• Many cities developed in the Nile river, but
they were not separate and independent like
• The kingdom in the North had a king who
controlled all the cities in Lower Egypt.
• The kingdom in the South had a king who
controlled all the cities in Upper Egypt.
• King Narmer of Upper Egypt, conquered
Lower Egypt and created the world’s first
• A nation-state is a political unit in which a
group of people who share the same history,
traditions, or language live in a particular area
under one government
Narmer became the 1st pharaoh
• The pharaoh was the monarch of Egypt.
• This power was passed on from father to son.
There have been many dynasties, or different
families, who have controlled Egypt.
• The name pharaoh means, “Great House.”
• There have been female pharaohs. Queen
Hatshepsut was very powerful and dressed
like a man.
A Divine King
• The pharaoh was believe to be part god and
• People owed the pharaoh absolute obedience.
• Because the pharaoh was believed to be a
god, people also believed he had power over
Egyptians worshipped many gods (Polytheism)
The Egyptians had gods for nearly everything,
including the sun, the sky, and the earth.
These gods would often mix human and
Chief gods and goddesses
• The Sun god, Ra or Amon-Ra, was
always very important
• Anubis was the god of the dead. He
weighed souls to decide fate (light souls
had been good in life and were
rewarded, heavy souls were fed to a
Central to Egyptian religion was the belief in an afterlife, a
land of the dead where souls would go to live. Because of this
belief, Egyptians developed elaborate rituals regarding death
• Physical body dies,
• Ka was individual’s
• Ka needed food
and drink to survive
• Sought to prevent
ka would not vanish
•Developed process to prevent
breakdown of body
•Mummification only for kings,
royal family at first
•Process available later to any
who could afford
Mummification and Burial
• Temples built to honor
and provide homes for
• Priests were responsible
for the religious
ceremonies and for
cleaning the temple.
Ordinary Egyptians were
not allowed into the