First civilizations arose in
Cities develop and become
the center of the civilizations
Rivers made for
Rivers made travel
and trade easier
• What two rivers was
Tigris and Euphrates
It was called “the land between two rivers” and
was in the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent
• What were the pros and cons of the rivers flooding?
• How did the farmers learn how to control the flooding?
CON: frequent and
unpredictable; it could flood
one year, but not the next year
PRO: left behind rich
soil for farming
Built dams and channels to control the river;
to irrigate (water the crops) their field
Why were the Sumerian cities isolated from each other?
What types of natural resources did Mesopotamia have?
By geography (mudflats and patches of scorching
Mesopotamia had very little natural resources.
Important resources like gold, copper, tin, and
wood were rare.
What occupation did most Sumerians do?
What are artisans?
Skilled workers who made metal products,
clothing or pottery.
They were farmers.
What other groups of workers were part of Sumer?
What did they trade for?
Merchants and traders; they used the rivers to
trade the only real resources that had, a
surplus of food and innovative tools.
In return they would get the natural resources
Mesopotamia lacked, like copper, tin, and
Mesopotamians invented and
improved the design of the wheel.
Cuneiform was a wedge shaped language
developed by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia.
- Cuneiform was mainly used for business and
Children (of rich
be trained to
skilled in reading
The Mesopotamians also invented
the plow. This tool was used to turn
up the soil (tilling), so that farming
could be made easier! Notice the
use of animals, got to love
Great at Math?
1. Began using a simple geometry (math for
shapes, and reasoning). Very useful for
building Ziggurats and irrigation systems.
2. Created a number system based on 60.
(We use a base ten system)
3. Designed a 12 month calendar based on
the movements of the moon.