Topics Included• Need for the study of • Electrical appliances required electrical system and layout accordingly• Architectural applications • Types of lightings in kitchen• Way of electricity to our • Electric stove, electric home chimney, LED tables• Inside kitchen • Typical layout and positioning• Various circuits with typical for switch boards diagrams • Lighting circuits• Electric and gas range • Lights and shadow effects• Common appliances for • Types of lights kitchen: refrigerator, dish • Earthing and ducting washer, microwave and food • Safety precautions disposer • Alternative methods• Types of kitchen and dining areas
Why do we need to study electrical system and layout…???• Production and Supply to a building .• Types of supply depending on building type• Electricity requirement for different activities .• Proper location but also flexibility• Further addition or remodeling of load• Safety of installation and operation• Architectural application• Calculations of load requirement
ELECTRICITY GENERATION,TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
Inside the kitchen• The use of electrical service in the kitchen surpasses any other room in the house.• Consider how much electrical power the stove, oven, and range use. And the refrigerator? Its running 24/7.• There are some basic circuits that are needed in a kitchen area to supply an effective amount of power to the appliances that will be used.• Here is a list of the most commonly used circuits in a kitchen....
Dedicated CircuitsFixed appliancesusually have theirown dedicatedcircuit. Theseseparate circuits arespecific toappliances that mustremain running at alltimes, like freezers,refrigerators,ranges, electricwater heaters, andclothes dryers.Junction BoxesJunction boxes arerequired forelectricalconnections. Thejunction box can beeither be an internalbox associated withthe appliance or ajunction box in thewall.
ELECTRIC RANGE GAS RANGEAn electric range 110 -120 volt, 60 hertz, properlywill need a grounded branch circuitdedicated 250-volt, protected by a 15/20 amp circuit50-amp circuit. breaker or fuse.That means thatyoull need to pull a Must be properly grounded and6/3 NM cable or #6 polarized.THHN wire in pipeto feed the range. #14 gauge house wire minimum for 15 amp protection, #12 gauge is a must for 20 amp protection
REFRIGERATOR:• The refrigerator requires a dedicated 20-amp, 125-volt circuit.• You may only have a smaller refrigerator, while someone else may have a 25 cubic foot side-by- side refrigerator that draws more power.• A 12/2 NM wire with a ground is required.• A separate (dedicated ) circuit serving this appliance is recommended.
DISHWASHER:The dishwasher circuitshould be a dedicated125-volt, 15-amp circuit.It is fed with a 14/2 NMwire with a ground. Youmay elect to feed thedishwasher with a 20-amp circuit using 12/2NM wire with a ground.A separate (dedicated )circuit serving thisappliance isrecommended.
MICROWAVE OVEN:The microwave oven needs adedicated 20-amp, 125-voltcircuit to feed it. This willrequire 12/2 NM wire with aground.It must be a properlygrounded circuit protected#14 gauge house wireminimum for 15 ampprotection.A separate (dedicated) circuitserving this appliance isrecommended.
FOOD DISPOSER• Food disposers do the dirty work, clean up the messes after meals.• A dedicated 15-amp circuit is required being fed by 14/2 NM wire with a ground.• You may elect to feed the disposer with a 20-amp circuit using 12/2 NM wire with a ground.
SMALL APPLIANCE LOADS:• Atop your counter top you will need two dedicated 20-amp, 125- volt circuits to run your small appliance loads.• Like toasters, electric griddles, coffee pots, etc...• Although there may be more than two outlets on these circuits, two circuits is the minimum. Thats not to say you cant add more circuits if your needs require them.• Additionally, GFCI receptacles will be required in areas that are likely to get wet.
Types Of Kitchens And Dining Areas• At residential level• Hostel Mess• Hotels and Restaurants• Cafeteria• Open Air/Terrace
Electrical Appliances Required• Lightings• Refrigerators• Microwave/oven• Ac• Fan/exhaust fan• Sink grinder• Electric kettle• Heaters/toasters• Mixer/juicer/grinder• Electric stove• Dish washer• Chimney• Led tables
Lightings In Kitchen and Dining• Lighting is a key element in almost every room of the house, but it’s particularly important to get it right in the kitchen.• Ambient lighting and task lighting, both are equally important for a kitchen.• The dining room of today is rarely used just for entertaining and formal dining. Most often the dining table doubles as a work zone for homework or projects, meetings and crafts, and last, but not least as a gathering place for family and friends.• The right lighting will set the perfect mood for your dining experience and also provide ample task lighting.• The trick to accommodating both well is using a dimmer as well as hanging the chandelier or pendant light at the correct height over the table. Layers of light will create the ideal illumination that is pleasing without creating glare.
Types Of kitchen lighting✓General lighting: Most kitchens start with a fluorescent fixturesomewhere close to the center of the room. Using “daylight”fluorescent tubes give the overall kitchen a comfortable feel.✓Track lighting – Track lighting is handy because when the cook isbusy working at the kitchen counter, her body is casting shade onthe work area from that central fixture. LED light bulbs or lowvoltage halogen bulbs are popular with track lighting because theyput light right where its needed.✓Under cabinet lights – But what happens when the work area isunder a kitchen cabinet? A good solution here is to install undercabinet light fixtures. Halogen light bulbs are the best choice.✓Can lights and pendant lights – These are round lights that dodouble duty: they spotlight specific areas of the kitchen and addcharacter to the room.✓Cove lighting – Generally installed on top of kitchen cabinets, covelighting directs light upwards. Again, this adds character to thekitchen area.
Indirect Fluorescent Cove Light• Cove lighting is a form of indirect lighting built into ledges, recesses, or valences in a ceiling or high on the walls of a room. It directs light up towards the ceiling and down adjacent walls.• Cove lighting is valued because it hides the fixtures, and because it provides a very even, warm light.• Cove lights are ideal sources of ambient illumination in kitchens and can be used to fill the space between the topmost portions of interior walls with light.• Xenon linear light strips are widely used in kitchen coves as these strips are much slimmer and keep a much lower profile that standard fluorescent over cabinet lights.
Fluorescent Task Light• Task light makes dirt easier to spot on counters and in the sink. Being able to see well while chopping, slicing, and dicing doesn’t hurt either .• These are energy efficient: use only about 20 to 30% of the energy required by incandescent bulbs• Cool operating temperatures: more than 90 percent of the energy produced by incandescent lights can be heat, not light.• Varied selection of light colours: by using different mixes of gases inside, fluorescents can produce a wide assortment of color light• Long operating life: last 10 to 20 times longer than incandescent bulbs
Electric Stove• It uses resistive heating coils which heated iron hotplates, on top of which the pots were placed.
Electric Chimney• Electric chimney are an efficient way of removing smoke and odor compared to exhaust fans from a kitchen.• It saves the ceiling from being marked with everything youve cooked.• Two types: traditional and designer• Traditional chimneys: for the utilitarian users, who want a chimney purely for their smoke absorbing abilities• Designer chimneys: for those who along with the utilitarian aspect, want a chimney that enhances the decor of their kitchen.
LED Tables• LED offer long service life and high energy efficiency, but initial costs are higher than those of fluorescent and incandescent lamps.• LEDs are damaged by operating at high temperatures, so LED appliances typically include heat managements elements such as heat sinks and cooling fins.
Lighting Circuit• Of course a kitchen wouldnt be complete without a lighting circuit to brighten the cooking area.• A 15-amp, 125-volt dedicated circuit is required to power the ceiling fixtures, can lights, under cabinet lights, and strip lights if you have them.• Each set of lights should have their own switch giving you the option of which ones to turn on.• Kitchen light switches must be strategically located. The general lighting switches should be situated at all entrances to the kitchen.
• Earthing /grounding is an essential part of electrical services for kitchen, as we might get shocks through few appliances.• Ducting (either floor or walls), is done in order to provide proper underground wiring for various appliances.
1. Check your plug sockets:Too many electrical appliances in one socket can lead tooverheating. Make sure they are not overloaded.2. Check your wiring:Make sure that wires are not exposed, damaged or frayed, thatthey are kept away from heat or water and that they dontpresent a tripping hazardIf wires are damaged or worn get them repaired or placed,otherwise they can cause electric shock, burns and fire. Tominimize damage to your wiring, carefully remove plugs fromthe socket.3.Dishwashers and washing machines:If you leave a dishwasher or washing machine running duringthe night, ensure you have a working smoke detectorEnsure there are no leaks, particularly look for cracks in thedetergent drawer, as these could allow water into the electrics.Keep the outlet filter clean
4. Fridges and freezersMake sure there is enough room behind the appliance for air tocirculate freely.Ensure the interior or exterior ventilation openings of the fridge-freezer are not blockedAvoid placing a fridge-freezer near cookers, radiators or in directsunlight, as this will result in it having to work harder to maintainthe required internal temperature.5.Safety plugsThese are used specially for the safety of children.
Personal Grounding• Protect us from harmful electromagnetic fields (EMF) in our environment, may be from electrical appliances used in kitchen