Why Dead Zones off OR & WA?
400 Dead Zones World Wide!
Deep Sea Research
Too Close to Home!
What are the persistent toxins
and where do they come from?
PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) – 209 chemicals used
for industry and transformers. Biomagnification in
PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) – petroleum
products and runoff
Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals – pharmaceuticals,
personal care products and plastic
Source: WA Department of Ecology Presentation 5/08
Flush Time - Diving the volume by the rate of net seaward
flow. Hood Canal has low flush rate.
Differences between rapid and slow flushing rates
Tidal cycles are also factored into the flushing time by the
number of cycles it takes to exchange total volume of an
estuary. Takes many tidal cycles to exchange Hood Canal.
Cycling from tides is not always complete even after several
Depends on currents and topography. Fjord type does not
allow rapid exchange.
High density of septic and human activity adds to pollution
problems for the canal.
Gulf Oil Spill
“The BP Gulf oil spill has become the most recent
example of a "Black Swan" -- i.e., an improbable,
unpredicted event having tremendous impacts.”
Gulf Oil Spill
“Government officials said the blown-out well 40 miles
offshore is spewing five times as much oil into the
water as originally estimated — about 5,000 barrels, or
200,000 gallons, a day.”
Energy from Algae!
Careers in Oceanography
Non-Profit or Educational
U.S. Government Jobs: