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History slideshowonline

  1. 1. History of Oceanography<br />
  2. 2. The Early TimesWhat was the main drive for ocean exploration?<br />Food<br />Trade<br />Exploration<br />Other reasons?<br />Why was it so extensive in the SW Pacific so early?<br />Polynesians colonized every island from Hawaii, to New Zealand to Easter Island<br />What was their secret?<br />
  3. 3. Voyages of the Polynesians<br />
  4. 4. The Greeks and Egyptians the first to ask questions<br />Cataloged Organisms, Aristotle 384-322 BC <br />Mapped & Circumference of Earth, Eratosthenes 265-194 BC<br />Measured Ocean Depth, Posidonius 135-50 BC<br />Phases of Moon to tides and Currents, Pliny the Elder 23-79 AD<br />First World Atlas, Ptolemy 127-151 AD<br />
  5. 5. What did the Vikings discover?<br />
  6. 6. For about 100 years the Chinese explored the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Why did they withdraw from exploration for 400 years? <br />
  7. 7. What was Columbus’ main reason for exploration?<br />Italian Navigator, Amerigo Vespucci also made several voyages to new world and understood that South America was not Asia. <br />German Cartographer named continent “America” in his honor.<br />
  8. 8. What were Magellan’s accomplishments? Any part of the Ocean named after him?<br />Spice Islands<br />Southern Tip of South America<br />Killed by Philippians<br />What happened to the five vessels and 270 men that set out on 1519 in the end?<br />Two boats made it to Spice Islands<br />Westward Route successful<br />18 men made it back to Spain<br />
  9. 9. Why were the Spice Islands so important?<br />
  10. 10. Who charted most of the oceans in 1700’s?<br />What was Benjamin Franklin concerned with?<br />When did the United States get involved?<br />Matthew Maury’s charts took 30 days off of passage from British Isles to California. How did he do this? Wrote the first text book and considered first oceanographer.<br />
  11. 11. www.mariner.org/age/menu.html<br />Go to Timeline. Approximately how much time passed between when the Polynesians colonized the Hawaiian Islands and when the Vikings first reached North America? Was Iceland discovered before or after the Normans (Vikings) conquered England? What are astrolabes, when did they first appear in Europe, and where did they come from? <br />
  12. 12. Who sparked the beginning of Ocean Science?<br />Explore the following links <br />http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/darwin_charles.shtml<br />Voyage of the Beagle most famous voyage<br />
  13. 13. What are some of Darwin’s accomplishments?<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKDSiNf_rLo<br />
  14. 14. Edward Forbes was both student and Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh.<br />Of Forbes’ marine studies, Ritchie wrote: ‘Forbes laid the foundation of a branch of knowledge, then undefined, which one of his successors in the Edinburgh Chair of Natural History, Sir Wyville Thomson firmly established - the science of Oceanography.’<br />Forbes’ most famous written ‘Zoological’ works include: History of British Starfishes and other Animals of the Class Echinodermata (1841) and History of British Mollusca and their Shells. 4 vols. (1848-1852) written with W.E. Hanley.<br />Source: http://www.nhc.ed.ac.uk/index.php?page=24.25.312.327.351<br />
  15. 15. Why was the challenger expedition so important?<br />http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/challenger.html<br />http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/history/breakthru/breakthru.html<br />Go to one of these web sites and answer the following questions:<br />What happened to Thompson?<br />Why was sail and steam power used?<br />Where did they travel to?<br />What biological idea was disproved?<br />What difficulties did they have with sampling?<br />
  16. 16. More interesting facts about the challenger expedition:<br />Forbes was the first to talk about ocean zones where different animals lived at various depths<br />The challenger expedition disproved his theory that there was no life beyond 1800ft or 550M<br />Took 20 years to process and compile data!<br />Murray edited much of the material and was considered the 1st geological oceanographer<br />
  17. 17. How did ocean science change into 20th century? What was the focus?Who were the two Scandinavian explorers that shaped further exploration at this time?<br />
  18. 18. Hear the stories of the two Scandinavian Explorers:<br />Fridtjof Nansen – 1893 to 1896 crew frozen in the ice.<br />Ship was frozen 700 miles from N. pole, drifted to 300 from N. pole. Nansen was only able to go 100 more miles N. by dog sled. A passing ship rescued him!<br />bottle used to collect isolate water samples at various depths. <br />http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic42-4-384.pdf<br />http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Mi-Oc/Nansen-Fridtjof.html<br />
  19. 19. Roald Amundsen made a successful trip through the NW passage 1903-1906<br />Also, went to Antarctica for a successful trip to the South Pole in 1911<br />http://www.south-pole.com/p0000101.htm<br />
  20. 20. Sir Alistair Hardy – Whale and plankton studies<br />
  21. 21. Other advances:<br />Tide Predicting Machine 1824 – Lord Kelvin<br />Nansen water sampling & Temperature 1910 combined<br />Salt water content early 1900’s – Martin Knudsen<br />Ocean Depths with echo sounder 1925 – Germans<br />
  22. 22. So why explore the depths?<br />
  23. 23. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04alaska/media/bamboo_polyp.html<br />Octocorals, in the subclass Alcyonaria, have eight pinnate tentacles, whereas scleractinian corals have six non-pinnate tentacles. The “pinnae” are seen here in the small projections along each tentacle of this Swiftia polyp.<br /> More ocean exploration to come!<br />
  24. 24. What modern technologies decreased the interest in wind and currents?<br />
  25. 25. Famous Oceanographic Institutions<br />Two of the top oceanographic institutes, Scripps on the West Coast and Woods Hole on the East Coast, can be credited to one man. Alexander Agassiz, a Harvard Professor mentored two students, one who started The Scripps Institute of Oceanography http://sio.ucsd.edu in 1903 in California and another who started Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts www.whoi.edu twenty-seven years later. <br />
  26. 26. World War Two brought some interesting advancements to the world of oceanography<br />After the war these same oceanographers returned to the classrooms and laboratories with new capabilities <br />The Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, and the Atomic Energy Commission all were supplied with funding after the war. <br />
  27. 27. The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration www.noaa.gov was created in 1970 and combines the following agencies: National Ocean Survey, National Weather Service, National Marine Fisheries Service www.nmfs.noaa.gov , Environmental Data Service, National Environmental Satellite Service and Environmental Research Laboratories. <br />
  28. 28. Alvin – Deep sea submersible<br />
  29. 29. Satellites were being used in the 1970’s and 1980’s to study the ocean as a global system. As more global studies were being conducted a disturbing fact was reveled to scientists around the world. Scientists were beginning to see that the oceans were not limitless and infinite but that it was a living system that was in trouble. <br />
  30. 30. The mission of the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) is to provide scientific stewardship of national and international marine environmental and ecosystem data and information. WOCE is under NODC in NOAA. http://woce.nodc.noaa.gov/<br />
  31. 31. The United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study was a national component of international JGOFS and an integral part of global climate change research.<br />http://www1.whoi.edu/<br />
  32. 32. National Science Foundation Programs Include the following<br />http://www.nsf.gov/div/index.jsp?div=OCE<br />
  33. 33. Topex Poseidon Mission<br />http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/<br />LatestEl Niño/La NiñaJason Data<br />Sea Level Viewer<br />NASA's Climate web site features an informative interactive on this important ocean measurement. Try it now <br />
  34. 34. UWA Neptune Project<br />http://www.neptune.washington.edu/<br />
  35. 35. Montaray Bay Aquarium<br />http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/<br />
  36. 36. Sylvia Earle and Cousteau<br />http://www.conservation.org/Pages/default.aspx<br />http://www.cousteau.org/<br />
  37. 37. Conservation of the Oceans is Critical! Listen to Sylvia Earle’s Speech on TED:<br />http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/sylvia_earle_s_ted_prize_wish_to_protect_our_oceans.html<br />What can you do?<br />Remember “All Drains Lead to the Ocean!”<br />

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