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- 1. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 1 * T-test (independent and paired samples) * One – way analysis of variance (between groups and repeated measures ANOVA) *Two – way between groups ANOVA
- 2. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ASSUMPTIONS • Level of measurement • Random sampling • Independence of observations • Normal distribution • Homogeneity of variance 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 2 EDUC 606
- 3. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Independent samples t test • Example of research question: Is there a significant difference in the mean self – esteem scores for males and females? • What you need: Two variables: • One categorical, independent variable(males/females) • One continuous, dependent variable(self- esteem scores) 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 3 EDUC 606
- 4. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Paired- samples t test • Example of research question: Is there a significant change in participants’ Fear of Statistics Test scores following participation in an intervention designed to increase students’ confidence in their ability to successfully complete a statistics course? • Additional assumption: The difference between the two scores obtained for each subject should be normally distributed. With samples of 30+, violation of this assumption is unlikely to cause any serious problems. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 4 EDUC 606
- 5. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH One- way between- groups ANOVA • Example of research question: Is there a significant difference in optimism scores for young, middle- aged and old participants? • What you need: Two variables: one categorical iv with 3 or more distinct categories or continuous. One continuous dv. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 5 EDUC 606
- 6. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ONE- WAY REPEATED MEASURES • Example of research question: Is there a change in confidence scores over the three time periods? • What you need: • One group of participants measured on the same scale on three different occasions or under three different conditions, or each person measured on three different questions or items using the same response scale. This involves Two variables: one iv (categorical) One dv (continuous) 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 6 EDUC 606
- 7. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Two- way between groups ANOVA • Example of research question:What is the impact of age and gender on optimism? • What you need: Three variables: two categorical iv’s One continuous dv 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 7 EDUC 606
- 8. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Statistical techniques to explore relationships among variables • Pearson correlation coefficient (r).(Zero- order correlation) • Example of research question: Is there a significant relationship between age and performance? • What you need: Two variables: both continuous or one continuous and one dichotomous (two values) 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 8 EDUC 606
- 9. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Partial correlation • Partial correlation- allows you to explore the relationship between two variables, while statistically controlling for( getting rid of) the effect of another(confounding) variable that you think might be contaminating or influencing the relationship. • What you need: Three continuous variables: Two variables that you wish to explore the relationship One variable that you wish to control 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 9 EDUC 606
- 10. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Regression Analyses: • Simple linear • Multiple ( standard or simultaneous, hierarchical or sequential,stepwise) • ASSUMPTIONS: *Sample size (N=50+8m, m is the number of iv’s) or 104+m. * multicollinearity and singularity of iv’s * outliers * normality, linearity, homoscedasticity, independence of residuals( residuals are the differences between the obtained and the predicted dv scores. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 10 EDUC 606
- 11. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH T- test examples – The following are the scores of 10 males and 10 female students in spelling. Test the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the performance of male and female students in the said test. Use the t test at .05 level of significance. Male female 14 12 18 9 17 11 16 5 4 10 14 3 12 7 10 2 9 6 17 13 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 11 EDUC 606
- 12. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH T test for dependent or correlated samples An experimental study was conducted on the effect of programmed materials in English on the performance of 20 selected students. Before the program was implemented, the pre-test was administered and after 5 months the same instrument was used to get the post-test result. The following is the result of the experiment. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 12 EDUC 606
- 13. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH • Pre- test( x1): 20,30,10,15,20,10,18,14,15,20,18,15, 15,20,18,40,10,10,12,20. • Post- test(x2): • 25,35,25,25,20,20,22,20,20,15,30,10, 16,25,10,45,15,10,18,25. 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 13 EDUC 606
- 14. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ANOVA examples A sari-sari store is selling 4 brands of shampoo. The owner is interested if there is a significant difference in the average sales for one week. The following data are recorded: Brand A: 7,3,5,6,9,4,3. Brand B: 9,8,8,7,6,9,10. Brand C: 2,3,4,5,6,4,2. Brand D: 4,5,7,8,3,4,5. Perform one way anova at .05 alpha level 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 14 EDUC 606
- 15. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Example of two way ANOVA Teacher factor A B C Method1 40 50 40 41 50 41 40 48 40 39 48 38 38 45 38 Method 2 40 45 50 41 42 46 39 42 43 38 41 43 38 40 42 Method 3 40 40 40 43 45 41 41 44 41 39 44 39 38 43 38 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 15 EDUC 606
- 16. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Pearson correlation and Regression examples Below are the midterm (x) and the final (Y) grades. X: 75,70,65,90,85,85,80,70,65,90. Y: 80,75,65,95,90,85,90,75,70,90. Is there a significant relationship between the midterm and the final grades of students in Mathematics? Use alpha at .05 level of significance. Suppose the midterm report is 88 (x=88), what is the value of the final grade? 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 16 EDUC 606
- 17. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH Multiple regression example • The following are data on the ages and incomes of a random sample of 5 executives working for in ABC corporation and their academic achievements while in college. • Age Academic Income achievement ( in thousand pesos) x1 x2 Y 38 95 81.7 30 90 73.3 46 92 89.5 40 92 79.0 32 85 69.9 Do age and academic achievement predict income? 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 17 EDUC 606
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- 50. METHODS OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 1/25/2023 2:04 PM 50 EDUC 606 Prepared by: © 2018 REY M. REGIDOR Student, School of Education Ateneo de Zamboanga University