Water conservation storage and appliances


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Water conservation storage and appliances

  2. 2. Standard toilets use siphoningaction, a method that employs asiphoning tube, to evacuate waste.A high volume of water enteringthe toilet bowl when the toiletsflushed fills the siphon tube andpulls the waste and water downthe drain. When air enters thetube, the siphoning action stops.Dual flush toilets on the other handemploy a larger trapway (the holeat the bottom of the bowl) and awash-down flushing design thatpushes waste down the drain.Because theres no siphoningaction involved, the system needsless water per flush, and the largerdiameter trapway makes it easy forwaste to exit the bowl. Dual Flush Toilets
  3. 3. It relies on gravity to remove waste from the toilet. In addition to its dual flushfeature, the lack of siphoning also results in it requiring less water tooperate.[3] The lack of siphoning also means that it is similar toan aeroplane toilet; the water line is considerably lower than that of siphon-flushtoilets. The main feature of the toilet is that it has two buttons for releasing water.It outputs water in both 0.8-gallon (3 litre) and 1.6-gallon (6 litre) capacities.[4]Thesmaller level is designed for liquid waste, and the larger is designed for solidwaste. It also uses a larger 4-inch (10 cm) trapway in the bowl, allowing for waterto come out faster and clear the bowl efficiently.[4]Combined with the savings from using only half-flushes for liquid waste, the dualflush toilet design can save up to 68 percent more water than a conventional lowflow toilet.Disadvantage: Dual flush units are a little more expensive than other low flowtoilet designs. There is also the problem of aesthetics. Dual Flush Technology
  4. 4. • use no water • rely on a mix of human waste and other compostable organic matter • Proper maintenance is • required to maintain aerobic decomposition and prevent odoursComposting toilets
  5. 5. During composting, your excrement and the organisms init are transformed by thetemperature, moisture, oxygen, nutrients and bacteria inthe compost pile into mature compost, a fertilizercontaining microbes different from those that left yourdigestive tract. Different systems accomplish compostingdifferently. For example, most commercial toilets are setup for slow, low-temperature composting (below 98.6 F or37 C), which kills most disease-causing organisms inmonths, giving you fertilizer thats safe for ornamentalgardens. For fertilizer thats safe for food-producinggardens, youd need a high-temperature compostingsystem where the compost cooks at a temperature from131 F to 140 F (55 C to 60 C) for several hours so that itbasically kills all human pathogens
  6. 6. The main components of acomposting toilet are:1. a composting reactor connected to one or more dry or micro-flush toilets;2. a screened exhaust system (often fan-forced) to remove odors, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and the by-products of aerobic decomposition;3. a means of ventilation to provide oxygen (aeration) for the aerobic organisms in the composter;4. a means of draining and managing excess liquid and leachate;5. process controls, such as mixers, to optimize and manage the process; and6. an access door for removal of the end-product.
  7. 7. Air is constantly circulatedinside the compostingchambers of this toilet untilsaturated and is thenexhausted through theventilation system. Thecompost is periodically mixedby two blades in order toprovide extra aeration for fasterdecomposing.The combination of an efficientand quiet fan with a thermostatcontrolled heating elementguarantees an energy efficientand complete compostingprocess; the patented andaward-winning air recirculationsystem results in a very lowenergy cost. BioLet – a type of a compost toilet…….
  8. 8. The Toilet Lid Sink takes water that would normally go straight down intoour toilet and first routes it through the sink spout at the top so we can washour hands after we flush. When we flush the toilet, the waste goes downthe drain and then the clean water from your reservoir tank refills thebowl. With the sink add-on, the clean water from the reservoir first goesthrough the sink and then goes down into the bowl. This extra step doesn’treduce the amount of water our toilet is flushing but it allows us to use thatwater twice, cutting out the use of our sink all together after taking care ofbusiness. The Toilet Lid Sink
  9. 9. A famous Japanese toilet that utilizes waste water from basins forflushing…….
  10. 10. Microbiological Waterless Urinal SystemsUrine comes into contact with a block, often housedwithin a dome inserted into the urinal waste outlet. Once taken down into the trap with the urine, thespores become active beneficial bacteria that feedupon the urine and then multiply. By breaking downthe urine into components, the bacteria from theblock prevent the build-up of sludge and crystals thatare a major contributing cause to blockages. Mostimportantly, the microbes cannot break down hair, gritand other debris that inevitably finds its way into theurinal trap and thence the waste runs. Therefore topush the debris down to the main drain before it cancollect and cause a blockage, it is essential to poursome fluid down each urinal at regularintervals, usually once per week. This "dosing"process is most effective when a mixture of warmwater and an appropriate chemical is used.
  11. 11. Barrier Waterless Urinal SystemsUrine and debris passes through an oil-based barrier fluid which forms the sealto prevent odours reaching the washroom. In some systems, the barrier fluid iscontained within a replaceable cartridgethat also captures debris which wouldotherwise fall into the waste pipes.Cartridges typically need to be replacedevery 2 to 5 months, dependent on usage.The barrier fluid can be swiftly degraded ifthe correct cleaning chemicals are notused. Otherwise, barrier systems workvery well, although those that usereplaceable cartridges can be expensiveto run for busy washrooms.
  12. 12. Valve Waterless Urinal SystemsUrine passes through a one-way plastic valvethat, when closed, prevents odours from beingemitted into the washroom. These generallyrequire some regular maintenance to clear urinecrystals and debris, including hair. It is importantnot to allow the valve to become stuckopen, especially if the urinal trap the previouslyprevented odours has been replaced with a "right-angled" straight-through connection. The idea ofremoving the trap is that the flow of urine alonewill carry the hair and other debris in to the maindrain. Valve systems can work very well ifproperly maintained and they are available toretrofit most types of standard urinal bowls. Somemodels include a scented or microbiological blockto complement the valve. The main problem isthat the valve can be left open due to hair anddebris clogging the outlet.
  13. 13. Solar toilets
  14. 14. In the ELOO, radiant heat is absorbed andconducted through the ultraviolet-protected, black polyethylene plastic of themaintenance cover and vent pipe. Theincreased internal temperature causesconvective airflow which is assisted by theventilation extraction unit, positioned on top ofthe outlet vent pipe. Thisunidirectional, positive ventilation ensures thatall odors are extracted through the toilet andcontainer and expelled via the ventilationextractor at the top of the vent pipe and/or bypower assisted fans where applicable. No odor No infrastructure required Very low maintenance No flies (reduces airborn diseases)The ENVIRO LOO - (ELOO)
  15. 15. The removal service intervalscould range from every 6 monthsto approximately every 3 years,depending on usage.Remote hiking areasCabins and cottagesSports fieldsParks - urban hike & bike trailsGolf coursesCampgrounds and parksMarinas, docks, water areasMinesHighway rest stopsConstruction areasWater shortage areasRanches and farmsBeaches and lakesOffshore/onshore gas/oil rigsConcerts - festivals
  16. 16. Incinerating toilets can be waterless. Instead of breaking down wastebiologically, these toilets torch it. They send the waste to an incinerator, whereits burned to sterile ash.The toilet sits in your bathroom and has an electric exhaust pipe that exitsthrough your roof. To run, it needs batteries or can be plugged into a wall outlet.You use the toilet normally, toilet paper and all. But before you flush, you mustclose the lid, for reasons that will soon be clear. Next, you decide whether topress the "urine" or "[solid] waste" button on the control panel.Like composting toilets, these toilets can be self-contained or remote, putting theincinerator either inside or outside of the toilet. Self-contained models have youpractically sitting on the incinerator, which sounds alarming, but the system willshut off if you open the lid to use it.These systems thoroughly insulate you from your excrement. Waste is almostimmediately changed into something else. You dont need to inspect thewaste, tend to it during its transformation or guess about its progress. Its time toempty the toilet when the indicator light tells you so. In a house of four people, itestimates that youll empty the ashes every three to six months . And you canthrow the sterile ashes in the trash.Then the toilet fires up. Flushing is handled by some type of dry method, likean auger (essentially a large screw) that turns to push the waste into theincinerator. A propane, diesel or natural gas tank feeds into the incinerator.
  17. 17. Low-flow showerheads are designed to incorporate anarrower spray area and a greater mix of air and waterthan conventional showerheads. As a result, they useless water but there’s no perceptible difference inquality or comfort. Features of these low-flowshowerheads include atomizers that deliver water insmall but abundant droplets to cover larger surfaceareas, pulsators that vary spray patterns with pausesbetween spurts or by pulsating between strong flowand light mist; and aerators that mix water dropletswith air to cover the desired surface area. Inaddition, flow regulators on the shower controls canreduce or stop the water flow when you’reshampooing or soaping. A conventional showerhead is rated to use 14 to 32litres per minute (lpm) at normal water pressure. Atthese rates, a five-minute shower uses 70to 160 litresof water. In contrast, a five-minute shower with awater-saving showerhead that delivers 4.5 to11.5 lpmuses only 22.5 to 57.5 litres of water. Low flow showerheads
  18. 18. Low flow showerheads
  19. 19. Low-flow faucets are use sensors as well as aeratorsto reduce water consumption.We can select fromamong several low-flow faucet technologies forkitchens and baths, including a metered-valve faucetthat delivers 1.1-litres of water and then automaticallyshuts off. Self-closing faucets are spring-loaded toshut off the faucet a few seconds after the user turnsit on. Ultrasonic, or infrared-sensor, faucetsautomatically activate the water flow when hands aredetected beneath it and automatically shut it off whenthe hands are removed. Foot controls allow you toactivate a faucet at a set temperature by tapping yourfoot on a pedal. Finally, a conventional faucet can beretrofitted simply and inexpensively by replacing thescrew-in tip of the faucet with an aerator.Low-flow faucet aerators can cut the water usage offaucets by as much as 40%. Low-flow faucets
  20. 20. A new innovation in the field of waterconservation and rainwaterharvesting is the save water brickswhich are eco-friendly and have awaterway which helps direct water inthe required direction…….
  21. 21. TYPES OF WATER STORAGE TANKS Demountable tanks Bladder fuel tanks Quick water Bladder water tanks Onion tanks tanks
  22. 22. DEMOUNTABLE TANKS Demountable water storage tanks are ideal for long term or temporary use, available with sizes ranging from 8,000 litre to 200,000 litre capacity. they lined, steel tank kits are dispatched complete with assembly instructions and tools. Suitable for the storage of many liquids including firewater, rainwater, drinking water, liquid fertilizer and many special liquids used in manufacturing.. The tanks need no base structure so they can be built on any flat ground. Suitable for all climates. Erected by 3 personnel within 8 hours.
  23. 23. PORTABLE WATER BLADDER TANKSThese collapsible water bladdertanks, often referred to as layflat orpillow tanks, have been developedespecially for use in harsh conditionsworldwide. There are twospecifications, one for economic waterstorage and the second for heavy dutymulti-site storage applications andwater transportation. The waterstorage tanks are extremely mobileand can be unrolled and used on anyarea of flat ground which has beencleared of debris.
  24. 24. BLADDER CONSTRUCTION DETAILS  All bladders are fitted with reinforced corner mouldings with integral tie down holes. All bladders are fitted with automatic pressure relief valves set at 1 PSI (0.007 N m/m²) to prevent bursting through over- filling. All bladders are supplied with instruction manuals and repair kits.