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Automobile Chassis

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Types of Chassis,Frames type used in Automobiles,Frame and chassis materials,Tubular space frame,Aluminium space frame

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Automobile Chassis

  1. 1. AUTOMOTIVE CHASSIS By MANMEET SINGH
  2. 2. VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Vehicle Development Organization Product Engineering Vehicle Engineering Styling Body Engineering Chassis Engineering Powertrain Engineering Climate Control Engineering Electrical Engineering Package Engineering Weight Engineering Safety Engineering Vehicle Dynamics Vehicle Durability Vehicle NVH Vehicle Thermal&Aero Prototype Planning/Test Exterior Styling Interior Styling
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMOBILE 1. Capacity (HMV ,LMV) 2. Power ( Petrol, Diesel, Gas, Electric) 3. Use (Cars ,Buses ,Trucks ,Motor Cycles ) 4. Wheels (2.3.4.6 ….) 5. Make ( Bajaj, Vespa, Hero, Honda, Maruti) 6. Drive (LHD, RHD) 7. Transmission ( Conventional, Automatic) 8. Purpose (Passenger,Goods)
  4. 4. CHASSIS  Chasis is a French term which denotes the whole vehicle except body in case of heavy vehicles.  Chassis consists of engine, brakes, steering system & wheel mounted on the frame, differential, suspension.  Propel and control a automobile
  5. 5. COMPONENTS OF CHASSIS  Engine  Transmission (Clutch, Gear Box, Propeller shaft, Differential)  Controls (Braking and Steering)  Basic Structure (frame, Suspensions, Axles, wheels, tyres)  Electrical systems REMAINING  Auxiliaries  Superstructure
  6. 6. FUNCTION OF VEHICLE SYSTEMS Vehicle System Function Body • Provide durable attachment for other major systems • Provide safe and pleasant seating environment for all passengers • Protect passengers from crashes Chassis • Provide capability to steer the vehicle • Provide capability to brake the vehicle safely • Provide isolation between road and passengers Powertrain • Provide capability to accelerate the vehicle by transferring torque to wheels • Provide capability to control vehicle speed • Meet regulatory exhaust requirement Climate Control • Maintain comfortable temperature distribution for passengers • Provide windshield defrost capability Electrical & Electronics • Provide power supply where needed • Provide desirable entertainment system • Provide functional censors and controls
  7. 7. GENERAL CONSIDERATION RELATING TO CHASSIS Body of most vehicle should fulfil the following requirements: 1. The body should be light. 2. It should have minimum number of components. 3. It should provide sufficient space for passengers and luggage. 4. It should withstand vibrations while in motion. 5. It should offer minimum resistance to air. 6. It should be cheap and easy in manufacturing. 7. It should be attractive in shape and colour. 8. It should have uniformly distributed load. 9. It should have long fatigue life 10.It should provide good vision and ventilation.
  8. 8. Classification Chassis acc to layout  Conventional  Semi-forward  Full-forward
  9. 9. CHASSIS CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ENGINE LOCATION  Engine fitted at front  Engine fitted at Back  Engine fitted at centre  Engine fitted at front but crosswise CHASSIS CLASSIFICATION BASED ON Number of Wheels fitted in the vehicles and the number of driving wheels •4x2 drive chassis vehicle. •4x4 drive chassis vehicle. •6x2 drive chassis vehicle. •6x4 drive chassis vehicle.
  10. 10. FITTED AT FRONT & DRIVE IS GIVEN TO THE WHEELS FROM THE “REAR” 1. Enough space is available for luggage behind the rear seat 2. The weight of vehicles is well balance 3. Increased efficiency of cooling system Engine is fitted at front & drive is given to front wheel 1. Low floor is available. 2. Vehicle has more road holding capacity. 3. clutch , gear box & differential are usually made as one unit, thereby cost is reduced.
  11. 11. ENGINE IS FITTED IN FRONT BUT CROSSWISE:  BMC  Maruti
  12. 12. ENGINE FITTED AT THE CENTRE OF THE CHASSIS:  Drive is given to the rear  As in royal tiger world master buses  This arrangement provide full space of floor for use
  13. 13. ENGINE FITTED AT BACK 1. Flat floor is available since long propeller shafts are eliminated 2. With elimination of propeller shaft the centre of gravity lowered giving stable driving 3. Better adhesion on road specially when climbing hill. 4. While Climbing hills proper adhesion may be affected since the weight of vehicles moves to the rear , thereby reducing the weight on the front wheel. 5. As a result of grouping of the engine with clutch, gear box and differential, the repair and adjustment become difficult due to congestion at the rear.
  14. 14. FRAMES
  15. 15. TYPES OF CHASSIS FRAMES: THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF FRAMES 1. CONVENTIONAL FRAME 2. INTEGRAL FRAME 3. SEMI-INTEGRAL FRAME
  16. 16. CONVENTIONAL FRAME a.Channel Section - Good resistance to bending b. Tabular Section - Good resistance to Torsion c. Box Section - Good resistance to both bending and Torsion
  17. 17. INTEGRAL FRAME (FRAMELESS)  used now a days in most of the cars  no frame and all the assembly units are attached to the body  Due to elimination of long frame it is cheaper  Only disadvantage is repairing is difficult.
  18. 18. SEMI - INTEGRAL FRAME  half frame is fixed in the front end on which engine gear box and front suspension is mounted.  It has the advantage when the vehicle is met with accident the front frame can be taken easily to replace the damaged chassis frame.  This type of frame is used in FIAT cars and some of the European and American cars.
  19. 19. SOME OF IMPORTANT CHASSIS FRAMES ARE:  Ladder Frame  Tabular Space Frame  Monocoque Frame  Aluminum Space Frame  Carbon Fibre frame
  20. 20. LADDER FRAME:  The ladder frame is the simplest and oldest of all designs.  This design offers good beam resistance because of its continuous rails from front to rear  poor resistance to torsion
  21. 21. A type frame X type frame High torsional rigidity
  22. 22. SPRINGING SPACE
  23. 23. TUBULAR SPACE FRAME:  It is 3-dimensional design  Tubular space frame chassis employs dozens of circular, rectangular etc section tube, positions in different directions to provide mechanical strength against force from anywhere.  These tubes are welded & forms a very complex structure.
  24. 24. TUBULAR ADVANTAGES  Very strong in any direction (compared with ladder chassis and Monocoque chassis of the same weight) DISADVANTAGES  Very complex , costly and time consuming to be built.
  25. 25. MONOCOQUE  Monocoque is a one-piece structure which defines overall shape of the car. while ladder , tabular & backbone provide only stress members  Today 99% car produced in this planet are made of Monocoque chassis.  Chassis are made by welding of several pieces.(Spot winding).
  26. 26. MONOCOQUE DISADVANTAGES 1. It has very complex design . 2. Impossible for small volume production. ADVANTAGES 1. Space-efficiency (the whole structure is actually an outer shell.) 2. Monocoque chassis benefit crash (reproduction) production because it uses a lot of metal. 3. Cheap for mass production.
  27. 27. ALUMINIUM MONOCOQUE-  Audi A8 is the first mass production car featuring Aluminium Space Frame chassis.  To replace conventional steel monocoque mainly for the benefit of lightness.  Audi claimed A8's ASF is 40% lighter yet 40% stiffer than contemporary steel monocoque.
  28. 28. CARBON-FIBER MONOCOQUE  Carbon Fiber is the most sophisticated material using in aircrafts, spaceships and racing cars because of its superior rigidity-to-weight ratio.  Road cars featuring Carbon-Fiber body panels, such as Ferrari 288GTO and Porsche 959.There are several Carbon-fibers commonly used in motor industry.  Kevlar, which was developed by Du Pont, offers the highest rigidity-to-weight ratio among them. Because of this, army's helmets are made of Kevlar. Kevlar can also be found in the body panels of many exotic cars, although most of them simultaneously use other kinds of carbon-fiber in even larger amount.
  29. 29. CARBON FIBRE MONOCOQUE Production process  Carbon-fiber panels are made by growing carbon- fiber sheets (something look like textile) in either side of an aluminium foil.  The foil, which defines the shape of the panel, is sticked with several layers of carbon fiber sheets impregnated with resin, then cooked in a big oven for 3 hours at 120°C and 90 psi pressure.  After that, the carbon fiber layers will be melted and form a uni-formal, rigid body panel
  30. 30. CARBON FIBRE PANELS  Where is the carbon-fiber used ? Body panels or Chassis ?  Since body panels do nothing to provide mechanical strength, the use of carbon fiber over aluminium can barely save weight.  The stress member remains to be the chassis, which is usually in heavier and weaker steel tubular frame.
  31. 31. COMPARISON LADDER AND MONOCOQUE Performance -  The monocoque is a lighter design which is a plus for fuel efficiency,  It has more torsional stiffness and is by far the better chassis for performance oriented vehicles.  The heavy nature of the ladder chassis makes it tough and it is much better than the monocoque for carrying heavy loads and towing heavier objects. Design -  A unibody bodyshell is difficult to design, build and modify (platform sharing) when compared to the body on frame but computer aided design (CAD) makes unibody platform sharing much easier.  For body on frame vehicles its easy to build another body even from another bodystyle and place it on a ladder chassis as long as they are of similar dimensions. Materials -  Unitary bodyshells can be made from a variety of materials steel and steel alloys, aluminium and aluminium alloys and even carbon fiber or combinations of these materials whereas ladder chassis are usually built from steel.
  32. 32. A QUICK COMPARISON Monocoques Typical Ladder Frame
  33. 33. VARIOUS LOADS ACTING ON THE FRAME: 1. Short duration Load - While crossing a broken patch. 2. Momentary duration Load - While taking a curve. 3. Impact Loads - Due to the collision of the vehicle. 4. Inertia Load - While applying brakes. 5. Static Loads - Loads due to chassis parts. 6. Over Loads - Beyond Design capacity.
  34. 34. MATERIALS- WHY IMPORTANT  As fuel economy restrictions become tighter, manufacturers must find new ways to meet them.  This has led them away from using so much steel in the vehicles, and more and more are moving towards aluminum.
  35. 35. A BASIC COMPARISON Two common alloys used in car manufacturing: For Aluminum: AA 5182 For Steel: AISI 1020 Density of Steel: 7.88 g/cm3 Density of Aluminum: 2.7 g/cm3  Aluminum is about 3 times lighter than steel per unit volume, but can be made just as strong using certain alloys/shapes/bonding methods.  Because of this, AL parts can be thicker, and thus stronger, than their steel counterparts, all while weighing less. Steel Al Yield Strength (MPa) 294.8 395 UTS (MPa) 394.7 420 Hardness (HB500) 104 58
  36. 36. THE COST ISSUE While Al may seem like a miracle metal for car production, there is a reason not all cars are made from Al... It costs a lot more than Steel.
  37. 37. THE MOVE TO ALUMINUM  The first production vehicle to move to an Al frame was the Audi A8 in 1994.  This allowed Audi to make their full-size car lighter than the competitions (BMW, Mercedes, Lexus...), thus giving them the edge in performance & handling.  This comes at a price premium though, for instance compared to a Lexus LS460 (Steel framed) which costs around $65,000. The A8 starts at $75,000 Audi A8 Lexus LS460
  38. 38. CARS UTILIZING AL FRAMES Audi A8 Jaguar XJ Corvette Z06 (GM) Honda NSX Audi A2 Audi R8
  39. 39. SOME OTHER ADVANTAGES...  There are some manufacturing methods that can only be done with aluminum, such as extrusions.  These extrusions allows the Al Space Frame to have about half the amount of parts as a traditional steel monocoque.  Because of all this, Al is already a cheaper material to use for low volume production cars (under 100,000 units a year or so).
  40. 40. IN THE FUTURE  While Aluminum may be the wave of the future for now, some exotic car companies are already looking ahead to composite materials.  Take for example Porsche Carrera GT, which used a completely Carbon-Fiber monocoque construction in addition to Carbon-Fiber body panels.  Because of this, the curb weight of the car was only 3000 lbs (1360 kg), even with a 5.7L V-10 engine powering it.
  41. 41. VEHICLE ATTRIBUTES Vehicle Attributes Description Cost Lowest production, assembly and distribution cost compared to competitive vehicles Weight Lowest curb weight compared to competitive vehicles in its weight class Package Best use of the space to provide comfort and amenities to passengers Safety 5* crash rating from the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) Dynamics Best ride & handling performance compared to competitive vehicles Durability Highest reliability and high mileage durability compared to competitive vehicles NVH Lowest noise, vibration and harshness compared to competitive vehicles
  42. 42. TYPES OF CARS ON AS PER THEIR DESIGN 1) Sports Cars  Sports cars are the perfect example of best automobile engineering,  sports cars are two-seat small cars that are designed for quick response to move fast for spirited performance and nimble handling.  Nissan GT-R  Now a days sports cars have become a first choice for every body, therefore automobile manufacture are making them more fast and more luxury.  Some example of sports car masterpieces are  Nissan GTR, Lamborghini Veneno, Maserati Alfieri etc.
  43. 43. 2) Muscle Cars  A type of car designed for powerful and high performance automobile lovers, These cars have powerful engine, mostly V-8 and above with 2-door.  Apart form this their performance and their look is muscular and aggressive.  Some common example are Equss Bass 770, Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro etc.
  44. 44. 3) Sedan type Cars  It is the car type that we found around us every time any where, well sedan is a passenger car that has two rows of seats and adequate passenger space in the rear compartment for adult passengers.  In sedan, a four or more people can travel and has a fixed roof that is full- height up to the rear window with two pillar to join roof and window.  The word sedan is taken from Italian sedia “chair” in that closed chair one person can sit.  Some common examples are Porsche Panamera, Audi A8 etc.
  45. 45. 4) SUVs type Cars  A sport utility vehicle (SUV) is a estate car mostly available in four wheel drive to drive on-road or off-road having large passenger carrying space.  If you wish to further categorize the SUV car they are sub divided in many type as par their size like Compact SUV, Mid-size SUV, Full size SUV etc.  Some popular SUV’s are BMW X4, Porsche Macan, Maserati Levante etc.
  46. 46. 5) Multi-utility vehicles: MUVs  Usually based on either a mid-sized car or mini-van platform.  Usually two-wheel drive "people movers". They have higher ceilings, more storage than a sedan, some of the utility of a SUV with a similar ride,  though from a construction standpoint not as robust.  Great for larger families of 4-5 and comfortable. In India a good example is the Honda Mobilio
  47. 47. 6) HATCH BACKS  Passenger cabin with integrated cargo space.  Generally two rows of seat.

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