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UNIT 5: PLANT
    TISSUE
Campbell and Reece, 2010. Chapter 35 p. 738 –
 745 and 750 - 751, Edulink and learning guide
                     notes
PLANT BODY ORGANS
 Plants have organs that compose of different
  tissue,
 which in turn are composed of cells of
  different types.
 A tissue is a group of cells with a common
  function, structure or both.
 An organ consist of several types of tissues
  that together carry out particular functions.
 The three basis plant organs are:
   Roots,
   stems
   leaves.                           SHOOT SYSTEM




                                      ROOT SYSTEM



  The organs are divided into
   the root system (roots and mycorhiza)
   shoot system (leaves and stems)
ROOTS



 Anchor plants
 Root hairs absorb water and minerals.
 Stores carbohydrates.
 Eudicots have a taproot system (one main
  vertical root that give rise to lateral roots)
 Monocots have an adventitious root system
  (roots that originate from the stem of a plant)
Fig. 35-4


              Roots can be modified to
                 Prop roots
                      Many plants have modified
            perform different functions:
                                 roots
                                          “Strangling”
                                          aerial roots
            Storage roots




                                         Buttress roots
                Pneumatophores
STEMS
 Consist of nodes (where leaves grow) and
    internodes.
   The angle between the leave and the stem is
    called the axillary bud, this can form a lateral
    shoot.
   The shoot tip consist of an apical (end) bud.
   The inhibition of axillary buds by an apical
    bud is called apical dominance.
   Stems support the leaves and lateral
    branches of a plant.
   Stems keep the plant upright.
Fig. 35-5



               Rhizomes

                             Bulbs
                    Storage leaves
     Many plants           Stem
    have modified
       stems

                                     Stolon

                             Tubers
 Rhizome: Horizontal shoot that
  grows just below the surface.Vertical
  shoots emerge from auxillary buds on
  the rhizome.
 Stolon: Horizontal shoots that grow
  along the surface. Reproduce
  asexually.
 Tubers: Enlarged ends of rhizome or
  stolon, specialized to store food. The
  eyes are clusters of auxillary buds that
  mark the nodes.
LEAVES
 Main photosynthetic part of the plant (in
    most vascular plants).
   Consist of a flattened blade and a
    stalk, called a petiole.
   Monocots have no petiole.
   Monocots have parallel veins on the leaves
    and Eudicots have net venation.
   Leaf shape differs: simple leaves (single leaf)
    and compound leaves (where the blade
    consist of smaller leaflets – leaflets have no
    axillary buds.)
Fig. 35-6



            (a) Simple leaf

   DIFFERENT                  Petiole
      LEAF                    Axillary bud

  STRUCTURES                  Leaflet
            (b) Compound
                leaf

                              Petiole
                              Axillary bud




            (c) Doubly
                compound      Leaflet
                leaf
                              Petiole
                              Axillary bud
Fig. 35-7

                      Tendrils

Some plant species
   have evolved
  modified leaves                 Spines
 that serve various
     functions                         Storage
                                       leaves

              Reproductive leaves

                         Bracts
Tissue categories in plants
 Each plant organ has:
   dermal,
   vascular and
   ground tissues.
 Each of these three categories forms a tissue
  system.
 The dermal tissue system is the plant’s outer
  protective covering.
 In non-woody plants it is a single layer called the
  epidermis protected by a waxy layer called the
  cuticle found on stems and leaves.
 In woody plants, the protective tissue is called
  periderm.
 Some epidermal cells are modified to form hairs –
    roothairs on roots and trichomes on leaves and
    stems.
   The vascular tissue system carries out transport
    of materials between the root and the shoot
    system.
   The two types are xylem and phloem.
   Ground tissue are neither dermal or vascular.
   Internal ground tissue is called the pith.
   Ground tissue that is external to the vascular
    tissue is called cortex.
   Ground tissue includes various cells with
    specialized functions such as
    storage, photosynthesis and supports.
MERISTEMATIC TISSUE
 A flowering plant has the ability to grow its entire life
  because it possesses meristematic (embryonic)
  tissue.

 The apical meristem are located at or near the tips of
  stems and roots, where they increase the length of
  their structures by means of mitosis.

 This increase in length is called primary growth.

 Monocots also have an intercalary meristem, this
  allows them to regrow lost parts. (It is found between
  mature tissues). EXAMPLE: GRASS CUT - GROW
Organization of a plant body
               MERISTEMATIC
               TISSUE AT TIP
               OF STEM




               MERISTEMATIC
               TISSUE AT TIP
               OF ROOTS
APICAL MERISTEM
 Produces three types of meristems, and these
  develop into the three types of specialized
  primary tissues in the body of the plant:

      SPECIALIZED PRIMARY TISSUES:
 Protoderm gives rise to the epidermis
 Ground meristem produced ground tissue
 Procambium produces vascular tissue
FUNCTIONS OF SPECIALIZED
           TISSUES

 Epidermal tissue: forms the outer protective
  covering of a plant.

 Ground tissue fills the interior of a plant.


 Vascular tissue transports water and
  nutrients in a plant and provides support.
EPIDERMAL
 TISSUE
EPIDERMAL TISSUE
 Single layer of closely       Functions:
  packed, flat, brick
                                   - Cuticle minimizes
  shaped cells, with a
                                   water loss (because it
  large vacuole.
                                   has cutin)
 The aerial parts of the
                                   - Protects the plant
  plant are covered with
                                   against bacteria.
  a cuticle.
                            Longitudinal section



         Cross section
Leaf contain upper and lower
      epidermal cells
SPECIALIZE EPIDERMAL CELLS
                                TRICHOMES

 ROOT HAIR


 TRICHOMES       ROOT HAIRS



 STOMA OF LEAF    CORK CELLS
                                    STOMATA



 CORK OF OLDER
  STEMS
ROOT HAIRS
 They are specialized
  epidermal cells of
  roots.
 Unicellular outgrowth
  of the epidermal cell.

 Functions:
 Increase the surface
  area of the root for
  absorption of water
  and minerals.
 Anchor the plant.
TRICHOMES
 Specialized epidermal
    cell of stems and leaves.        CUTICLE
   Multicellular outgrowths
                                MULTICELLULAR
    of the epidermis of
    stems and leaves.
   Functions:
   Protect the plant from
    sun
   Conserve moisture.
   Protect plant from
    herbivores, produce toxic
    substance.
STOMATA
 Specialized epidermal        FUNCTIONS:
  cells called guard           Transpiration
  cells, which are bean
  shaped, enclose an           Gaseous exchange
  opening called the            take place through the
  stoma or pore.                stomata.
 The guard cells contain a
  nucleus and
  chloroplasts.
 It has a thick inner
  membrane and a thin
  outer membrane.
 Woody plants have
  lenticels.
CLOSED- NIGHT




OPEN - DAY
GROUND TISSUE
   •PARENCHYMA
  •COLLENCHYMA
 •SCLERENCHYMA
GROUND TISSUES
PARENCHYMA TISSUE
 Occur in roots, stems and    FUNCTIONS:
  leaves.                       If they have
 Spherical, loosely             chloroplasts –
  packed, big, thin-walled       photosynthesis.
  cells with large vacuoles.    If they have leucoplasts
 Intercellular airspaces        – they store products
  between cells.                 of photosynthesis.
                                They can divide to
                                 form more specialized
                                 cells
INTERCELLULAR AIR
         SPACES




PARENCHYMA CELLS
COLLENCHYMA TISSUE
 It is composed of             FUNCTIONS:
  unevenly thickened            Mechanical
  primary walls with            strengthening and
  additional cellulose and      support to plant organs
  pectin deposits
  especially in the corners.
 Found just beneath the
  epidermis of young
  stems.
 The cells are slightly
  elongated, tightly
  packed and overlap each
  other.
SCLERENCHYMA TISSUE
 Cell walls have been           FUNCTIONS:
    thickened by impregnation
    with lignin.                  Strengthening, support
   The cell wall is evenly        and protection.
    thickened and forms a         Found in shell of nuts
    waterproof barrier             and hard parts of fruits
    impermeable to water.         Fibers give rigidity and
   In the cell walls are pit      flexibility to the plant.
    canals that serve as
    channels between cells and
    to the outside world.
   The lumen is small.
   Two types of
    Sclerenchyma:
   Stone cells and fibers
VASCULAR TISSUE
     •XYLEM
     •PHLOEM
XYLEM
 Contains 2 types of conducting cells: tracheids
  and vessel elements (VE).
 Both cells are hollow and non-living but the VE
  is larger and has perforated plates in their end
  walls and are arranged to form a continuous
  vessel.
 Tracheids have tapered ends with pits.
 It also has other tissue: Xylem fibers, and Xylem
  parenchyma.
FUNCTIONS OF XYLEM

   Transports water and minerals from
    the roots to the leaves.
   Support and strengthening.




Xylem vessels   Xylem tracheids Xylem fibers
PHLOEM
 Consist of sieve-tubes and companion cells.
 The sieve-tubes form a continuous
  tube, they have cytoplasm but no nuclei.
 They have sieve plates between cells.
 The companion cell has a nucleus that
  controls both cells because they are
  connected by plasmodesmata.
 It also has other tissue: Phloem fibers and
  phloem parenchyma
FUNCTIONS OF PHLOEM
 Transports sucrose and other organic
  substances, including hormones, from
  the leaves to the roots.
 Support and strengthening.
Tissue organization of
            Leaves
 P. 750 – 751 (SELF STUDY)
 KNOW CROSS SECTION THROUGH LEAF

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Unit 5 plant tissue

  • 1. UNIT 5: PLANT TISSUE Campbell and Reece, 2010. Chapter 35 p. 738 – 745 and 750 - 751, Edulink and learning guide notes
  • 2. PLANT BODY ORGANS  Plants have organs that compose of different tissue,  which in turn are composed of cells of different types.  A tissue is a group of cells with a common function, structure or both.  An organ consist of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions.
  • 3.  The three basis plant organs are:  Roots,  stems  leaves. SHOOT SYSTEM ROOT SYSTEM The organs are divided into  the root system (roots and mycorhiza)  shoot system (leaves and stems)
  • 4. ROOTS  Anchor plants  Root hairs absorb water and minerals.  Stores carbohydrates.  Eudicots have a taproot system (one main vertical root that give rise to lateral roots)  Monocots have an adventitious root system (roots that originate from the stem of a plant)
  • 5. Fig. 35-4 Roots can be modified to Prop roots Many plants have modified perform different functions: roots “Strangling” aerial roots Storage roots Buttress roots Pneumatophores
  • 6. STEMS  Consist of nodes (where leaves grow) and internodes.  The angle between the leave and the stem is called the axillary bud, this can form a lateral shoot.  The shoot tip consist of an apical (end) bud.  The inhibition of axillary buds by an apical bud is called apical dominance.  Stems support the leaves and lateral branches of a plant.  Stems keep the plant upright.
  • 7. Fig. 35-5 Rhizomes Bulbs Storage leaves Many plants Stem have modified stems Stolon Tubers
  • 8.  Rhizome: Horizontal shoot that grows just below the surface.Vertical shoots emerge from auxillary buds on the rhizome.  Stolon: Horizontal shoots that grow along the surface. Reproduce asexually.  Tubers: Enlarged ends of rhizome or stolon, specialized to store food. The eyes are clusters of auxillary buds that mark the nodes.
  • 9. LEAVES  Main photosynthetic part of the plant (in most vascular plants).  Consist of a flattened blade and a stalk, called a petiole.  Monocots have no petiole.  Monocots have parallel veins on the leaves and Eudicots have net venation.  Leaf shape differs: simple leaves (single leaf) and compound leaves (where the blade consist of smaller leaflets – leaflets have no axillary buds.)
  • 10. Fig. 35-6 (a) Simple leaf DIFFERENT Petiole LEAF Axillary bud STRUCTURES Leaflet (b) Compound leaf Petiole Axillary bud (c) Doubly compound Leaflet leaf Petiole Axillary bud
  • 11. Fig. 35-7 Tendrils Some plant species have evolved modified leaves Spines that serve various functions Storage leaves Reproductive leaves Bracts
  • 12. Tissue categories in plants  Each plant organ has:  dermal,  vascular and  ground tissues.  Each of these three categories forms a tissue system.  The dermal tissue system is the plant’s outer protective covering.  In non-woody plants it is a single layer called the epidermis protected by a waxy layer called the cuticle found on stems and leaves.  In woody plants, the protective tissue is called periderm.
  • 13.  Some epidermal cells are modified to form hairs – roothairs on roots and trichomes on leaves and stems.  The vascular tissue system carries out transport of materials between the root and the shoot system.  The two types are xylem and phloem.  Ground tissue are neither dermal or vascular.  Internal ground tissue is called the pith.  Ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue is called cortex.  Ground tissue includes various cells with specialized functions such as storage, photosynthesis and supports.
  • 14. MERISTEMATIC TISSUE  A flowering plant has the ability to grow its entire life because it possesses meristematic (embryonic) tissue.  The apical meristem are located at or near the tips of stems and roots, where they increase the length of their structures by means of mitosis.  This increase in length is called primary growth.  Monocots also have an intercalary meristem, this allows them to regrow lost parts. (It is found between mature tissues). EXAMPLE: GRASS CUT - GROW
  • 15. Organization of a plant body MERISTEMATIC TISSUE AT TIP OF STEM MERISTEMATIC TISSUE AT TIP OF ROOTS
  • 16. APICAL MERISTEM  Produces three types of meristems, and these develop into the three types of specialized primary tissues in the body of the plant: SPECIALIZED PRIMARY TISSUES:  Protoderm gives rise to the epidermis  Ground meristem produced ground tissue  Procambium produces vascular tissue
  • 17. FUNCTIONS OF SPECIALIZED TISSUES  Epidermal tissue: forms the outer protective covering of a plant.  Ground tissue fills the interior of a plant.  Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients in a plant and provides support.
  • 19. EPIDERMAL TISSUE  Single layer of closely  Functions: packed, flat, brick - Cuticle minimizes shaped cells, with a water loss (because it large vacuole. has cutin)  The aerial parts of the - Protects the plant plant are covered with against bacteria. a cuticle. Longitudinal section Cross section
  • 20. Leaf contain upper and lower epidermal cells
  • 21. SPECIALIZE EPIDERMAL CELLS TRICHOMES  ROOT HAIR  TRICHOMES ROOT HAIRS  STOMA OF LEAF CORK CELLS STOMATA  CORK OF OLDER STEMS
  • 22. ROOT HAIRS  They are specialized epidermal cells of roots.  Unicellular outgrowth of the epidermal cell.  Functions:  Increase the surface area of the root for absorption of water and minerals.  Anchor the plant.
  • 23. TRICHOMES  Specialized epidermal cell of stems and leaves. CUTICLE  Multicellular outgrowths MULTICELLULAR of the epidermis of stems and leaves.  Functions:  Protect the plant from sun  Conserve moisture.  Protect plant from herbivores, produce toxic substance.
  • 24. STOMATA  Specialized epidermal  FUNCTIONS: cells called guard  Transpiration cells, which are bean shaped, enclose an  Gaseous exchange opening called the take place through the stoma or pore. stomata.  The guard cells contain a nucleus and chloroplasts.  It has a thick inner membrane and a thin outer membrane.  Woody plants have lenticels.
  • 26. GROUND TISSUE •PARENCHYMA •COLLENCHYMA •SCLERENCHYMA
  • 28. PARENCHYMA TISSUE  Occur in roots, stems and FUNCTIONS: leaves.  If they have  Spherical, loosely chloroplasts – packed, big, thin-walled photosynthesis. cells with large vacuoles.  If they have leucoplasts  Intercellular airspaces – they store products between cells. of photosynthesis.  They can divide to form more specialized cells
  • 29. INTERCELLULAR AIR SPACES PARENCHYMA CELLS
  • 30. COLLENCHYMA TISSUE  It is composed of  FUNCTIONS: unevenly thickened  Mechanical primary walls with strengthening and additional cellulose and support to plant organs pectin deposits especially in the corners.  Found just beneath the epidermis of young stems.  The cells are slightly elongated, tightly packed and overlap each other.
  • 31.
  • 32. SCLERENCHYMA TISSUE  Cell walls have been FUNCTIONS: thickened by impregnation with lignin.  Strengthening, support  The cell wall is evenly and protection. thickened and forms a  Found in shell of nuts waterproof barrier and hard parts of fruits impermeable to water.  Fibers give rigidity and  In the cell walls are pit flexibility to the plant. canals that serve as channels between cells and to the outside world.  The lumen is small.  Two types of Sclerenchyma:  Stone cells and fibers
  • 33.
  • 34. VASCULAR TISSUE •XYLEM •PHLOEM
  • 35. XYLEM  Contains 2 types of conducting cells: tracheids and vessel elements (VE).  Both cells are hollow and non-living but the VE is larger and has perforated plates in their end walls and are arranged to form a continuous vessel.  Tracheids have tapered ends with pits.  It also has other tissue: Xylem fibers, and Xylem parenchyma.
  • 36. FUNCTIONS OF XYLEM  Transports water and minerals from the roots to the leaves.  Support and strengthening. Xylem vessels Xylem tracheids Xylem fibers
  • 37. PHLOEM  Consist of sieve-tubes and companion cells.  The sieve-tubes form a continuous tube, they have cytoplasm but no nuclei.  They have sieve plates between cells.  The companion cell has a nucleus that controls both cells because they are connected by plasmodesmata.  It also has other tissue: Phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma
  • 38. FUNCTIONS OF PHLOEM  Transports sucrose and other organic substances, including hormones, from the leaves to the roots.  Support and strengthening.
  • 39. Tissue organization of Leaves  P. 750 – 751 (SELF STUDY)  KNOW CROSS SECTION THROUGH LEAF