Productivity slideshow

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Productivity slideshow

  1. 1. S Ocean Productivity Chapter 15
  2. 2. What are the different environmental zones? S Pelagic Zone – water environment S Benthic Zone - seafloor S Neritic Zone – coastal or continental shelf S Oceanic Zone – deep water zone S Photic Zone – surface where enough light for plants to grow (50-100ft) S Aphotic Zone – without light
  3. 3. How is the coast line divided up into zones? S Supralittoral or Splash Zone (above high tide) S Littoral or Intertidal Zone (between high and low tide) S Sublittoral or Subtidal Zone (below low tide)
  4. 4. Coastal Zones
  5. 5. S Life in the zones is affected by temperature, dissolved gases, substrate and nutrient changes S Coastal areas and photic zones vary more by latitude than the deeper zones which remain fairly constant
  6. 6. How do animals stay buoyant? What features allow them to do that? S Shape, fat, size, and ability to change shape when diving S Water’s density helps animals stay afloat S Animals do not need to focus on structural features but features for swimming S Some secrete gases to stay afloat (i.e. algae and sea jellies) S Sea snail rides gas bubble float S Chambered nautilus uses nitrogen gas to fill chambers in shell S Cuttle fish also regulate gas to stay afloat
  7. 7. S Most fish have swim bladders and adjust gas as dive S Whales and seals store low density fat in bodies S Sharks store oil in liver and muscles
  8. 8. Fluid Balance S Must constantly expend energy to prevent dehydration S Body higher concentration of water molecules than sea S Fish drink sea water and deposit salt across gills S Sharks and rays have similar salinity as ocean S Some animals adapt from fresh to salt water and back again S What animal in the NW does this?
  9. 9. S Bioluminescence S an interaction between the compound lucifern and the enzyme luciferase creates light S Dinoflagellates are agitated by the movement of the water S Squid, shrimp and some fish also create this chemical reaction
  10. 10. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/02sab/backgrou nd/biolum/media/biolum.html
  11. 11. Color S or lack there of (i.e. jelly fish blend in with back ground) S Tropical water fish have bright patterns to confuse predators S Animals that sting, are foul tasting or have poisonous flesh are bright S Fish that swim near the surface have dark backs and white bellies to avoid predators
  12. 12. Barriers and Boundaries S Can you think of some barriers in the ocean? S Salinity, temperature, light, density of water S As water deepens and becomes more homogenous not as many boundaries S Gulf Stream, continents, ridges, and sea mounts can act as barriers
  13. 13. Who are the primary producers? S Phytoplankton S Chlorophyll is trapped by photosynthesis to produce energy S Synthesis of inorganic material into organic matter S Sugars are then broken down with oxygen to produce respiration S Biomass or the organisms weight or grams of carbon (material produced) S Weight of organic carbon in grams under a square meter of sea surface (gC/m2)
  14. 14. http://www.science.oregonstate.edu/ocean.productivity/
  15. 15. S Primary productivity = rate at which biomass is produced S Standing crop = total living material in an area at one time S Equals growth, reproduction, grazing and death S Seaweeds represent only 5-10 percent of total photosynthetic material in oceans
  16. 16. How can light intensity vary at the surface of the oceans? S Latitude and seasons S Artic one peak S Temperate two peaks with grazing in between S Tropics do not see large peaks due to low nutrient levels S Only near equator where up welling does phytoplankton increase
  17. 17. How do nutrients affect primary production at different latitudes? S Depends on the availability of light S Arctic regions depend more on length of light S Middle latitude nutrients reduced by winter storms S When surface water density decreases with warmer waters of spring then nutrients increase
  18. 18. S Grazing organisms release nutrients for a second peak in primary production S Production limited in tropics and subtropics due to lack of surface mixing S Nitrogen is essential for the formation of proteins and phosphorous which is required in energy actions, cell membranes and nucleic acids S Nitrogen in the form of nitrates and phosphorous in the form of phosphates are removed by phytoplankton
  19. 19. S Human activities from fertilizers and combustion of fossil fuels have increased nutrients in coastal areas S As nutrients broken down the oxygen is depleted S Over supply of nitrates in Mississippi River delta area has created a dead zone S Many other coastal areas are seeing similar problems around the world
  20. 20. http://www.eoearth.org/article/ Nitrogen
  21. 21. How can primary production be measured? S Counting phytoplankton cells S Chlorophyll levels and pigment present S Exposing chlorophyll to certain wave length of light causes pigment to fluoresce = intensity measures the biomass S Amount of oxygen in sea water can measure gross and net primary production and respiration S Radioisotope carbon-14 measures amount in cells after a period of time S Satellite images can measure sea surface chlorophyll levels
  22. 22. How is this measured or reflected? S Highest commercial fish productivity is associated with areas of upwelling and along coasts where phytoplankton populations are in high numbers S Phytoplankton provides first step in food chain S See areas of convergence, divergence, upwelling and downwelling with the distribution of primary production S (i.e. equatorial Pacific = upwelling and divergence; Antartica = divergence; North Atlantic and Pacific gyres = convergence)
  23. 23. Upwelling vs. Downwelling
  24. 24. Global Upwelling
  25. 25. S Upwelling areas 2x productive as coastal areas and 6x more productive than open ocean S Upwelling represents a small portion of ocean S Total primary production shows organic carbon or production spread thin over a large area
  26. 26. S Open ocean same as deserts for productivity S Estuaries are the most productive! Why? S Light reaches bottom and high detritus levels/nutrients to support high biomass per acre
  27. 27. What is the difference between a food chain, web and trophic level? S Food Chain follows one line of connection from primary producer to carnivore S Food Web is the complex interrelationship of many food chains S Trophic levels focus on the transfer of energy
  28. 28. International Arctic Research Center http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/highlights/2005/coupled_marine_ec osystem/index.php
  29. 29. Trophic Levels S As move up food chain the size and numbers increase while the biomass decreases. Collectively the lower on the food chain the higher the biomass S Diversity also decreases S Open ocean energy transfer is 10% (i.e. human eats 10 kg salmon = salmon eat 100 kg of fish = fish eat 1000 kg of carnivorous zooplankton = carnivorous plankton eat 10,000 kg of herbivorous plankton = 100,000 kg was needed of phytoplankton to feed 1 kg on top) S 90% energy loss at each level goes to metabolic needs and organic material that is not ingested
  30. 30. Source: http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/OCB3043_26.html
  31. 31. Changes in the food web S Krill is the main diet for many animals in Antarctica (i.e. penguins, fish, seals, and whales S Recently seen decrease in krill last 40 years S Global Warming may to be to blame due to lack of sea ice which grows algae on underside for krill in the winter
  32. 32. http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/highlights/2005/coupled_marine_ec osystem/index.php
  33. 33. Food Chains and Humans S What level in the food chain do humans tend to harvest food from oceans? S High on the food chain S Inefficient especially in open oceans S More efficient in high productivity areas along coasts S Best harvest is low on the food chain
  34. 34. Chemosynthetic communities S Where are they found? S East Pacific Rise, Mariana and Okinawa troughs, N. Fuji basin, mid Atlantic Ridge, and along Gorda and Juan de Fuca Ridges S What kind of animals do you find there? S Anemones, worms, barnacles, limpets, crab and fish
  35. 35. http://scienceblogs.com/deepseanews/2007/09/microbial_metagenomic _studies.php
  36. 36. S Tube worms can be 10 ft long and grow 3.3 ft per year S No mouth or digestive system only internal body cavity is filled with bacteria S Synthesis or digestion is all done by the bacteria it’s self S Both clams and tube worms have red flesh and red blood based on hemoglobin
  37. 37. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/species/Giant_tube_w orm
  38. 38. Chemosynthesis S Chemosynthesis = bacteria derive energy form dissolved chemicals in sea S Form of primary production that is not dependent on sunlight S Example of other communities: S Gulf of Mexico a crystalline mound of methane gas and hydrogen sulfide where worms lived 1800 ft down S Off Louisiana and Texas oil and gas seep up to surface where clams, mussels and large tube worms live at 1600-3000 ft down S N. Atlantic off mid-Atlantic Ridge Lost City of bacteria, sponges and coral 2300-2600 ft down
  39. 39. http://pathways.fsu.edu/faculty/geeo/
  40. 40. What is an extremophile? Do you know one? S Thriving in conditions no other life can live S Growing at 235 degrees F and depths of 12,000 ft = Pyrolobus fumarii S Uses hydrogen and sulfur compounds for energy S Also found in extreme cold 39 degrees F S Found in salt ponds for evaporation of seawater
  41. 41. http://www.microcourse.info/tiki/tiki- print.php?page=Life%20at%20high%20temperature

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