Digital divide and broadband territorial coverage

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Presentation held by Ms.Katica Neceva as a part of The Digital Divide Session at the 8th SEEITA and 7th MASIT Open Days Conference, 14th-15th October, 2010

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Digital divide and broadband territorial coverage

  1. 1. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Digital Divide and Broadband Territorial Coverage Katica Neceva MASIT, Executive Director
  2. 2. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Complexity of the phenomenon Differences between individuals, households, companies, or regions related to the access to and usage of ICT (OECD (2001) ) • The term “digital divide” does not refer exclusively to the Internet. Other important ICTs (e.g., personal computers, cellular phones, etc.) are also highly relevant => Even if focus narrowed down to Internet-related differences, the topic remains relatively complex – there are at least five dimensions of digital inequality: equipment, autonomy of use, skill, social support, and the purpose of using the Internet (DiMaggio and Hargittai (2001)), – ….distinguish between an access divide, a skills divide, an economic opportunity divide, and a democratic divide (Stansbury (2003) ).
  3. 3. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Multiplicity of divides • The first and more “usual” (basic) =simple differences with respect to the availability of Internet access (or any other ICT) or the frequency of usage. • Second digital divide (e.g., Gartner Group, 2001; Hargittai, 2002)- Internet users can be also further segmented on the basis of skills and experience. The first digital divide—which refers to differences in access and usage—will inevitably disappear when the Internet becomes universally accessible. However, the digital divide relating to experience and advanced usage will exist after this takes place
  4. 4. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org 4 Macro-level: social structural context • Level of socioeconomic development • Governmental policy • NGO/ International development initiatives • Technological infrastructure • Culture • Democracy Individuals • SES • Gender • Ethnicity • Life-stage • Language • Media use macro meso micro Meso-level • Geographic location • Community resources • Social network • Organization • Neighborhood Access Causes ConsequencesThe Digital Divide Use Meso-level • Social network/Social capital Individual • Human Capital • Social capital • Cultural capital • Getting a job/ labor market performance • Health • Time use • Entrepreneurial activities • Civic engagement Societal Impact • Civic participation • Social Cohesion • Social Inclusion • Place in the world system Framework for Analyzing the Digital Divide (1/2)
  5. 5. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org 5 Framework for Analyzing the Digital Divide (1/2) Access Use Technological Access Digital Literacy ICT infrastructure Hardware, software, bandwidth Technological skills Social and cognitive skills Social Access Social Use Affordability Awareness Language Content /Usability Location Information seeking Resource mobilization Civic engagement Social movement Social inclusion
  6. 6. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Focus first on the issue of access - Level and types of telecommunications infrastructure/networks, regional and international connectivity, transmission capacities and main operators in the market; - Provision of services – telephone (fixed and mobile), Internet, cable television (CATV), data services (communications, transactions, content - based), VPN, etc. - ICT equipment and services penetration and patterns of usage in homes, business, public institutions – availability of PCs, Internet, types of Internet access/bandwidth (LAN, dial- up, DSL, WLAN, etc.), location of Internet access (home, business, public place), frequency and purpose of usage, etc. - Security and trust infrastructure penetration – penetration and usage of secure servers, digital signature, encryption, Digital Rights Management technologies, etc.
  7. 7. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Qualitative overview of the various technologies available for providing broadband access delivery Near-reach <10 km Middle reach 10 – 100 km Unlimited reach Fixed transmission medium New infrastructure HFC Optical fibre (FTTU) Legacy infrastructure ADSL, HDSL, VDSL PLC (low voltage network) HFC PLC (medium and high-voltage networks) Non-fixed transmission medium B-WLL unlicensed B-WLL 10-40 GHz (LMDS) W-LAN B-WLL 2-10 GHz (MMDS) 3G Cellular radio WiMax W-LAN Satellite HAP
  8. 8. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Best performing technologies according to remoteness and density of population
  9. 9. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Broadband can have a much larger impact on the development of rural areas than any other communications infrastructure (roads, railways, telephone). It is logical to define broadband today in terms of service demand, in a seamless environment from fixed to mobile focusing on three basic service segments: business services, public services and residential services including entertainment. Conclusions (1/3 ) When determine the minimum bit rate the requirements of e- education and e-health have to be considered. While it is clear that both services and regulation need to be technologically neutral, it is equally clear that the actual implementation of networks requires technology choices.
  10. 10. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org When extending the coverage, technology selection should be made based on number of users per location, and the distance from the village to the nearest network node. Important obstacles to investment in broadband services: - Open & interoperable standards, home networking - Creation of broadband content and services -Regulatory uncertainty - Consumer confidence and awareness - e-Payments - Spectrum planning - Security and trust Conclusions (2/3 )
  11. 11. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Conclusions (3/3 ) For sparsely populated areas public private partnerships is a viable solution to overcome the high cost for a single operator. Public authorities must continue to support the emergence of new technologies by ensuring priority R&D funding for ICT and especially broadband. Continuous innovation and uncertainty about costs in broadband technologies makes estimates of commercial deployment difficult to forecast. The optimal mix of technologies for under-served areas depends on local geography (distance from the point of presence), topography and demography (density of population and/or assessment of demand). For these reasons, technological choices should be made at the local level.
  12. 12. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Thank you for your attention Contact information: MASIT, Executive Office www.masit.org.mk Tel. + 389 2 32 38 601 E-mail: contact@masit.org.mk
  13. 13. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Glossary ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber line ADSL2 and ADSL2+ Enhanced ADSL – greater bandwidth on short-mid length lines ARPU Average Revenue Per User B2C Business to Customer BFWA Broadband Fixed Wireless Access CAPM Capital Asset Pricing Model CATV Cable Television CBA Cost Benefit Analysis EC European Commission EMRP Equity Market Risk Premium ESA European Space Agency FTTB/U Fibre To The Building/User FTTC Fibre To The Cabinet/Curb HFC Hybrid Fibre Co-ax LAN Local Area Network NPV Net Present Value PLC Powerline Communications PPP Public Private Partnership PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP SME Small & Medium-Size Enterprises SoHo Small Office Home Office VAT Value Added Tax VoIP Voice Over Internet Protocol VSDL Very high speed digital subscriber line WACC Weighted Average Cost of Capital WiFi WLAN used in the wide area WLAN Wireless Local Area Network
  14. 14. 8th SEEITA – 7th SEE ICT Forum Meeting & 7th MASIT Open Days Conference 14-15 October 2010, Ohrid www.seeita.org Referent documents: • “National Strategy for Information Society development”- Ministry of Information Society Macedonia, • I2010 “Benchmarking Digital Europe 2011-2015 a conceptual framework”, October 2009 • “Status of e-Inclusion measurement, analysis and approaches for improvement e-Inclusion Hand book, Version 2: February 2007”- Tavistock Institute • “Technical assistance in bridging the digital divide- cost benefit analysis for broadband connectivity in Europe”- Price WaterHouse Coopers, 2005 • “ICT Adoption and the Digital Divide in Serbia: Factors and Policy Implications”, Zlatko J. Kovačid-The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, Wellington; Dragan Vukmirovid-Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Proceedings of the Informing Science & IT Education Conference, 2008

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