Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Introduction to Biodeisel

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Biodiesel MANJOT SINGH (2011CS10228)
  2. 2. • Today, Automobile industries are focusing on pollution (indirectly on global warming) and saving nonrenewable.
  3. 3. • Bio diesel is one of the best solution of above mentioned problems. • Since it is a renewable energy, produce less emission and it is successfully implemented on existing systems (cars).
  4. 4. What is Biodiesel? • A diesel fuel replacement produced from vegetable oils or animal fats through the chemical process of transesterification • Mono-alkyl esters • Biodiesel can be used in any diesel motor in any percent from 0-100% with little or no modifications to the engine
  5. 5. The Chemistry of Biodiesel • All fats and oils consist of triglycerides • Glycerol/glycerine = alcohol • 3 fatty acid chains (FA) • Transesterification describes the reaction where glycerol is replaced with a lighter and less viscous alcohol • e.g. Methanol or ethanol • A catalyst (KOH or NaOH) is needed to break the glycerol-FA bonds
  6. 6. Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Methanol (or Ethanol) Triglyceride Biodiesel Glycerol Fatty Acid Chain One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) molecules
  7. 7. Climate Change • Biodiesel has a (nearly) closed carbon cycle • Biodiesel yields a 78% carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction compared to petroleum diesel under life-cycle analysis. • Biodiesel has the most favorable energy balance of any liquid fuel 3.2:1 for soy biodiesel • Note: Carbon Neutral: CO2 is taken up from plants growing and then released again when combusted, no net increase in CO2. The soybean plants take up more CO2 than is released in the biodiesel
  8. 8. PROPERTIES • High Lubricity • High Electrical conductivity • Cold flow impact (Cloud point) • High Cetane Number • High Flash point
  9. 9. Lubricity • The lubricating property of fuel is important especially for rotary &distributor type fuel injection pump. • Biodiesel fuel consisting of methyl esters of soybean oil has excellent scuffing and adhesive wear resistance that exceeds those of the best conventional diesel fuel.
  10. 10. Electrical conductivity • Biodiesel has sufficiently high conductivity that a static dissipater is typically not required. • Blend of biodiesel (above 20% blend level) normally not require the addition of a static dissipater due to increase in conductivity imparted by the biodiesel.
  11. 11. Flash Point • With a flash point of 260 °F, biodiesel is classified as a non-flammable liquid by the Occupational Safety & Health Administration. • This property makes biodiesel relatively safe to produce and vehicles fueled by pure biodiesel are far safer in accidents than ones powered by petroleum diesel or the explosively combustible gasoline .
  12. 12. Cetane Number • The cetane number refers to the ease with which the fuel ignites. • Biodiesel has high cetane rating (minimum cetane of 47 which is higher than diesel) ignites readily and burns steadily & rapidly.
  13. 13. MYTHS &FACTS  Myth: Biodiesel is an experimental fuel & has not been thoroughly tested.  Fact: Biodiesel is most thoroughly tested alternative fuel in market.
  14. 14. MYTHS &FACTS • Myth: Biodiesel doesn't perform as well as diesel. • Fact: One of the major advantages of Biodiesel is that it can be used in existing engines & fuel injection equipment with little impact to operating performance.
  15. 15. MYTHS &FACTS • Myth: Biodiesel doesn't have self sufficient life. • Fact: A longer self life is possible depending upon self composition & use of storage enhancing additives.
  16. 16. MYTHS &FACTS • Myth: Engine warranty coverage would be at risk. • Fact: The use of biodiesel in existing engines does not void parts & material workmanship warranties of any major US engine manufacturer.
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES • Biodegradable • Non-toxic • Favorable Emissions Profile • Renewable • Carbon Neutrality • Requires no engine modifications (except replacing some fuel lines on older engines). • Can be blended in any proportion with petroleum diesel fuel. .
  18. 18. ADVANTAGES • High cetane number and excellent lubricity. • Very high flashpoint (>300°F) • Can be made from waste restaurant oils and animal fats • It can help reduce dependency on foreign oil. • It helps to lubricate the engine itself, decreasing engine wear. • It offers similar power to diesel fuel. • It is safer than conventional diesel
  19. 19. ECONOMIC BENIFITS • Biodiesel is their least-cost-strategy to comply with state and federal regulations. • Use of biodiesel does not require major engine modifications. The only thing that changes is air quality. • Biodiesel has positive attributes such as increased cetane, high fuel lubricity & high oxygen content.
  20. 20. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIFITS 1. Biodiesel contains fewer aromatic hydrocarbon 2. Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50 % and carbon dioxide by 78 % on a net lifecycle basis. 3. Biodiesel is biodegradable and non-toxic posing no threat to human health. 4. Biodiesel reduces by as much as 65 % the emission of small particles of solid combustion products. 5. Biodiesel has higher cetane rating than petrodiesel .
  21. 21. EMISSION  The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to emissions from diesel fuel.  The ozone (smog) forming potentials of hydrocarbons is less than diesel fuel.  Sulfur emissions are essentially eliminated with pure biodiesel .
  22. 22. PROBLEMS • Gelling when the temperatures get below 40°F (4.4°C) or so, depending on the mix of esters . • Hydrophilic. The presence of water in biodiesel is a problem for a number of reasons: Water reduces the heat of combustion. Water will cause corrosion of vital fuel system components: Water, as it approaches 32°F (0°C) begins to form ice crystal. • Scalability • Current feedstock technology liStability Concerns • Biodiesel is less oxidatively stable than petroleum diesel fuel. Old fuel can become acidic and form sediments and varnish. Additives can prevent this. • mits large scalability • Stability Concerns • Biodiesel is less oxidatively stable than petroleum diesel fuel. Old fuel can become acidic and form sediments and varnish. Additives can prevent this.
  23. 23. PRECAUTIONS • Check fuel filters on the vehicles & in the delivery system frequently upon initial biodiesel use & change them as necessary. • Be aware of biodiesel’s cold weather operation. • Be aware of biodiesel’s compatibility with engine components. • Wipe painted surfaces immediately when using biodiesel. • Use stored biodiesel with in six months
  24. 24. CAN BIODIESEL WORK IN INDIA? India with just 2.4% of global area supports more than 16% of the human population and 17% of the cattle population India is one of the largest importers of edible oil Where do we find the oil for biodiesel? A sustainable source of vegetable oil is to be found before we can think of biodiesel NRRaje Feb 06
  25. 25. JATROPHA THE ANSWER? • Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, Ratanjyot, wild castor) thrives on any type of soil • Needs minimal inputs or management • Has no insect pests, not browsed by cattle or sheep • Can survive long periods of drought • Propagation is easy • Rapid growth; forms a thick live hedge after only 9 months of planting • Yield from the 3rd year onwards and continues for 25-30 years • Yield from established plantations in Brazil, 1.5 to 2.3 tons per hectare • 25% oil from seeds by expelling; 30% by solvent extraction • The meal after extraction an excellent organic manure (38% protein) • According to the National Mission on Bio Fuels out of 197 million hectors,13.4 MH available for Jatropha plantation NRRaje Feb 06
  26. 26. NRRaje Feb 06
  27. 27. BIODIESEL FROM JATROPHA 1 MILLION HECATRES OF WASTE LAND IS BROUGHT UNDER JATROPHA CULTIVATION • Can yield • 0.8-1 million tons of oil • For 66.9 MMT diesel (Projected 2011-12) • 13 MMT bio diesel for 20% blend • 11 MH land required • 11 million jobs NRRaje Feb 06
  28. 28. Initiatives taken by Govt Planning commission  Committee formed  Report Indian Railways – Planted 7.5 million Jatropha plants on railway track Bureau of Industrial Standards (BIS) has given specification for pure bio-diesel (B100)  MSP of Bio-diesel Rs.25/- per liter  20 centres designated for blending Oil marketing companies to make available comprehensive industry guidelines “ Operation, Quality & Safety NRRaje Feb 06
  29. 29. Initiatives taken by State Govt. Various State Govts have taken initiatives for Jatropha Plantation notably Uttranchal Constituted “Uttranchal Bio-fuel Board” to promote Bio-fuel in the state 2 lakh ha.Jatropha plantation is proposed on degraded community land through Van Panchayat Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarh Bio-fuel Development Authority setup on Jan.2005 for development of bio-fuel in the state Govt. fallow land being offered to private entrepreneur. Action initiated to allot 70000 ha Land on lease to private entrepreneur NRRaje Feb 06
  30. 30. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ‘National Network on Jatropha’ Objectives Selection of Superior planning material Standardization of Propagation techniques-Micro and Macro propagation. Standardizing agro- techniques Establishment of model plantation Tree improvement Detoxification of seed meal Development of pre-processing & processing equipments Imparting training to the farmers. NRRaje Feb 06
  31. 31. Key Factors of Production  Feed stock cost  Yield  Conversion cost  Product quality  Bio-diesel sale price  Glycerin sale price  Energy cost  Investment NRRaje Feb 06
  32. 32. Cost of Bio Diesel Production in India (As per Planning Com Report) Rate (Rs. Kg) Quantity(Kg) Cost (Rs.) Seed 5.00 3.28 16.40 Cost of collection & oil extraction 2.36 1.05 2.48 Less cake produced 1.00 2.23 -2.23 Trans- esterification cost 6.67 1.00 6.67 * Less cost of glycerol produced *40 to 60.00 0.095 -*3.8 to – 5.70 Cost of Bio- Diesel per Kg 19.52-17.62 Cost of Bio –Diesel per liter ( SP. Gravity 0.85) 16.59-14.98 * The price of glycerol is likely to be depressed with processing of such large quantities of oil and consequent production of glycerol. However , new applications are likely to be found creating additional demand and stabilizing its price. NRRaje Feb 06
  33. 33. Issues of Seed / Oil Allocation • Investors perspective  Legislated for seed / oil allocation  Price  Policy on contract farming  Feasibility / project report  Covering all aspects of farming including yield guarantees. • Farmers perspective  Seed quality/ certification  No certification available for non-edible oil seeds  Management practices for Jatropha cultivation  Crop behavior  Holding pattern • 11 million hectares 1crore farmers assuming 3,000 / hectare loan 3,000 crore required by farmers NRRaje Feb 06
  34. 34. Long Term Govt. Policies • • • • • • • • • Long term plan for Energy Encourage production & usage of bio fuels Standards notification Directive /policy on procurement distribution & allocation of seeds / oils Firm Selling Price Policy on Excise & Sales Tax Encouraging Policy Customs duty Waiver on non-edible oils import & machinery initially NRRaje Feb 06
  35. 35. BIODIESEL vs OTHER ALTERNATE FUELS DIESEL CNG LNG METHANOL ETHANOL BIODIESEL ___________________________________________________________________________ Vehicle cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Infrastructure 10 2 5 5 5 10 Safety 7 4 3 1 3 8 Operating range 10 5 10 10 10 10 Operating cost 10 5 7 5 5 7 Reliability 10 7 5 3 3 10 Customer acceptance 5 8 8 8 9 8 Funding assistance 1 10 2 0 2 2 Training cost 10 5 5 5 5 10 Fuel availability 10 10 5 5 5 6 Fuel quality 9 5 10 8 8 9 Fuel price stability 6 8 8 6 6 6 TOTAL 98 74 73 NRRaje 61 Feb 06 66 96 __
  36. 36. Issues for Investors Feed stock souring  own /external source  Long term contract Technology  Appropriate for multi food stock  Etraction of value added feed stock like phytochemical formulations during pre treatment  Product quality  Economic consumption of chemicals  Domestic  Export Glycerin quality & outlet Process plant size Transportation Infrastructure sharing NRRaje Feb 06
  37. 37. Major Issues & Concerns of Mass cultivation a. Land  Available revenue wasteland is less than reported • • • Significant portions encroached, under forest cover, diverted etc. Many plots unfit due to poor soil depth, steep slope etc To meet estimated 5% blending requirement by 2017, approx. 3 million ha will have to be brought under cultivation  Formation of compact clusters difficult due to small & scattered plots b. Uncertainty in Yield  Nation wide survey of existing plantations in six climatic zones: seed yield varying from 350 to 1700 gm /plant  Non availability of certified planting materials (seeds/saplings) c. Plant Health  Jatropha, contrary to earlier reports of hardy nature, is prone to disease and infestations. Remedial actions add to the plantation costs
  38. 38. Major Issues & Concerns of Mass cultivation d. Availability of labour  Getting labour in adequate nos. in the plantation season is difficult since it coincides with that of sustenance food crops. e. Rainfall/irrigation:  Availability of water in marginal lands is limited and expensive f. Costs  Actual cost of plantation is higher than envisaged  Major Contributors to increase in costs  Irrigation  Costs of Agri-inputs  Labour rate & No of Mandays
  39. 39. Major Issues & Concerns of Mass cultivation g. Logistics:  High logistics cost due to small & scattered plots - non formation of clusters h. Harvesting:  The staggered ripening pattern of Jatropha fruits also adds to the harvesting costs  Diversion of produce after harvesting could occur & initiator may not get its due
  40. 40. Support Required • High yielding certified seed / planting material • Dedicated Government Financial Support • Allotment of funds to promote Energy Crop planations • Nil VAT/ST on “Biodiesel Portion” of blended HSD. • Direct investments by Corporates to be treated as R&D expense / CSR activity • Waste Land Allotment Policy : Integrated (revenue cum forest) wasteland allotment policy
  41. 41. Percentage Distribution of Households using major source of energy for Cooking : 2004-05 All India Biomass LPG Kerosene Others Rural 84.1 8.6 1.3 6 Urban 23.7 57 10 9.3 41 41
  42. 42. At rural level An hour of pedaling activity converts vegetable oil to biodiesel in an Indian village. The fuel is used to run irrigation pumps, tillers, rice hulling mills and generate electricity.
  43. 43. Steps to initiating pilot projects in rural communities • • • • • • • Mobilize community groups , e.g. 10 to 15 households Awareness workshops including gender sensitivity Engage local men and women in interactive dialogue and discussions Install irrigation pump and oil expeller for each community group Provide skill training and instruction manuals Form Village energy committee Encourage household to plant jatropha plants in their private wastelands or in poorer sections of their field, e.g. on the borders of the fields • Conduct technical and business skill training to women from preparing organic fertilizer from oil cake to producing vegetable cash crops to sell in the market • Establish a small micro-finance bank so villagers can take loans
  44. 44. Conclusion • Promotion of Biofuels has multiple advantages–Energy security; Sustainable rural employment / development; Environment benefits etc • Commercialization will require long term commitments and government support • Extensive R&D for - yield improvement; new feedstocks ; new technologies etc With govt. support and coordination with all players in R&D, agriculture, RD, forest, logistics, processing and marketing; Biofuels can achieve its goal