IS GETTING RID OF GARBAGE BY THROWING IT AWAY SEEMS LIKE THE EASIEST THING TO DO.
RECYCLING GARBAGE•ALTERNATIVE FORM OF GETTING RID OF USED 3 R’SMATERIALS.•INSTEAD OF PUTTING USED MATERIALS IN ALANDFILL, IT IS PROCESSED AND MADE INTO NEWITEMS.•EVERYTHING FROM PAPER TO PLASTIC TOBATTERIES TO BE RECYCLED AND MADE INTOSOMETHING USEFUL AGAIN.REUSE•INSTEAD OF CAREFULLY DISCARDING ITEMS THATCAN BE RECYCLED TO MAKE NEW PRODUCTS,REUSE INVOLVES USING THE ITEMS IN ANOTHERWAY, WHEN THEIR PRIMARY USE IS FINISHED.•THIS REUSE EXTENDS THE LIFE CYCLE OF ANITEM, WHICH MAY EVENTUALLY BE DISCARDED,BUT IN THE MEANTIME, IS USEFUL AND REMAINS INCIRCULATION INSTEAD OF GRACING THE TOP OF AGARBAGE PILE IN A LANDFILL.• IT IS PREFERABLE THAT A PRODUCT BE RE-USED IN THE SAME STATE E.G., RETURNABLE PLASTIC PAL LETS, USING AN EMPTY GLASS JAR FOR STORING ITEMS AND USING SECOND HAND CLOTHES.• REUSE IS NORMALLY PREFERABLE TO RECYCLING
REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF WASTE YOU CREATE• B U Y O N LY W H AT Y O U N E E D• B U Y P R O D U C T S T H AT C A N B E REUSED• BUY PRODUCTS WITH LITTLE PA C K A G I N G• BUY NON-TOXIC PRODUCTS WHENEVER POSSIBLE•WaysC Y C L E M O T O R P R O D U C T S R E to Reuse
ADVANTAGES OF RE-USE• E N E R G Y A N D R AW M AT E R I A L S AV I N G S• REFURBISHMENT CAN BRING S O P H I S T I C AT E D , S U S TA I N A B L E AND WELL PA I D JOBS TO UNDERDEVELOPED ECONOMIES• COST S AV I N G S FOR BUSINESS AND CONSUMERS• SUCH ITEMS CAN BE HANDCRAFTED ANDDISADVANTAGES OF RE-USE H AV E A P P R E C I AT E VA L U E S• REQUIRES CLEANING AND TRANSPORT, ADDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL COST• SOME ITEMS LIKE FREON APPLIANCES CAN BE HAZARDOUS AND LESS ENERGY EFFICIENT AS THEY CONTINUE TO BE USED.• SORTING AND PREPARING ITEMS FOR RE USE IS TIME CONSUMING
DIFFERENT METHODS OF RECYCLING & DISPOSAL• HOUSEHOLD WASTE NEEDS TO BE TUNED WHEN CONTAINERS ARE WITHIN 75% TO 100% FULL BUT NOT OVERFLOWING.• RECYCLABLES NEEDS TO BE SEPARATED. CHANGES IN THE FREQUENCY OF COLLECTION ARE MADE AS NEEDED DEPENDING ON CHANGES IN BUILDING OCCUPANCY OR USE AND TYPES AND VOLUME OF RECYCLABLES RECOVERED.• COMPOSTING( MANURE PIT)• VERMICOMPOSTING• BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY• INCINERATION• BAILING• LANDFILLING
SEGREGATION OF WASTESEPERATION OF REFUSE-DEPENDS UPON THE METHOD OF DISPOSAL SYSTEMS- •SINGLE BIN SYSTEM- DRY AND WET IS GATHERED IN ONE BIN. •DOUBLE BIN SYSTEM- DRY AND WET SOLID WASTE ARE COLLECTED INTO SEPARATE BINS. • TRIPLE BIN SYSTEM- IN TRIPLE BIN SYSTEM DRY SOLID WASTE IS AGAIN SEPARATED INTO TWO BINS ON THEIR REUSABLE PROPERTIES AND WET SOLID WASTE IS THIRD ONE.
RECYCLING AND REUSEIF AN OLD AUTOMOBILE TYRE IS RECYCLED, IT MIGHT BECOME RAW MATERIAL FOR ROAD SURFACING OR…………
RECYCLING AND REUSEA GLASS CANNING JAR MIGHT BECOME RAW MATERIAL FOR GLASSPHALT OR……..
RECYCLING AND REUSE• PLASTIC TUBS AND LIDS ARE MADE INTO FLOWERPOTS, PLASTIC LUMBER, ROPES , MATS, PILLOWS,BAGS, SHOWPIECES ETC..• PLASTIC BOTTLES ARE RECYCLED INTO POLYESTER YARN FOR CARPET, CLOTHING OR PACKAGING• OLD NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES ARE RECYCLED INTO NEW ONES…. BY PAPER PULP PROCESS• HARDBOARD ARE USED FOR PRODUCTS LIKE EGG CARTONS• ALUMINUM, SUCH AS SOFT DRINK CANS, IS MADE INTO ALUMINUM SHEETING FOR THE AUTO TRADE AND GENERAL USE• STEEL CANS ARE MADE INTO STEEL CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS• JUICE BOXES/ TETRA PACKS ARE USED FOR PAPER TOWEL AND TISSUE PRODUCTION
COLLECTIONAUTOMATED VACUUM WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM ALSO KNOWN AS PNEUMATIC REFUSE COLLECTION, OR AUTOMATED VACUUM COLLECTION (AVAC) SYSTEM TRANSPORTS WASTE AT HIGH SPEED THROUGH UNDERGROUND TUNNELS TO A COLLECTION STATION FURTHER IT IS COMPACTED AND SEALED IN CONTAINERS
ADVANTAGES• REDUCED CONGESTION• NOISE AND EMISSIONS FROM TRUCKS• PESTS• IMPROVED WORKING CONDITIONS FOR BUILDING AND SANITATION EMPLOYEES• IMPROVING AND EXPANDING SOURCE SEPARATION OF WASTE• REDUCTION IN THE AMOUNT OF SPACE NEEDED FOR STORING AND REMOVING WASTE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE BUILDINGS• SINCE PNEUMATIC TRANSFER STATIONS ONLY PROCESS WASTE GENERATED WITHIN THEIR NETWORK THEY INVITE EXPANDED COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY AND CONTROL
DISADVANTAGES• EACH TYPE OF SOLID WASTE CAN NOT BE COLLECTED• NOT COST EFFECTIVE IN LOW DENSITY AREAS.• BULK WASTES: APPLIANCES, FURNITURE, ETC. CANT BE FED INTO A TUBE THE WAY THEY ARE FED INTO THE BACK OF A GARBAGE TRUCK.• AND THERE IS THE ISSUE OF HOW MUCH TO INCLUDE. FOR EXAMPLE, BARCELONA CHOSE ONLY ORGANICS AND REFUSE.• RECYCLABLES ARE LESS VOLATILE AND PICK UPS ARE LESS FREQUENT SO THE CITY DECIDED TO CONTINUE COLLECTING THEM BY TRUCK. THESE DECISIONS TEND TO HAVE MORE TO DO WITH LOCAL WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY THAN TECHNICAL PARAMETERS.
The transportation of waste is the movement of waste over a specificarea by trains, tankers, trucks, barges, or other vehicles.The types of wastes that may be transported range from municipalgarbage to radioactive or hazardous wastes.Hazardous wastes may be transported to be treated, stored, or disposedof. Facilities that generate hazardous waste are required to prepare ashipping document, or "manifest," to accompany the waste as it istransported from the site of generation. This manifest must accompanythe waste until its final destination and is used to track the wastes fromcradle-to-grave.
GARBAGE TRUCKGarbage truck refers to a truck specially designed to collectsmall quantities of waste and haul the collected waste to asolid waste treatment facility. Technical names include waste collection vehicle and refuse collection vehicle. These trucks are a common sight in most urban areas.
TYPES OF WASTE COLLECTION VEHICLE• Front loaders• Rear loaders• Side loaders• Pneumatic collection• Grapple trucks
Front loadersThe truck is equipped with automated forks on the front which the driver carefullyaligns with sleeves on the waste container using a jostick or a sets of levelThe waste container is then lifted over the truckOnce it gets to the top the container is then flipped upside down and the wasteor recyclable material is emptied into the vehicles hopper.Once the waste is dumped, it is compacted by a hydraulically-poweredmoving wall that oscillates backwards and forwards to push the waste to therear of the vehicle.
Rear loadersRear loaders have an openingat the rear that wastecollectorcan throw waste bagsor empty the content of binsinto Side loaders These trucks are loaded from the side, either manually, or with the assistance of an automated lift. Lift-equipped trucks are referred to as automated side loaders.
Pneumatic collectionPneumatic collection trucks have acrane with a tube and a mouthpiece thatfits in a hole, usually hidden under aplate under the street.The system usually allows the driver to"pick up" the waste, even if the accessis blocked by cars, snow or otherbarriers. Grapple trucks enable the collection of bulk waste. branches, logs) are called bulky waste or "oversized." The preferred method for collecting these items is with a grapple truck.
DISPOSAL METHODSLANDFILL IT IS THE PROCESS OF DISPOSAL OF WASTE BY BURYING THEM UNDER THE EARTH.COMPOSTING IT IS A MOST WIDELY USED DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE. IT IS THE PROCESS OF BURYING OF BIODEGRADABLE WASTE AND RECYCLING THE ORGANIC WASTE INTO A NEW SOIL WHICH CAN BE USED FOR LANDSCAPING AND GROWING VEGETABLES.BENEFITS OF COMPOSTING• KEEPS ORGANIC WASTES OUT OF LANDFILLS.• PROVIDES NUTRIENTS TO THE SOIL.• INCREASES BENEFICIAL SOIL ORGANISMS• REDUCES THE NEED FOR FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES.• PROTECTS SOILS FROM EROSION.INCINERATION INCINERATION IS A PROCESS OF BURNING OF WASTE MATERIAL AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. IT REDUCES A WEIGHT OF THE WASTE BY TWO THIRDS AND ITS VOLUME BY 90%. CAUSES LOT OF AIR POLLUTION AND RELEASES POISONOUS CHEMICALS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE. SOME OF THE INCINERATION PLANTS WERE USED IN INDIA BUT DUE TO HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE IT IS NOT USED NOWADAYS.
OCEAN DUMPING OCEAN DUMPING IS THE DUMPING OF GARBAGE, CONSTRUCTION AND SEWAGE SLUDGE, DREDGE MATERIAL, AND WASTE CHEMICALS, INTO THE OCEAN. OCEAN DUMPING MAY BE REGULATED AND CONTROLLED IN CERTAIN CASES, WHILE SOME SHIPS AND TANKERS DUMP HAPHAZARDLY AND ILLEGALLY WITHIN COASTAL WATERS. SHOULD NOT BE PREFERED BECAUSE IT MAKES THE OCEAN WATER DIRTY. PLOUGHING TO FIELDS THE WASTE CAN BE BURIED INTO THE FIELDS OF FARMERS AND AFTER SOME TIME THEY SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO PLOUGH THEIR FIELD FOR FARMING.
GRINDING AND DISCHARGING TO SEWER• NOT COMMON IN INDIA• USED IN AMERICA AND OTHER WESTERN COUNTRIES• REFUSE IS WELL GRINDED IN HOUSE OR COMMERCIAL GRINDERS AND IS DISCHARGED IN THE SEWER.• THIS METHOD LEAVES THE PROBLEM OF DISPOSAL OF RESIDUAL REFUSE 85-90% AS UNSOLVED BECAUSE IT IS MIXED IN THE SEWAGE
AUROVILLE• AUROVILLE’S ECO-SERVICE OPERATES A PRIMARY WASTE COLLECTION AND RECYCLING• OPERATION THAT SERVICES ALL OF AUROVILLES’ COMMUNITIES, BUSINESS AND SERVICE UNITS• EACH WEEK THE COLLECTORS PICK UP NON-ORGANIC RESIDUAL WASTE AND RECYCLABLE• MATERIAL FROM APPROXIMATELY 800 TENEMENTS IN THE AUROVILLE AREA. COLLECTION• VEHICLES COMPRISE A PEDAL RICKSHAW (ARUMUGAM) AND A BULLOCK CART• (NARAYANAN).
AUROVILLE• AT EACH COMMUNITY OR TENEMENT THERE IS A DESIGNATED AREA WHERE MIXED AND• SEPARATED MATERIAL IS STORED IN 75 OR 200 LITRE PLASTIC OR STEEL CONTAINERS.• AUROVILLIANS ARE CHARGED ON A USER PAYS BASIS WHERE A BAG OF UNSEPARATED• MATERIAL IS CHARGED AT RS 20 AND A SEPARATED BAG OF MATERIAL IS CHARGED AT RS. 10• PER BAG FOR COLLECTION.
AUROVILLE WASTE AVOIDANCE• AVOID GENERATING UNNECESSARY WASTE.• NJAL (CENTRE FIELD) HAS DEVELOPED A• CLOTH BAG DEPOSIT SERVICE IN ORDER TO ELIMINATE PLASTIC CARRY BAGS FROM AUROVILLE.
BIODEGRADABLE WASTEBiodegradable waste is a Type of waste, typically originating from Plant or Animal sources, which may be broken down by other living organisms.Waste that cannot be broken down by other living organisms may be called non- biodegradable.
BMW (biodegradable municipal waste)Waste food, garden, paper and paperboard, textiles, wood , oil ,fatand other miscellaneous are biodegradable wastessources such as commerce and trade activities, office buildings,institutions ,hotels , industries and small businesses. etc.
THE PREFERRED OPTIONS FOR DEALING WITH BMW ARE: prevention and minimisation – avoiding generating the waste recycling – mainly of paper and cardboard but also of textiles biological treatment – mainly of kitchen and garden waste including composting residual treatment – thermal treatment with energy recovery or by way of mechanical-biological treatment.The Strategy sets specific objectives for the contributions that each of thesemeasures will contribute to the achievement of the 2016 target for diversion ofBMW from landfill. It proposes that, by 2016, recycling (principally of paper andcardboard waste which cannot be reused) will divert 875,371 tonnes (38.6%)from landfill with biological treatment (mainly food and garden waste)contributing 442,129 tonnes (19.5%) to the overall target with thermal treatmentdiverting 499,762 tonnes (22%) of residual waste.
CASE STUDY ON NETHERLANDSThe Netherlands has achieved highlandfill diversion rates with asignificant decrease in quantities ofBMW landfilled between 1995 (28 %)and 1998 (13 %) mainly through anincreased reliance on incineration (26% in 1995 to 37 % in 1998). TheNetherlands also has widespreadseparate collection and recovery ofspecific materials, in particular, paper,food and garden waste;
THE NETHERLANDS Although the quantity of household waste increased by 13.4 % between 1995 and 1998 in the Netherlands, the quantities of biodegradable municipal waste being consigned to landfill decreased by more than 50 % over this three-year period. The Netherlands has, for many years, had a low reliance on landfill and employs a range of treatment options for the management of BMW. In 1998, the year for which the most recent data is available, 13.1 % of biodegradable waste from households was consigned to landfill, 36.5 % was consigned to incineration with energy recovery, 33.3 % consigned to composting and 19 % to recycling.
KEY STRATEGIES AND INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE NETHERLANDS INCLUDE: waste prevention and minimisation producer responsibility high level of separate collection ban on the landfilling of biodegradable wastes standards for compost quality and use landfill and incineration taxes • other fiscal measures.