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An	empirically	informed		
taxonomy	for	the	Maker	Movement			
Chris&an	Voigt	(ZSI),	Calkin	Suero	Montero(UEF),		
Massimo	Me...
Context:		
Collec9ve	Awareness	Pla>orm		
•  The	Maker	Movement	is	-among	many	things	-		a	way	to	
empower	people	to	take	o...
Problem	Statement	&	Approach		
•  Taxonomies	are	frequently	ad	hoc	crea&ons,	i.e		
–  unclear	origins	or	theore&cal	framew...
Taxonomy	refinement		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 4
1ST	STEP:	SELECTORS	
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 5
Seeds	
ü people:	maker,	hacker;	
ü places:	makerspaces,	hackerspaces,	fablabs;	
ü ac9vi9es:	DIY,	3d-prin&ng,	making,	hacki...
2ND	STEP:	SOCIAL	MEDIA	ANALYSIS		
Co-Word	Analysis		
Wikipedia	Sta&s&cs		
Google	Trends	(Search,	Co-Search)	
Emo&onal	Profi...
Co-Word	analysis	in	R		
•  download	tweets		
(specified	by	one	or	more	hashtags,	max	13.000,	within	last	7	days)		
•  creat...
13,000	tweets	with	#3dprin9ng		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 9...
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 10
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 11	
Wikipedia	Access	Sta9s9cs		
A...
Timeline	interpreta9ons		
•  'hackerspace’	are	declining	aler	2013		
•  visits	to	'maker_culture'	page	are	increasing	
•  ...
Google	Trending		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 13	
Risk #2: Re...
3RD	STEP:		
DRAFT	TAXONOMIC	STRUCTURE		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxo...
People:		
DraX	Taxonomic	Structure		
	
	
	
	
		
...	so	far	co-word	analysis,	seemed	the	most	
comprehensible	approach.				...
Outlook		
•  integra&on	of	&me	dimension,	indica&ng	
decreasing	and	increasing	terms	(e.g.	Google	
Trending)		
•  tes&ng	o...
BACK-UP		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 17
EMOTION	ANALYSIS		
Centre	for	Social	Innova&on	|		
voigt.cmc@gmail.com	
An	empirically	informed		taxonomy		 18
Posi9ve	emo9ons	
– Clear:	'Lots	of	great	prac&cal	&ps	for	crea&ng	a	
library	makerspace'		(Eagerness)	
– Ambiguous:	'Huge	...
Nega9ve	emo9ons	
– Clear:	'thanks!	I	want	to	try...	afraid	I'll	do	most	of	
the	work	in	the	minimal	maker-space	&me	we	
ha...
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Conference Paper presentation at INSCI2016: An empirically informed taxonomy for the Maker Movement

http://insci2016.complexworld.net/home

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Conference Paper presentation at INSCI2016: An empirically informed taxonomy for the Maker Movement

  1. 1. An empirically informed taxonomy for the Maker Movement Chris&an Voigt (ZSI), Calkin Suero Montero(UEF), Massimo Menichinelli (FabLab-BCN, AU) Centre for Social Innova9on | Dr. Chris&an Voigt 3rd International Conference on Internet Science INSCI 2016 – September 12-14, Florence, Italy
  2. 2. Context: Collec9ve Awareness Pla>orm •  The Maker Movement is -among many things - a way to empower people to take ownership of designs and means of produc7on. •  Ownership also means controlling value preferences embedded within a product •  For example –  materials used, –  features provided, –  energy consumed, –  openly designed etc. Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 2 What defines the Maker Movement ? Taxonomy •  comparability •  track changes in meaning •  fostering abstractions
  3. 3. Problem Statement & Approach •  Taxonomies are frequently ad hoc crea&ons, i.e –  unclear origins or theore&cal frameworks –  may lack empirical founda&ons •  Approach tested –  Can social media, google trends and access sta7s7cs inform taxonomic structures? => explanatory usefullness •  Objec&ve –  Test tools, methods and risks (modera&ng effects) Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 3
  4. 4. Taxonomy refinement Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 4
  5. 5. 1ST STEP: SELECTORS Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 5
  6. 6. Seeds ü people: maker, hacker; ü places: makerspaces, hackerspaces, fablabs; ü ac9vi9es: DIY, 3d-prin&ng, making, hacking maker_educa&on. Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 6 13.Ratto, M.: Critical making: Conceptual and material studies in technology and social life. The Information Society. 27, 252–260 (2011). 14.Anderson, C.: Makers: the new industrial revolution. NY (2012). 15.Dougherty, D.: The maker movement. innovations. 7, 11–14 (2012). … used as hashtags, search terms and wikipedia pages – ‘seed word’ concept.
  7. 7. 2ND STEP: SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYSIS Co-Word Analysis Wikipedia Sta&s&cs Google Trends (Search, Co-Search) Emo&onal Profiling Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 7
  8. 8. Co-Word analysis in R •  download tweets (specified by one or more hashtags, max 13.000, within last 7 days) •  create corpus (i.e. combina&on of several text files) •  clean text (only alphabe&c chars, no numbers or brackets, no URL links or retweet– RT – or @names) •  create term matrix (word by word matrix => gets huge) •  remove sparse terms (i.e. very few combina&ons) •  plot top 20 or top 30 co-words Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 8 needed <- c ("twitteR", "tm”, "ggplot2”) sapply (needed, require)
  9. 9. 13,000 tweets with #3dprin9ng Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 9 Risk #1: Short time span & high impact events
  10. 10. Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 10
  11. 11. Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 11 Wikipedia Access Sta9s9cs Another example for the impact of external events ...
  12. 12. Timeline interpreta9ons •  'hackerspace’ are declining aler 2013 •  visits to 'maker_culture' page are increasing •  2013: publica&on of Chris Anderson's Makers: The New Industrial Revolu7on. •  2011 cover story from the Economist "Print me a Stradivarius" •  no clear idea for decline of DIY aler 2013 Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 12
  13. 13. Google Trending Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 13 Risk #2: Reflecting semantics (3D printing being part of DIY) Risk #3: Non-testable data generation
  14. 14. 3RD STEP: DRAFT TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 14
  15. 15. People: DraX Taxonomic Structure ... so far co-word analysis, seemed the most comprehensible approach. Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 15
  16. 16. Outlook •  integra&on of &me dimension, indica&ng decreasing and increasing terms (e.g. Google Trending) •  tes&ng of automated taxonomy buidling (e.g. in an educa&onal context where taxonomies maner to support the exchange of materials and lesson plans) Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 16
  17. 17. BACK-UP Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 17
  18. 18. EMOTION ANALYSIS Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 18
  19. 19. Posi9ve emo9ons – Clear: 'Lots of great prac&cal &ps for crea&ng a library makerspace' (Eagerness) – Ambiguous: 'Huge thanks to Cargill Salt for approving our grant for our Maker-space. You're helping to foster crea&vity and innova&on!' (Liking) – False: 'Aleph objects opens new fulfilment center in Australia, offers free shipping - 3dprint.com ' (Fulfillment) Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 19
  20. 20. Nega9ve emo9ons – Clear: 'thanks! I want to try... afraid I'll do most of the work in the minimal maker-space &me we have!' (Distress) – Ambiguous: 'Worried about #makerspace logis&cs? #fallcue is here to help! It's not just for tech! ' (Distress) – False: 'If kids can imagine it, they can build it! Perfect for blas&ng away boredom #makerspace' (Weariness) Centre for Social Innova&on | voigt.cmc@gmail.com An empirically informed taxonomy 20 Risk #4: Unknown classification errors

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