes headache, tiredness, depression for some people, also pain in amputated limbs) (Lotmar et al., 1969; Reiter, 1960; König, 1974)
  • 24. Typical frequencies - During Atmospherics (Sferics) Picture: Schippke (2001) Simulated Sferics in a laboratory: Decrease in EEG alpha power Schienle et al. (1998) http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_12_3_schienle.pdf Several kHz
  • 25.
  • 26. PhD Mikko Ahonen Famous researcher and inventor from Calcutta, India. Also radio-inventor, before Marconi. Worked with plants and electricity. His findings: Electricity stimulated growth of certain plants. Was first to measure also EMFs f-r-o-m plants and demonstrated the nervous system of plants. - J.C. Bose. The Nervous Mechanism of Plants. (1926). Nature, 118(2975), 654–655. https://doi.org/10.1038/118654a0 - J.C. Bose, "On the determination of the wavelength of electric radiation by a diffraction grating," Proc. Roy. Soc., vol. 60, pp.167-178, 1897. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rspl.1896.0031 - Meher, W. (2010). The Scientific Sufi —The Life and Times of Jagadish Chandra Bose. Penguin Random House India. https://www.penguin.co.in/book/the-scientific-sufi/
  • 27. Man-made electromagnetic fields - overlapping natural non-ionizing radiation
  • 28. - Blackman (1923): 100 picoampere currents, just 1 hour/day, maximised growth of barley, while chronic exposure was detrimental. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspb.1923.0034 - Lemström (1904); electricity stimulated growth of wheat, rye, barley - while stunted growth of peas and carrots. - Bose (1915 ); In plants one microampere, and in animals a third of a microampere, was enough to slow or speed up nerve impulses by about 20 percent. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1915.0010 PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 29. Man-made electromagnetic fields – 20th century Picture: Dr. Gerd Oberfeld
  • 30.
  • 31. Agriculture 4.0 – EMF-Interest here on: Internet of Things (IoT), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drones) and Robotics Picture source and a view on Agriculture 4.0: Mitra, A., Vangipuram, S. L. T., Bapatla, A. K., Bathalapalli, V. K. V. V., Mohanty, S. P., Kougianos, E., & Ray, C. (2022). Everything You wanted to Know about Smart Agriculture (arXiv:2201.04754). arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2201.04754
  • 32. Sustainable development -definition “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (United Nations General Assembly, 1987, p. 43). PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 33. Video about environmental effects of RF radiation http://vimeo.com/17268728
  • 34. Pulsed RF radiation – effect on bees? Harst, Kuhn & Stever (2006) More studies: http://www.livingplanet.be/emranimals.htm A DECT -base station next to the hive caused disorientation in bees. And large amount of colonies could not return to the hive.
  • 35. More about bees and pulsed RF radiation Favre (2011) RF exposure from mobile technologies change worker bees’ piping signal (changes communication among bees). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s1359 2-011-0016-x Lopatina et al. (2019) Wi-Fi had effect on food search and bees’ short term memory https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0013 873819010032 Odemer & Odemer (2019) RF radiation altering pupal development in bee hives (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.154 ), Video: CNN, Colony Collapse Disorder (2010) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XPKt6DExKQ
  • 36. Considerations: IoT and transmitters in Cow collars & body Balmori, A. (2024). Radio-tracking systems emit pulsed waves that could affect the health and alter the orientation of animals. Journal for Nature Conservation, 77. January 2024. Early online, 126520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2023.126520 Note: Radio-tracking systems use higher power, but still the study is worth reading because of animal-attached transmitters. About RFID, embedded chips and animal harm : Albrecht, K. (2010). Microchip-induced tumors in laboratory rodents and dogs: A review of the literature 1990–2006. 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society, 337–349. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISTAS.2010.5514622
  • 37. Trees and pulsed radiofrequency (RF) radiation Historical German document, Waldschäden: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60849109/ Trees and plants act as optimal antennas: http://livingplanet.be/emrplants.htm Picture: Trees’ leaves, which are not in the shadow/cover of the building , are damaged. While branches and leaves which are in the cover are not damaged. Waldmann-Selsam, C., Balmori-de la Puente, A., Breunig, H., & Balmori, A. (2016). Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. The Science of the Total Environment, 572, 554–569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045
  • 38. Wi-Fi router effects on plants Havas, M., & Symington, M. S. (2016). Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Germination and Growth of Broccoli, Pea, Red Clover and Garden Cress Seedlings: A Partial Replication Study. Current Chemical Biology, 10(1), 65– 73. More on plants’ stress response and Wi-Fi: https://www.emf-portal.org/en/search/results?query=wi-fi+AND+plant&languageIds%5B%5D=en
  • 39. Microwaving water and watering plants with it  Detrimental effect on growth? Alattar, E. M., Elwasife, K. Y., Radwan, E. S., & Alagha, A. M. (2018). EFFECT OF MICROWAVE TREATED WATER ON THE GROWTH OF CORN (ZEA MAYS) AND PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) SEEDLINGS. ROMANIAN J. BIOPHYS, Vol. 28, Issue. 3(Vol. 28, Issue. 3). https://iugspace.iugaza.edu.ps/handle/20.500.12358/26229
  • 40. The WHO/International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic humans (Group 2B), based on an increased risk glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, associated with wireless phone use. IARC/WHO risk classification, 2011: http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf (Classification covers all RF-transmittters. Combined effect? Dose-response?)
  • 41. Instituto Ramazzini – World biggest RF-animal study – Heart tumors – Max 50 V/m - Only 1 antenna ! U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) study  Classification: Clear evidence of heart tumors (2018). https://www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newsroom/releases/2018/november1/index.cfm https://doi.org/10.1002/em.22343  Falcioni et al. 2018: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29530389 Picture: IEEE
  • 42. Epidemiological studies of humans Radio and TV-transmitters: Effect: Dolk et al. (1997a), Hocking & Gordon (2003), Ha et al. (2007), Mascarinec et al. (1994, Michelozzi et al. (2002), Morton & Phillips (1983), Park et al. (2004) [Mostly increased leukemias and lymphomas] No effect: Dolk et al. (1997b), Mersenich et al. (2008) Mobile Phone Base Stations: Effect: Abdel-Rassoul et al. (2007), Eger et al. (2004), Hutter et al. (2006), Navarro et al. (2003), Santini et al. (2003), Wolf & Wolf (2004), Blettner et al. (2008), Dode et al. (2011), Rodrigues et al. (2021) [great variety: from headaches to breast cancer] No effect: Meyer et al. (2006), Berg-Beckhoff et al. (2009) Our review of base stations: Khurana et al. (2010) + own interest: http://www.chronicexposure.org http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20662418
  • 43. Reviews: Effect on bees, birds and plants - Radiofrequency (RF) radiation Already 4 reviews indicate harmful effects: Cucurachi et al. (2013) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23261519 Balmori (2009) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19264463 Sivani & Sudarsanam (2012) http://www.biolmedonline.com/Articles/Vol4_4_2012/V ol4_4_202-216_BM-8.pdf Levitt, Lai & Manville (2021) https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0026 (Note: Several fertility-related findings) Picture & Report from India: https://tinyurl.com/MoEFGovIndia
  • 44. 1/1000-part of ICNIRP guidelines causes disorientation for birds (Engels et al., 2014)  A real problem close to base stations and radars ? Engels, S., Schneider, N.-L., Lefeldt, N., Hein, C. M., Zapka, M., Michalik, A., … Mouritsen, H. (2014). Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird. Nature, 509(7500), 353–356. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v509/n7500/full/nature13290.html Wiltschko et al. (2015): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540238 , Kavokin et al. (2014): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24942848 Picture: Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise in the huts before (red) and after (blue) installation of shielding  Shielding corrected the magnetic compass functioning of birds.
  • 45. Our research showed very high RF-levels in a big city Koppel, T., Ahonen, M., Carlberg, M., & Hardell, L. (2022). Very high radiofrequency radiation at Skeppsbron in Stockholm, Sweden from mobile phone base station antennas positioned close to pedestrians’ heads. Environmental Research, 208, 112627.  Insects missing in some cities, RF radiation one possible reason?
  • 46. Perhaps unsustainable 5G/6G projects/activities?  5G Smart Farming Tour , https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOipZehNkJA  Farming Paradise, https://farmingparadise.com/5g-future- farming  EU-funded Hexa-X is a broad collaborative initiative to frame the 6G research agenda + digital twin, https://hexa- x.eu Comment: Strange sustainability views for Internet-of-Agro- Things or for Agriculture 4.0 ! PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 47. “Development”  From 4G (LTE) to real 5G Soure: xgpforum.com Comment: A mobile phone base station used to have (even in 4G) only some antennas.
  • 48. Massive MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output There can be hundreds of antennas in a 5G/6G MMW basestation! "Our simulation results suggest the downlink of a Fifth Generation Cellular Mobile Communications (5G) system can generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than the previous generations of wireless systems." Nasim, I., & Kim, S. (2019). Mitigation of human EMF exposure in downlink of 5G. Annals of Telecommunications, 74(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12243-018-0696-6 Bild: Törnevik, ITU 2017
  • 49. A huge amount of antennas makes it (almost) impossible to drive 5G MMW in countries with healthier guidelines. Safety zone 115 meters!  Safety area 115 meters around antennas !! Source: https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/Workshops-and- Seminars/20171205/Documents/S3_Christer_Tornevik.pdf
  • 50. When there is a plan to use 5G/6G MMW-implementations: Good to know: Millimeter waves (MMW) have an effect on bacteria  they become more sensitive to biologically active chemicals, but also to antibiotics. Additionally, MMWs have an effect on cell membrane structure, permeability and functionality. Soghomonyan, D., Trchounian, K., & Trchounian, A. (2016). Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria? Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 100(11), s. 4761–4771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7538-0 Belyaev, I. Y., Shcheglov, V. S., Alipov, E. D., & Ushakov, V. D. (2000). Nonthermal effects of extremely high-frequency microwaves on chromatin conformation in cells in vivo-dependence on physical, physiological, and genetic factors. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 48(11), 2172–2179. https://doi.org/10.1109/22.884211 + our contribution: Ahonen, M., Lehto, T. & Koppel, T. (2019). Radiotaajuisen säteilyn vaikutus hiivasienten, homeiden ja mikrobien kasvuun (The effect of radiofrequency radiation on the growth of yeast, mold and microbes). Sisäilmastoseminaari 2019 (Indoor Air 2019 Conference), SIY Raportti (Report) 37, p. 375-380
  • 51. " … above 6 GHz would lead to an increase in absorbed power between 3–370%. ....This could lead to changes in insect behaviour, physiology, and morphology."  Biggest absorption in bees at 24 GHz (5G MMW in 26 GHz) Picture: Thielens et al. (2018). Exposure of Insects to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields from 2 to 120 GHz. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22271-3
  • 52. Beamforming – many antennas directed to the same spot "However, since the radiation is concentrated into selected portions of territory, there may be an increase of EMFs in these points". Chiaraviglio, L., Cacciapuoti, A. S., Martino, G. D., Fiore, M., Montesano, M., Trucchi, D., & Melazzi, N. B. (2018). Planning 5G Networks Under EMF Constraints: State of the Art and Vision. IEEE Access, 6, 51021–51037. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2868347
  • 53. Thermal-based acute (6 minutes) ICNIRP-guideline vs. Biological, non-thermal 24/7 guidelines/recommendations Please, note: ICNIRP-level is 100-1.000.000 times higher! : http://www.icnirp.de EMF Scientist Appeal. 200 researchers contact in 2015 the UN and require lower levels: http://www.emfscientist.org European Academy of Environmental Medicine (EUROPAEM) & RF radiation: https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0011 RF Radiation power density levels
  • 54. With Beamforming and Massive MIMO RF-exposure can be detrimental at current (ICNIRP) guidelines Neufeld, E., & Kuster, N. (2018). Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-varying 5g Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Physics, 115(6), 705–711. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338 “The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the ICNIRP guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.”
  • 55. More research funding needed to study hormon profiles and genetic damage close to base stations Gandhi, G., Kaur, G., & Nisar, U. (2014). A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2014.933349 Zothansiama et al. (2017). Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 36(3), 295–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/15368378.2017.1350584 Eskander, E. F., Estefan, S. F., & Abd-Rabou, A. A. (2012). How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles? Clinical Biochemistry, 45(1–2), 157–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.11.006
  • 56. Biological effects -> “right” combination of Power, Frequency & Modulation Oxidative stress and radiofrequency radiation Picture: PhD Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen (thanks) Yakymenko, I., Tsybulin, O., Sidorik, E., Henshel, D., Kyrylenko, O., & Kyrylenko, S. (2016). Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low- intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 35(2), 186– 202. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2015.1043557 56 Power Frequency Modulation
  • 57. Mikko Ahonen – Online Educa Berlin 2008 https://www.connexionfrance.com/article/French-news/French-court-orders-4G-antenna-switch-off-over-cow-health-concerns Earlier research: Cow cataracts caused by RF-transmitters: Löscher and Käs (1998) Wenzel et al. (2002) Löscher (2003) Hassig et al. (2009) http://emf-portal.org GSM
  • 58. Quickest way to test damages? Expose banana flies with pulsed(!) microwaves under their developmental phases: Egg  Larva  Pupa  Fly Margaritis et al. (2014). Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 33(3), 165–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2013.800102 + Check also: Odemer, R., & Odemer, F. (2019). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMF) on honey bee queen development and mating success. The Science of the Total Environment, 661, 553–562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.154
  • 59. Damages in flies from 0,3 V/m  from 238 µW/m2 (Very low RF levels! With Bluetooth. New focus on IoT?) Margaritis et al. (2014). Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 33(3), 165–189. https://doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2013.800102
  • 60. The 5G Appeal – 200 researchers warn: “We the undersigned, …, recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for human health and the environment have been fully investigated by scientists independent from industry. 5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment. “ http://www.5gappeal.eu
  • 61. ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation ‘Protection’ (a German foundation, http://www.icnirp.de) Behind macro-level heating (only!) focused guidelines Honorary chair & founder: Michael Repacholi Makes reviews for: FCC, SSM Sweden etc. Have had members in EU SCHEER (SCENIHR) + COST 281 International EMF Project in WHO Earlier chief: Michael Repacholi Currently chief: Emilie Deventer - Early funding from mobile industry * - Utilised Industry-damage-control partner Gradient Corp for health reviews ** Uses ICNIRP as the only (!) “in-house expert” Provides a review of guidelines “environmental health criteria (EHC)” New nature-focused RF-guidelines urgently needed, from r-e-a-l-l-y independent people and organisations https://microwavenews.com/docs/MWN.11(9)-06.pdf http://www.emfcall.org https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504984/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849947/ https://tinyurl.com/drop-ab http://ro.uow.edu.au/theses/3148 http://estsjournal.org/article/view/41/33 http://www.emfscientist.org
  • 62. Risk-management tips 1/5: Antenna/sensor design  Use directional, narrow-beam antennas, instead of omni- directional (when antenna is close to animal or plant). This minimises the exposure of the animal.  If needed, use RF shielding materials towards the animal.  Focus on power management of the antenna and sensor. Verify that antenna is not transmitting in power-save – mode. PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 63. Risk-management tips 2/5: RF Power level When adjusting power of antennas, consider biologically meaningful levels (<100 µW/m2 (peak)) or less while exposing plants/animals 24/7) Example: EUROPAEM (2016) levels. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0011
  • 64. Risk-management tips 3/5: Drones  With drones, minimise exposure time. Run drones as much as possible based on GPS-coordinates, without additional mobile data connections. Avoid swarms. This way drone- based RF-emissions can be minimised.  If low-latency, high speed millimeter wave (MMW) networks are needed for drones, then activate such a network/antenna system only for a small period of time with low power level and then shut it down. (for explanation, check MMW slides) PhD Mikko Ahonen This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC
  • 65. Risk-management tips 4/5: Digital Twin  Digital Twin implementations with 5G/6G can be especially harmful for bees and cows.  Consider NB-IoT Technology (https://www.narrowband.com/what-is-narrowband-iot ) or similar instead of very polluting Autonomous Digital Twin technologies.  Implement autonomous tractor and other vehicle activities (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1364032121000964) in a narrow area and if possible use minimally pulsed/modulated technology. PhD Mikko Ahonen Imge: ai4agri.nl
  • 66. Risk-management tips 5/5: Limiting legal responsibility  Since there are already several court cases pending and for example the FCC is requested to provide healthier guidelines: https://ehtrust.org/in-historic-decision-federal-court-finds-fcc-failed-to- explain-why-it-ignored-scientific-evidence-showing-harm-from-wireless-radiation/  Worth checking : Pearce, J. M. (2020). Limiting liability with positioning to minimize negative health effects of cellular phone towers. Environmental Research, 181, 108845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108845  Operators and other companies/organisations can effectively limit their liability by minimising RF exposure, also in smart agriculture projects. PhD Mikko Ahonen
  • 67. PhD Mikko Ahonen E-mail: mikko.ahonen [ät] tutanota.com Telephone/SMS/Signal/Telegram: +358-45-146 5345 Info & publications: http://www.mikkoahonen.com Questions and comments welcome! P.S. With this slideset and with my presentations to agriculture university audiences from India and Finland I express my gratitude to Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose’s lifetime work and his inspiration.