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Phil Fischer


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Presentation at Massachusetts Sustainable Communities and Campuses Conference on March 17, 2017

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Phil Fischer

  1. 1. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY STORAGE Philip Fischer NEC Energy Solutions 1
  2. 2. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • The electricity grid is a complex system that produces and delivers electricity to end users • The grid can be thought of as composed of these parts: – Generation (Electricity Producers) – Transmission& Distribution – Load (Electricity Consumers) • The grid was designed with these characteristics in mind: – Electricity flows from Generation to Load and not in the other direction. – Generation must alwaysmatch Load; there is no storage Introduction Electricity Grid Basics 2
  3. 3. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • The grid must be supplying electricity to customers at all times. • The grid must be operated safely and minimize hazard to people and equipment at all times. • The grid must stay in balance at all times. How does the grid work? Electricity Grid Basics
  4. 4. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • Today’s grids require more flexibility to address: – Increased renewable generation – Changing load patterns – Aging transmissionand distribution network • Energy storage in the grid is a powerful tool – Increase capacity utilization for generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure Preparing Grids For A Renewable Future Adding flexibility, efficiency, and reliability Why Energy Storage for the Grid?
  5. 5. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • In our context, Energy Storage refers to the ability to hold electricity safely, reliably, and economically for future use. • Mediating between variable sources and variable loads. • Decoupling production from consumption. • Reducing price volatility. • Enabling 100% renewable generation. • Making the grid more efficient. • Increasing reliability. • Today, only about 2.2%of electricity is stored world-wide(1) What is Energy Storage? Introduction to Grid Energy Storage Adapted from: Introduction to Bulk Pow er Systems, B. Kirby, EUCI course, Jun 8-9 2009, Washington DC (1) Source: “AnnualElectric Generator Report”, 2011 EIA – Total Capacity 2009; US Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-860, 2011.
  6. 6. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • Energy Storage moves energy through time • With Energy Storage, the grid does not have to instantly balance generation with consumption • It fundamentally changes system resource adequacy and the system planning paradigm • It provides System Operators a powerful new tool for system security • It is a game-changer for the electricity grid… What is Energy Storage? Introduction to Grid Energy Storage With Energy Storage, we need to think about the electricity grid in new ways!
  7. 7. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • There are many types of energy storage – Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (PHS) – Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) – Flywheels – Batteries! • Lithium ion • Lead acid • Flow batteries • Sodium beta alumina • Also (less common) – Supercapacitors – Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) What is Energy Storage? Introduction to Grid Energy Storage Other types of Energy Storage: FossilFuels Probably the most abundant and well known form of energy storage – chemical energy storage in the form of oil or gas. Thermal Energy Storage Storing Heat or Cold in molten salt or ice to either generate electricity or provide useful heat or cooling. Power-to-Gas (PtG) Using electricity to create hydrogen gas, with possible methanization step, and feeding it into the gas grid Note: These types will not be covered in this training module.
  8. 8. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. Battery Energy Storage General layout of a battery energy storage system for the grid Battery Energy StorageSystems need power conversion equipmentto connect to the grid and do not make useof any turbine or other generating equipment, unlike PHS or CAES. While the transformers, power conversion systems, breakers and switches areall fairly common, the differentiating characteristics are primarily in the storage device, and in systemdesign, which ties all the major components to the storagedevice in a seamless, safeand reliable system. There are many battery energy storage sites in operation today as both pilot projects and commercial revenue projects… butmore on that later. The next slide will detail the different types of battery technologies.
  9. 9. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. Grid edge energy storage C&I advancedenergy management • DCM, Triad, etc. • PV enhancement (time shifting, ITC ) • Demand Response • Black start/back up • Grid Services Utilities (T&D) Utility Scale DER Muni/CoOp • Peak shaving • Local renewables support • Voltage/VAR support • Community ESS • Distributed ancillary service Custom/microgrid • Grid-Tied projects • Remote/island microgrid energy storage • Hybrid Microgrid (Renewables + Genset + Storage) • Utilities • Solar • Targeted Grid • Developers • Others Front of the Meter (FTM) Behindthe Meter (BTM) “No Meter” • Developers • Aggregators • Community • C&I Enterprises • MUSH Market • Lots and lots more energy users & ESCOs • Secure Power • Mission critical • Process • Government • C&I Enterprises • MUSH Market • Lots of others • Resilient Solar • Hybrid Microgrid • UPS Operation • Peak Shaving • Resource Capacity Adequacy • VPP
  10. 10. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • Behind-The-Meter indicates that the application is located on the customer side of the electricity meter What does Behind-The-Meter mean? Behind-The-Meter Electricity meter Measures the electricity usage of a customer Electricity Customer Could be a home, office building, or a factory Electric Utility Responsible for serving customers electricity “Utility side of the meter” “Behindthe meter”
  11. 11. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. • Value streams from savings include: – Demand charge reduction – PV self consumption – TOU rate arbitrage • Value streams from revenue can include: – Demand response – Frequency regulation – Other Grid Services • Value streams from incentives can include: – Federal Solar ITC (30% of capex with performance restrictions) – CA SGIP ($360/kWhstorage changesdepending on ITC claim, has performance restrictions) – MA StorageAdder for PV ($0.03/kWhgeneration , proposal only at this time) – Etc. • Value from resiliency and sustainability • Many more… • All value streams differ depending on site location, tariffs, and performance BTM Value Streams
  12. 12. ©2017 NEC Energy Solutions,Inc. All rights reserved. For more info: • Energy Storage Initiative (ESI) – energy/energy-storage-initiative/ • Energy Storage Association – • Phil Fischer – NEC Energy Solutions –