Vilnius my 23 2012 maria edstrom presentation without pictures
Is There a Nordic Way?Achievements and Problems with Gender in the Media from a Swedish Perspective Dr Maria Edstrom Scientific coordinator Nordicom, Nordic Information Centre for Media and Communication Research
What do we mean bymedia representation?Media representations are everywhere ….Factual – fictionalNorms, Identity & DifferenceVisibility & Discrimination
”For the most part we do not first see, and then define, we define and then see” Walter Lippman in Public Opinion, 1922
Why is gender in the mediaimportant? Democratic Editorial Business/commercial ”You can’t be what you can’t see” www.missrepresentation.org
FN Beijing 1995 Platform for Action http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/ Section J. Women and the Media• Increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication. Actions to be taken• Promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media. Actions to be taken.
Gender and Media Monitoring 2009/2010www.whomakesthenews.org 108 countries from all continents Online news Collecting day Nov 10, 2009
Global news studyone day in 108 countries • 16 734 news stories • 35 343 news subjcets • 20 769 reporters and news presenters
24 per cent female news subjectsGMMP 2010women are a minorityin the news 24 76 76 per cent male news subject
Share of female news subjects, experts and reporters 2010 (www.whomakesthenews) 100 50 52 45 40 37 30 33 31 30 33 28 29 29 19 32 24 20 26 27 23 24 0 15 ar k l an d an d ay de n n ia n m l or w e sto ea De n F in Ic e N Sw E a l m G lo b news subjects experts reporters
Share of female news subject inSweden and globallySource: GMMP 1995-2010 50 31 32 30 24 Sweden 25 21 Global 17 18 0 1995 2000 2005 2010
500 newsrooms59 countries170 000 employees 73 percent of the top management are men Eastern Europe & the Nordic Region stands out Interviews and data collected in 2009, 32 news companies SE,FIN,DK,NO
NORDIC EuropeDenmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden• The 32 companies participating in the study together demonstrate a relatively high degree of gender equality at all of the occupational level in Nordic Europe.• Denmark and Norway have fewer women in the senior professional level (34% and 35%, respectively) than Finland and Sweden (51% and 49%, respectively).
Eastern EuropeBulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russiaand UkraineThe 85 companies surveyed in this region show strong tendencies toward genderegalitarianism. Men and women’s salaries are comparable across occupational levelsfor the most part and women’s job security is excellent.• Bulgarian newsrooms surveyed stand apart from most others across this and other regions for women’s exceptionally high occupational standing.• Women at the 10 news companies surveyed in Estonia enjoy a high degree of equality.• Women are in a particularly strong position in Russia, nearing parity in topmanagement and holding around a third of governance positions.
Share of women as news subjects, journalists and senior management Source: GMMP 2010 & IWMF 2011100 News subject Journalist Editor 49 51 50 40 41 39 35 37 32 32 34 34 31 26 27 24 0 Sweden Norway Finland Den mark Global
Balancing gender in news subjectsRegional public service television in Umeå: Västerbottensnytt 60 56 56 57 50 54 55 55 46 45 45 40 44 44 43 women 30 Men 20 10 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
The Model of SVT Västerbottensnytt 1. Have goals that are reachable. Do not ask for the moon in the beginning. Raise the bar as you go along. 2. Do the monitoring every week. Gender equality is a boring day-to-day work. It is like doing the dishes. You have to wash up after every meal if you want to keep it clean. When you think you know how to do it and the work is done, it will all rise and overflow its banks. 3. Have ongoing discussions on why or why not the goals are reached, analyze and give feedback. If you do not know what is stopping you will not know what it is that that makes you succeed. 4. Active Leadership. Gender equality is a management issue. You need to coach both the group and the individual. Clarify structures and communicate why gender equality is important. In the every day work, constantly remind everyone of the importance of finding women to interview. If you look for women every day you will actually reach a representation of 50/50 (The model of Västerbottensnytt from 2005, translated by Edstrom, the original document is in Swedish)
Transparency & dialogue• Swedish largest daily newspaper, Dagens Nyheter, monitored it self on diversity on the web.• http://www.dn.se/blogg/mangfald/2011/04/06/dn-se-later-granska-dn- se/
List of recommendations from Global Media MonitoringProject 2010 www.whomakesthenews.org (p 57) Increase womens participation by • Creating and supporting regional expert databases • promote Kvinfo, DK Shesource, US
New technology – old values…?• http://www.forbes.com/sites/elmirabayrasli/2011/05/09/the-twitter- gender-gap/
‘‘A murdered feminist is a good feminist’’ Citizen x Feminist news on the web• Feminist perspective -http://www.feministisktperspektiv.se/ QuickTime och en -dekomprimerare krävs för att kunna se bilden.
Nordic Trends• There is a gendered journalism culture• Stagnation in representation since the 90-ties• Variety of strategies in press, radio and television• Slow processes in the news rooms - often linked to legislation• Difficulties handling diversity : Gender out, ethnicity in?• Problems with gendered hate speech both in social media and traditional media• Degendering language “family tragedy” “single parents” “second earners”
Trends, initatives & actionsUnesco is developing gender indicatorsCouncil of Europe Plea for tackling gender stereotypes by strenghtening accountable journalism, expert databases, websites for journalistsEIGE is mapping Beijing Follow upNordic countries?
Is there a Nordic Way? Yes and no.• Gender awareness does not come automatically - for men or women• Strong state regulations that are promoting a gender equality and balance of work life/private life has an impact.• Regular monitoring and measurable goals improves gender representation.• Expert directories like Kvinfo seem to have an effect• Conscious leadership matters
Without a gender conscious work the publicsphere will remain a male sphere for manyyears to come. firstname.lastname@example.org @gendermaria www.nordicom.gu.se
Useful links:Global Media Monitoring project www.whomakesthenews.org Women in the media & newshttp://www.wimnonline.org/WIMNsVoicesBlog/2010/03/20/reality-check/International Women’s Media Foundation www.iwmf.orgGetting the balance right- Gender equality in journalismhttp://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=28397&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.htmlGender Links www.genderlinks.org.zaNordicom www.nordicom.gu.seUN Women http://progress.unwomen.orghttp://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/index.htmlBeijing Platform for actionhttp://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/pdf/Beijing%20full%20report%20E.pdf