1. Advance commitments from each country: Every
country walked in with a plan.
2. Financing for a Transition and agreement to double their
3. Engaging civil society: change happens in the cities,
states, provinces and regions, and among foresters,
farmers, energy providers and energy users
4. Agreed after much negotiating to 2 degrees ceiling.
Over 28,000 participants:
19,208 accredited governmental
representatives of 190+countries
6,306 NGO representatives and scientists
2,800 accredited journalists.
150 heads of state (largest number under one
roof in world history)
Telling the truth when it is unpopular:
The “high ambition coalition” forms and acts as a
“mosquito fleet, sending envoys to various parties
with which they have bilateral ties” to “bite them in a
“Don’t allow agreement to be diluted to the point that
it’s a watered down” We will not agree to leave
Eventually over 100 countries push for a more
ambitious deal, refusing to accept that 2 degrees
accepts the loss of people and land without even
trying for better. May not get there but we will try.
•Fuel efficiency standards double miles per
gallon by 2025.
•Four methane emissionsreductions from
the oil and gas sector.
•The Clean Power Plan for power plants
•Acting on Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).
•Medium and heavy-duty vehicles standards
Under 2 MOU: 123 jurisdictions represent more than ¼ of the global
economy committed to limit emissions to below 80-95% below 1990
levels, (or below two metric tons per capita), by 2050 to limit global
warming to less than 2°C by the end of this century.
(MA quietly signed)
RE100: 100 companies committed to 100%
Adobe, Autodesk, Biogen, BMW Group, Coca-Cola Enterprises, Goldman
Sachs, Google, IKEA Group, Infosys, ING, Johnson & Johnson, Mars
Incorporated, Microsoft, Nestlé, Nike, Inc., Novo Nordisk, Philips, Procter
& Gamble, Salesforce, SAP, Starbucks, Steelcase, UBS, Unilever,
Important Side Agreements
400 cities set targets to cut their emissions in half
$1Trillionin Solar investments and R&D from
investors world wide
127 million hectares of land to be restored and
replanted in Africa and Latin America
114 major internationalcompanies agree to use
scientific targets to set their own internal planning
and emission reduction setting goals
Important Side Agreements
1. Mitigation plans submitted by 187 countries, to be
ratcheted up every 5 years, absolute targets.
2. Enhanced transparency and accounting to be sure
commitments are kept
3. Climate financing for a Transition: from industrialized
countries and 20 agree to double their R&D
4. Adaptation is a central pillar to help the world’s poor.
5. Legally binding nature, ratification over the year,
acceptance and approvals (US, China and EU alone
bring the agreement into force).
6. To achieve net zero emissions in the long-term (under
2 degrees of warming)
• A turning point for action to limit climate change
below dangerous levels.
• Signals the end of business as usual for the energy
• Investment now needs to be compatible with a
zero carbon world.
• The CO2 reductions which countries promised are
not enough to avert climate change.
• It was a victory for science, for understanding,
and for humanity. There is much more to do.