Bridging the gap: Encouraging engagement with library services & technologies.


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Connaway, L. S. (2013). Bridging the gap: Encouraging engagement with library services & technologies. Presented at Collective Insight “Getting Off the Island: Collaborating to Create Boundless Collections,” October 15, 2013, Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, California.

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Bridging the gap: Encouraging engagement with library services & technologies.

  1. 1. The world’s libraries. Connected. Getting off the Island: Collaborating to Create Boundless Collections October 15, 2013 Presented by Bridging the Gap Encouraging Engagement with Library Services & Technologies Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph. D., Senior Research Scientist, OCLC in partnership with
  2. 2. The world’s libraries. Connected. Evolution of User Behavior • Previously: • Institutionally-provided resources & technology • Local infrastructure • User built workflow around the library • Currently: • Attention scarce, resources abundant • Free sources of information • Outside the institution (Dempsey 2008) (Dempsey 2012) #InsightSeries
  3. 3. The world’s libraries. Connected. Outside-In & Inside-Out: Discovery and Discoverability • Outside-in • Acquired books, journals, databases from external systems • Provided discovery systems for local constituency • Inside-out • Now a producer of a range of resources • Digitized images, special collections, learning & research materials, research data, administrative records • Promote discoverability of institutional resources (Dempsey 2012) #InsightSeries
  4. 4. The world’s libraries. Connected. 84% of users began information search with a search engine How many began their search on a library website? 1%This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. (Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research 2008)
  5. 5. The world’s libraries. Connected. 25% 13% Americans who have visited a library website (past 12 months) Those who used a handheld device to access library website This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. “Looking and reading an entire book takes too long when the specific information can be gained online in a matter of minutes.” (US, Age 38) (De Rosa 2005) (Zickuhr, Rainie and Purcell 2013)
  6. 6. The world’s libraries. Connected. Current Environment • Challenges • Budget cuts • High retirement rates • Hiring freezes • Opportunity • Best value for most use • Understand how, why, & under what circumstances individuals use systems & services • Promote value of library #InsightSeries
  7. 7. The world’s libraries. Connected. Importance of Assessment “Librarians are increasingly called upon to document and articulate the value of academic and research libraries and their contribution to institutional mission and goals.” (ACRL Value of Academic Libraries 2010, 6) #InsightSeries
  8. 8. The world’s libraries. Connected. Why Assessment? • Answers questions: • What do users/stakeholders want & need? • How can services/programs better meet needs? • Is what we do working? • Could we do better? • What are problem areas? • Traditional stats don’t tell whole story #InsightSeries
  9. 9. The world’s libraries. Connected. Assessment Defined Process of… • Defining • Selecting • Designing • Collecting • Analyzing • Interpreting • Using information to increase service/program effectiveness Interpreting Analyzing Collecting #InsightSeries
  10. 10. The world’s libraries. Connected. User-centered data collection & assessment
  11. 11. The world’s libraries. Connected. Surveys #InsightSeries
  12. 12. The world’s libraries. Connected. Example: WorldCat Usability Survey • Paper or Online (e.g., Survey Monkey) • Consider order of questions • Be specific • Introduce sections • Keep it simple • Pre-test! (Connaway and Wakeling 2012) 21 focus group interviews with: • 61 Librarians • 40 Students • 10 Booksellers • 7 Historians #InsightSeries
  13. 13. The world’s libraries. Connected. Individual Interviews #InsightSeries
  14. 14. The world’s libraries. Connected. Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions 1. Describe the things you enjoy doing with technology and the web each week. 2. Think of the ways you have used technology & the web for your studies. Describe a typical week. 3. Think about the next stage of your education. Tell me what you think this will be like. (White and Connaway 2011) #InsightSeries
  15. 15. The world’s libraries. Connected. Example: Digital Visitors & Residents Participant Questions 4. Think of a time when you had a situation where you needed answers or solutions and you did a quick search and made do with it. You knew there were other sources but you decided not to use them. Please include sources such as friends, family, teachers, coaches, etc. 5. Have there been times when you were told to use a library or virtual learning environment (or learning platform), & used other source(s) instead? 6. If you had a magic wand, what would your ideal way of getting information be? How would you go about using the systems and services? When? Where? How? (Connaway and Radford 2005-2007) (Dervin, Connaway and Prabha 2003-2005) #InsightSeries
  16. 16. The world’s libraries. Connected. Focus Group Interviews #InsightSeries
  17. 17. The world’s libraries. Connected. Example: Focus Group Interviews Uses • Resource discovery • Determining location of items • Academic / professional Strengths • Global scope • Content > functionality • Interface = positive • Discrepancy between students and librarians How & why do users employ ? Challenges • Search functionality • Duplicate records & lack of a work-level • “Find a copy” functioned poorly outside US • Dead links • Marketing WorldCat (Connaway and Wakeling 2012) #InsightSeries
  18. 18. The world’s libraries. Connected. Diaries #InsightSeries
  19. 19. The world’s libraries. Connected. Example: Digital Visitors and Residents Diaries
  20. 20. The world’s libraries. Connected. Findings #InsightSeries
  21. 21. The world’s libraries. Connected. Sources are overwhelmingly digital
  22. 22. The world’s libraries. Connected. •Visit only a few minutes •Shorter sessions •Basic search •View few pages E-journals (Wong, Stelmaszewska, Bhimani, Barn and Barn 2009)
  23. 23. The world’s libraries. Connected. Online resources •99.5% use journals as primary resource •Google, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, JSTOR (Research Information Network 2006)
  24. 24. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Power browsing • Scan small chunks of information • View first few pages • No real reading • Squirreling • Short basic searches • Download content for later use • Differ with discipline Information-Seeking Behavior (Research Information Network 2006) (Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network 2007) (Connaway and Dickey 2010) #InsightSeries
  25. 25. The world’s libraries. Connected. The word “librarian” only mentioned once in original interviews by Emerging Stage participants as a source of information One participant referred to “a lady in the library who helps you find things” (USU5, Male, Age 19, Systems Engineering) #InsightSeries
  26. 26. The world’s libraries. Connected. Mobile Access
  27. 27. The world’s libraries. Connected. Databases • Electronic databases not perceived as library sources • Frustration locating & accessing full-text copies
  28. 28. The world’s libraries. Connected. Social Media Need to be present & available in spaces where users live or dwell (Connaway, Lanclos , and Hood 2013) #InsightSeries
  29. 29. The world’s libraries. Connected. “I get on Twitter a whole bunch. It’s Twitter or Facebook are what I usually use the most to talk to my friends.” (USS1, Female, Age 17, High School Student) #InsightSeries
  30. 30. The world’s libraries. Connected. Can’t live without… “I think my phone….I just – it’s just the easiest way to keep in contact with people. And also with phones these days it’s like a mini computer to be honest, Smartphones so yes.” (UKS7, Female, Age 17, Secondary School Student) #InsightSeries
  31. 31. The world’s libraries. Connected. Course Management Systems vs. the Open Web Open web outnumbers CMS (Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood 2013) “I felt that they used limited resources and did not research the topic other than using the internet. I can do an effective Google search myself and come up with the same resources.” (UOS-65381, Female, Age Range 56-65) #InsightSeries
  32. 32. The world’s libraries. Connected. “It’s like a taboo I guess with all teachers, they just all say – you know, when they explain the paper they always say, ‘Don’t use Wikipedia.’” (USU7, Female, Age 19, Political Science) The Learning Black Market #InsightSeries
  33. 33. The world’s libraries. Connected. Reliability • Concerned with selecting reliable sources • Websites that end in .edu, .ac., or .gov • Appearance of site determines reliability • Repetition is measure of reliability Evaluation, Authority, and Legitimacy #InsightSeries
  34. 34. The world’s libraries. Connected. “It depends, it depends who’s made the website or what I have been told about the website or whether I know about it at all. But it sounds silly but sometimes you can just tell whether a website looks reliable or not depending on how professional that looks and who’s written it.” (UKU6, Female, Age 19, History) #InsightSeries
  35. 35. The world’s libraries. Connected. Convenience (Connaway, Lanclos, and Hood 2013) Convenience trumps all other reasons for selecting and using a source #InsightSeries
  36. 36. The world’s libraries. Connected. Recommendations #InsightSeries
  37. 37. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Anticipate/ understand the user’s needs • Search filters • Customize range of time • Search from mobile phone • “Smart prefix search” Smart Searching #InsightSeries
  38. 38. The world’s libraries. Connected. Convenient and Familiar Interface Designs #InsightSeries
  39. 39. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Available 24/7 • Digital & face-to-face communities are critical • Social media tools can be used to build relationships • Engage in interesting discussions & inventive strategies for making collections come to life using social media Embedding & Engaging in the Individuals’ Networks (Connaway, Lanclos , and Hood 2013) #InsightSeries
  40. 40. The world’s libraries. Connected. • Social networks formed around social objects • Music, photos, videos, links • Reviewing • Tagging • Commenting • Rating Community is Content (Dempsey 2012) #InsightSeries
  41. 41. The world’s libraries. Connected. “By focusing on relationship building instead of service excellence, organizations can uncover new needs and be in position to make a stronger impact.” (Matthews 2012) #InsightSeries
  42. 42. The world’s libraries. Connected. Association of College and Research Libraries. 2010. Value of academic libraries: A comprehensive research review and report. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries. Case, Donald O. 2012. Looking For Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, and Behavior. Bingley: Emerald. Centre for Information Behaviour and the Evaluation of Research. 2008. Information behaviour of the researcher of the future: A CIBER briefing paper. London: CIBER. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. 1996. Focus group interviews: A data collection methodology for decision making. Library Administration and Management 10, no. 4: 231-239. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Timothy J. Dickey. 2010. The digital information seeker: Report of the findings from selected OCLC, RIN, and JISC user behaviour projects. Connaway, Lynn Silipini, Timothy J. Dickey. 2010. Towards a profile of the researcher of today: What can we learn from JISC projects? Common themes identified in an analysis of JISC Virtual Research Environment and Digital Repository Projects. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Timothy J. Dickey, and Marie L. Radford. 2011. “’If it is too inconvenient I’m not going after it: Convenience as a critical factor in information-seeking behaviors. Library & Information Science Research 33, no. 3: 179-190. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “I always stick with the first thing that comes up on Google…” Where people go for information, what they use, and why. Accepted for publication, EDUCAUSE Review Online. References
  43. 43. The world’s libraries. Connected. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. “I find Google a lot easier than going to the library website.” Imagine ways to innovate and inspire students to use the academic library. Proceedings of the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) 2013 conference, April 10-13, 2013, Indianapolis, IN. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Donna Lanclos, David White, Alison Le Cornu, and Erin M. Hood. 2013. User-centered decision making: A new model for developing academic library services and systems. IFLA Journal 39, no. 1: 30-36. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Ronald R. Powell. 2010. Basic research methods for librarians. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, and Simon Wakeling. 2012. To use or not to use An international perspective from different user groups. OCLC internal report. Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, David White, Donna Lanclos, and Alison Le Cornu. 2013. Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment? Information Research 18, no. 1. 1/infres181.html. Consortium of University Research Libraries, and Research Information Network. 2007. Researchers’ use of academic libraries and their services: A report. London: Research Information Network and Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL). Copeland, Larry. 2013. Driven by social media, Millennials do less driving. USA Today, October 2. De Rosa, Cathy, Joanne Cantrell, Diane Cellentani, Janet Hawk, Lillie Jenkins, and Alane Wilson. 2005. Perceptions of libraries and information resources. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. De Rosa, Cathy, Joanne Cantrell, Matthew Carlson, Peggy Gallagher, Janet Hawk, and Charlotte Sturtz. 2010. Perceptions of libraries, 2010: Context and community. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. Dempsey, Lorcan. 2008. Always on: Libraries in a world of permanent connectivity. First Monday 14, no. 1, References
  44. 44. The world’s libraries. Connected. Dempsey, Lorcan. 2012. Thirteen ways of looking at libraries, discovery, and the catalog: Scale, workflow, attention. Educause Review Online, attention. Dervin, Brenda, Lynn Silipigni Connaway, and Chandra Prabha. 2003-2005. Sense-making the information confluence: The hows and the whys of college and university user satisficing of information needs. Funded by the Institute for Museums and Library Services (IMLS). DeSantis, Nick. 2012. On Facebook, librarian brings 2 students from the early 1900s to life, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 6, 2012, 1900s-to-life/34845. Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books. Hanft, Lila. 2008. "Creepy treehouse" effect: Twitter & Facebook suck when they’re required by your professor. Li'laTov'Cock'tail, August 18, Hernon, Peter, and Ellen Altman. 1998. Assessing service quality: Satisfying the expectations of library customers. Chicago: American Library Association. Janes, Joseph. 1999. Survey construction. Library Hi Tech 17, no. 3: 321-325. Kesselman, Martin A., and Sarah Barbara Watstein. 2009. Creating opportunities: Embedded librarians. Journal of Library Administration 49, no. 4: 383-400. Mathews, Brian. 2012. Think like a startup: A white paper to inspire library entrepreneurialism. Nicholas, David, and Ian Rowlands. 2009. E-journals: Their use, value and impact. London: Research Information Network. References
  45. 45. The world’s libraries. Connected. OCLC Research. 2012. Max Klein named OCLC Research Wikipedian in Residence. May 22, Radford, Marie L., and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2005-2008. Seeking synchronicity: Evaluating virtual reference services from user, non-user, and librarian perspectives. Funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). Research Information Network. 2006. Researchers and discovery services: Behaviour, perceptions and needs. London: Research Information Network. Saunders, Laura. 2012. Faculty perspectives on information literacy as a student learning outcome. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 38, no. 4 (2012): 231. Smart Google searching—new tools and old standby’s. Success by Design News & Resources, October 4, 2010, White, David. 2008. Not “natives’”& “immigrants” but “visitors’ & “residents.” TALL Blog: Online Education with the University of Oxford, April 23, White, David, and Lynn Silipigni Connaway. 2011. Visitors and residents: What motivates engagement with the digital information environment. Funded by JISC, OCLC, and Oxford University. White, David S., and Alison Le Cornu. 2011. Visitors and residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday 16, no. 9, Wolcott, Harry R. 2011. Writing up qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Wong, William, Hanna Stelmaszewska, Nazlin Bhimani, Sukhbinder Barn, and Balbir Barn. 2009. User behaviour in resource discovery: Final report, References
  46. 46. The world’s libraries. Connected. References WorldCat iPhone app offers “smart prefix” search. Library Journal 134, no. 8 (2009): 17. Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text. Zabel, Diane. 2011. Reference reborn: Breathing new life into public services librarianship. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. Zickuhr, Kathryn, Lee Rainie, and Kristen Purcell. 2013. Library services in the digital age. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.
  47. 47. The world’s libraries. Connected. Questions? Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. @LConnaway