Place Marketing by G.J. Ashworth for MARUG International Marketing Experience 2010
Place marketing: How did we get here? Where are we going? G.J.Ashworth University of Groningen NL
Approaches From marketing From place management Little understanding of places as products Little understanding of markets GAP
Table 1 (selling what we have Issues for the future A typology of relating places and products A history of place marketing. Issues for the future Where are we going? What are we doing? How did we get here?
Geographical nomenclature A typology of relating places and products This is NOT place marketing Parma Ham
Place – product co-marketing A typology of relating places and products This is product marketing through places
Locational marketing A typology of relating places and products This is place marketing BUT is this what we mean? Place [as locus] is both identifier and product
‘ [marketing is] … an approach to commodities, to institutions, to functions, to management and ultimately to society’ (Ashworth & Voogd, 1991:17) Marketing as place management A typology of relating places and products This is what we mean by place marketing The Santa Fe style
Place marketing seems to be a recent preoccupation It is not: p lace marketing has a history
Place marketing has a history It has evolved Changes within theory and practice of marketing Changes in place planning and management approaches Changes in the competitive context
Towards a history of place marketing The stage of place promotion The stage of planning instrument The stage of corporate brand 1980 1990 2000 800
Towards a history of place marketing The stage of place promotion Agricultural settlement Greenland Settling North American prairies
Towards a history of place marketing Selling the suburbs The stage of place promotion
Selling the seaside Towards a history of place marketing The stage of place promotion
The stage of place promotion Towards a history of place marketing Smoke-stack chasing Call-centre chasing ‘ Creative class’ chasing
Towards a history of place marketing The stage of planning instrument Changes in place planning and management The entrepreneurial city The failure of traditional instruments The ‘marketisation’ of public services Citizen expectations and empowerment
social marketing + non-profit marketing + image marketing place marketing = Changes in marketing The stage of planning instrument Towards a history of place marketing
Place marketing is just the application of marketing approaches and techniques to places! If so, BUT they aren’t! How can we relate places to products? Place managers are just producers Place markets are just value exchange systems Place users are just consumers Places are just products
MARKET How is it done? THE CUSTOMER THE PRODUCT THE ORGANISATION Goals Strategies People’s needs Segmentation / separation Buying strategies resources commodification Selling strategies
Answer the strategic questions How is it done? Product knowledge Product Quality Good Bad Good Bad ? YES NO NO
Market Goals? How is it done? Answer the strategic questions Present product New Product Present market New Market Market penetration Market development Product development Product diversification
How is it done? Answer the tactical questions? PRODUCTION TRANSMISSION RECEPTION SENDER RECEIVER encoding decoding audibility credibility intelligibility OTHER MESSAGES
Stages of decision-making Need recognition How is it done? Answer the tactical questions? Post-purchase justification Evaluation PURCHASE Search NON PURCHASE informative persuasive
How is it done? Value exchange system Get inside the market Price Don’t attempt marketless marketing! Consumer strategies Producer strategies Marketing interventions
‘ Corporate branding ‘articulates the corporate ethos, aims and values of the organisation’ [Riel and Balmer, 1997] Product brand = corporation brand “ Corporate brands are fundamentally different from product brands … they have a multi-stakeholder rather than customer orientation … the traditional marketing framework is inadequate and requires a radical reappraisal” (Balmer and Greyser, 2003: 976). BUT is a place a corporation? How is it done? Market the product or the producer? The perceived ethos of the corporation
YES both are; Multi-product /multi-service /multi-market Have social responsibilities and corporate ethos NO places have; More diverse products, consumers, producers, messages Less goal direction, message control, credibility How is it done? Are places corporate producers?
Tactics dominates strategy Why do we do it so badly? We apply simple partial short term tactical solutions to complex long term strategic problems We know the answers to the ‘how’ questions We don’t know the answers to the ‘why’ questions
Why do we do it so badly? We confuse the brand and the product Is the problem the marketing or the product? The Brand The product
We aim to create the unique, distinct, heterogeneity We actually create similarity, imitation, homogeneity Universal solutions applied to unique problems Why do we do it so badly? Same techniques, same practices, same consultancies
Start at the beginning not the end How can we do it better? logos straplines Press releases Determine goals Analyse existing images Engage participants/ stakeholders Select strategies
F ollow the marketing process Marketing is long term ‘ [Marketing is]… a process of planning and movement of a product from the supplier to those who are to use it … and the marketing process is incomplete unless all of its functions are performed’ (Kotler, 1986) Place governance is often short term Logos, slogans, house-styles, brands, ads, events and PR do not constitute marketing You need strategic product positioning, differentiation, market analysis and targeting etc How can we do it better?
Integrated marketing Integrated management How can we do it better? Never work alone with commercial sector Within public authority between public authorities With residents With planning With urban design With culture, museums, events etc
How can we do it better? Collective appreciation of place marketing Local communities Common understanding goals interpretations Across a wide range of stakeholders
Coordination, cooperation and role allocation How can we do it better? Especially difficult within public authorities Especially difficult between public and private agencies
Clear focus on limited attainable objectives Leading to dispersed, diluted and dissonant efforts How can we do it better? If you try to include all you will satisfy none Public place management authorities have to satisfy: BUT Statutory spatial jurisdictions Multiplicity of interests Local citizens and their democratic representation
Expansion to fields other t han tourism How can we do it better? Not only chasing: tourists, inward investment, public subsidies Self-identity and purpose It is about: communication Participatory governance And ultimately: Civic consciousness
Competition and cooperation between places Networking Packaging Joint promotion Coopetition How can we do it better?
Don’t make silly statements ….. Marketing puts us on the map All publicity is good publicity Everything else has failed It is cheaper than improving the product How can we do it better? It isn’t Then so will marketing It isn’t The right map?
Do you want to know more … Read the literature Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org