First, selecting the suitable medicine for the type of illness is usually take
time and makes the patient or customer waiting. Therefore, the time is waste for the
customer to be waiting. Second, for the medicines stock management, the pharmacist
must check it manually and no warning message for the medicine that decrease to
finish. So, PMS provide the advantage to setup the process in selecting and alert
program to warn about the medicine stock.
Finally yet important, no analyses are done for the frequency type of
medicine usually buy by the customer or patient at that area. This is also important to
determine the medicines that are demanded more fiom the customers so that
pharmacist can be prepared to order more for that type of medicine.
The objectives that to be achieved from this PMS-MSELMILLSAS system
1. To care the pharmacist alert about the out of stock of the medicine
11. To provide the reliable medicine selector for the minor illness type for
. . .
111. To provide a secure system application in terms of information retrieval
iv. To help in decision making
v. To provide a systematic medicine inventory
The project scope will define the boundaries of PMS, which include PMS
system functionality, users and operating location/availability.
1. System Functionality
Modules to develop are:
a. Medicine management module
List and classifying the medicine relate to the symptoms that occur. The other
function in this module is adding, delete and update medicine from the list
and class of the medicine.
b. Medicine selector module
This module will process the function to select the suitable medicine depend
on the information that match with the symptoms for that disease.
c. Selling process module
Record the medicines that sell to the customer. Give the quantity of the type
of medicine that more frequently buy by the customer.
d. User authentication module
The authentications are dividing to two (2) conditions, administrator
authentication user and administrator authentication. Administrator user can
view all the process includes, selling transaction, reports, medicine stock and
manipulate list of medicine. Administrator can only do the process like
selling and buying process, view medicine stock, and list the medicine. The
user can only display the list of pharmacy and the map of pharmacy.
e. Medicine list module
Function to listing the medicine that relate to the minor illness like cough,
fever, and flu.
f. User Registration module
Handle for the new user registration to be the authorized user in PMS
g- Statistic of medicine sale module
Display the statistic for medicine selling in bar graph visualization.
h. Monthly report module
Display the medicine buying statistic to show the total sold for each
1. Report for medicine module
Provide the report to display the medicines that want to be ordered.
- Responsible to monitor the medicine stock alert warning.
- Provide the list of suitable medicine and the advice from expert doctor.
- Check the analyst of the frequency of the disease
b. Pharmacist Assistance
- Responsible in select the suitable medicine for minor illness
- Control the information of the nearest pharmacy take place
- Tell the pharmacist about the symptom
- Receive an receipt
iii. Operating locationlavailability
a. Available to deploy at all type of pharmacy in Malaysia
b. A desktop server in manager or pharmacist room
c. A desktop client at the receptionist or pharmacist assistant counter
d. A desktop standalone for home use that has connection to the internet
iv. Hardware and software requirement
a. Operating system platform: Windows XP Professional
b. Browser: Internet Explorer 6.0
1.5 Project Significance
The pharmacist can work in the systematic environment with the warning
process and medicine selector process that exist in this system. Customer or patient
has the alternative to find the pharmacy and the information of the medicine through
the internet. It can be useful alternative when it is in the emergency.
PMS is also a more effective system because it can produce the analysis of
the total medicine sold, so that the company can know the customer buying pattern.
Because of that, pharmacist can be more prepared to increase the order of the
medicine that more frequency buys by the customer or patient.
This system can help management of pharmacist to produce the information
of medicine to the customer. Therefore, customer can be more knowledge to the type
of the medicine that they want to buy. However, customer still has to refer the advice
from the specialist doctor.
1.6 Expected Output
Pharmacy Management System-Medicine Selector for Minor Illness and
Stock Alert System, PMS-MSELMILLSAS is concern the delivery of system
functional is the first priority to be handled. The functions that involve in this system
are authentication, retrieve data, calculation, insert, update, delete data is can be
PMS-MSELMILLSAS process selector for the medicine is relating to the
symptoms that give by the customer or patient. The calculation process is relating to
the concurrency value of the alert signal is works as it programs, which is, the pop up
message display when the inventory out-of-stock.
There are the three (3) reports consist of the update report for every process
involve. Statistic medicine sales report is the selling report for the certain period of
time. Then, monthly report for the medicine that frequently use by customer.
This report is to provide report as reference to set the medicine that is has the
priority to order first and many. Finally, report for medicine, which is, to display the
level of the quantity for the medicine at the certain time.
PMS-MSELMILLSAS is the system applications that only do the process
selection of the medicine for the minor illness and provide the alert warning message
to the stock that to be finish. The problems that occur are successfully determined
and the solution step is taken by the existing of the modules that include in to be
There are five (5) objectives will be achieve to make the system is
successfully implementation. The objectives are listed according from the core of the
system application that wanted to achieve first.
Scope of this system application is the boundary to guide the system
development to reduce the unnecessary process before it occurs. The scopes are
divided to four (4) categories. These categories are the limit of the development can
achieve. There are, system functionality, users, operating location~availability,a nd
hardware and software requirement.
Project significance is describing for the advantage of the PMSMSELMILLSAS
system application when it is to be implemented. The expected
result of this system is the successful of the all modules can be implementing and all
objectives can been achieved.
For the all of the result and solution that achieve in CHAPTER I, Introduction
will be delivered to the next chapter, CHAPTER 11, Literature Review and Project
LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, Literature Review and Project Methodology are the reviewing
from the before research that be make by the other people. The reviewing is
including the process that relate to the PMS system application. The source of
research can be referring to the journal, paper work, websites and reference book.
As the result, this chapter can determine the fact and findings of PMS, which
are, the domain that this system involve, project methodology that use to develop,
project requirement as the tools to develop and the project schedule and milestones.
2.2 Facts and findings on PMS
Domain for PMS is Information and Communication Technology, ICT in
Healthcare. According to Hoogervorst (2005), Healthcare provides are human.
People are not infallible and unfortunately, errors do happen occasionally. Today's
technology gives us good solutions to support care provides and prevent a good deal
of those unwanted errors.
An outstanding example of an area where ICT can play an important part is
the exchange of medical data between care providers. It is so much easier to
administer the right (amount of) care if all caregivers have the correct and most
recent data at their disposal.
The ICT in healthcare today provide the electronic identify system as the
alternative to managing the patient data. The management can be security and
systematic. It is because the identity is authenticating by the unique code that give to
the each patient. Also, can prevent the misidentification of the patient from the
According to Feeney (2005), ICT system is needed to the future strategic
system of health service. Modem ICT infrastructures is to effectively connect all
those the producer and archive of healthcare knowledge to all those who require the
proper application of this knowledge on a daily basis, for example, patients, clinical
professionals, healthcare managers, administrators and policy makers.
There are two (2) strategies that will ensure the consideration of ICT systems
that will change the way of health services are "strategic systems" that is rather than
ones that merely support current operations "support systems".
Undoubtedly healthcare institutions must strive together to further the
interactive sharing of healthcare knowledge and information through newer and
faster ways, bind the "transformational" potential of ICT can significantly enable this
chailenge. ICT can be the best way of achieving our health service mission of
excellence in patient care, health education and research in our knowledge-based
environment of now and the future.
Refer to Butler (2002), explain that in the pharmacy management the
important thing is the maintenance of quality and the subsequent implications for
patient care. Furthermore, according to this article, the clinical and corporate
government will not exist without being capable of validating their quality agenda,
which sees the safe and effective transportation and storage of vaccines and
biological, will not be exempt from this analysis.
Because of that, PMS provide the selection of medicine to the pharmacist to
indicate the quality of the pharmacy management. Then, the alert process is the
systematic system that gives many advantages to pharmacy, that is, to prepare the
stock medicine and the priority to treat the disease that more frequently occur.
Based on explanations above, the important point that they want to highlight
are the technology in ICT can provide the solution to the problem and help to give
the systematic process in the healthcare program. This is, use the system that can
identify the patient and caregivers unique identification to as the security of them to
The importance of ICT that can help to manage the current operational to be
more effective. Furthermore, there are methods that can be implementing by using
ICT, strategic system. Strategic system means that modem ICT infrastructure can
handle the producing and achieving of healthcare knowledge to the person that
required, which are, patients, clinical professionals, healthcare managers,
administrators and policy makers.
2.2.2 Existing System
184.108.40.206 Pharmacy System v2.0
Pharmacy System v2.0 (PSv2.0) comes standard with a very long list of
included features, however in order to help their clients make the business more
successful the system offer many additional services like website search engines
submission and promotion, and marketing services.
Figure 2.1: Website portal of Pharmacy System v2.0
Figure 2.1 shows the website portal of the existing system that provide the ecommerce
website and system. Pharmacy System v2.0 has services, website search
engines submission and promotion, and marketing services Pharmacy System v2.0
has eleven (11) modules. The modules are product management, orders and
accountancy, automatic prescription generation, back office user management, credit
cards functionality, medical questionnaire, website management, statistic, history and
security, affiliates functionality, and control and notification.
The descriptions of the modules are explained in two (2) paragraphs. First,
product management. This module perform to bulk product categories insert
functionality or multiple ways to manage and upload product images. It also define
product and marketing categories, assign one product to more than one category, set
a marketing, prescription or handling fee in percentage for every product and many
other features extremely suitable in the case of online pharmacies.
Second, orders and accountancy, which is, payment and orders management.
This module the integrated back office you could access securely information for the
orders and see statistics and generate accountancy information in real time. The back
provides also functionality to monitor and rejecttaccept the user payments and
to send email notifications.
Third, automatic prescription generation, which is, generate to prescription
for every order at any time in PDF file format (the prescription may include the
information for the order, the company's information and also the doctor's
information and sign).
Forth, back office user management, is process to define different user groups
v2.0 and users for the back office (for example doctors, pharmacies, payment
approval staff etc) and assign them different permissions to the resources of the back
office. The back office provides also full statistics and history information for the
users. Fifth, credit cards hctionality is the module to Pharmacy System v2.0
disposes of a rich credit card functionality including credit card numbers validation
and also you may deny the access for example for some credit card numbers and
banks of your choice.
Sixth, medical questionnaire that is to setup questions that the user will be
asked before he purchases an item from the pharmacy shop. These questions (for
example do you have a high blood pressure) are usually managed by the members of
the doctors back office group. Customer could setup also a group of obligatory
questions which will be always shown to the buyers (for example his age, weight and
Seventh, website management, the module to Pharmacy System v2.0
provides an integrated WYSIWYG editor which helps v2.0 you add new pages to the
site with ease as well as manage the site structure and edit the content of the pages
with an integrated WYSIWYG editor. Eight, statistic, which is, statistics that can be
display at any time for the site visits1 statistics for the orders and the turnover, the
users and many others. It uses the various charts and graphics are also displayed on
the statistics pages.
Ninth, history and security, which is, for this module the developer always
strive to integrate the latest security algorithms and features in order to protect the
confidential data and guarantee the secure running of the system. With Pharmacy
System v2.0 customers have not only a well-secured web based e-commerce system
but you dispose also of some additional security tools and features like for example
the algorithms for the credit card numbers validation.
Tenth, affiliates functionality the module to allow the affiliate partners to
register, generate links to the product items and put them on their sites and monitor
their earning reports and statistics. From the back office the administrator of the
system could monitor the affiliate activity and control the payments to the affiliates.
Lastly, the eleventh module, function to control and notification the web shop
and the entire pharmacy and the orders processing. The system allows you also to set
email notifications sent to the administrators andlor the buyers when for example an
order is placed on the website or a buyer's payment is rejected by the payment
approve service and many others.
The nine (9) modules include in PMS are describe in subtopic in CHAPTER
I, 1.3 Scope, a) System Functionality of project. The main different between
Pharmacy System v2.0 and Pharmacy Management System- Medicine Selector for
Minor Illness and Stock Alert System, PMS-MSELMILLSAS is process of the
commerce in Pharmacy System v2.0 and process of the management in PMS.
Even, these two (2) systems are to pharmacy but the types of application
make it different. However, PMS has the advantage in the system operation, which
is, it can give pharmacy systematic and expert management in the selecting medicine
and stock alert system, beside the Pharmacy System v2.0 that only base on the
benefit of their business not the performance of the pharmacy.
220.127.116.11 Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System
Our Bus8resres 1 About Us [ Inveitors I Careerj 1 Corporate Citizensiiip Snuernance f Ccntad Us
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Produrts & Services
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vour front-end busines
Pharmacists are in short supply. Profit
margins are shrinking under pressure.
Mare than ever, a comprehensive,
in:egra:ed pharmacy management system
is esseratial. PharmaservB is the answer.
Pharmaserv is an easy-to-use.
easy-to-learn, comprehensive pharmacy
management solution that fully inteprctes
your back-end pharmacy processes with
.s manauement, i t offers fully. intea.r ated
functionality of point-of-sale, perpetual inventory, accounts
~eceivables,i nter~mvev oir~es ponse, long-tern care,
reconaliation and automated dispensin.3. A typical day in the
sharmacy includes a hectic schedule and an endless list of tasks
to complete. With Pharmaserv, you can make each day more
afftcient and profitable without saxificir:g the quality and excellent
care your customers have come to expect. Whether you're an
independent store or a chain af pharmacies, Pharmaserv can ha!^
you: . . Streamline pharmacy processes Enhance safety and government compl~ance
Provlde more time for pahent care and business
:.& s.3 Prirint Pape
for more information about
Pharmaserf and related
Request mar. information
system's f l e x i b i l i t y
makes m y l i f e s o m u c h
easier. Price schedule
maintenance and AWP
(average wholesale prica)
updating is a breeze and
takes very little time. The
right tool makes the
DuWayne Chapman, R.Ph.
For more iraformation and a
complete I;st uf features,
view the F!~aim?,sBrV fait
sheet (PDF) or the oniine
Figure 2.2: Main Menu for Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System
Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System (PPMS) is quite similar for
PMS-MEDSELMILLSAS, but, this system is the more too business in intends. The
service base on the marketing process, which means, there is a marketing and
advertising process include in this system. For customer the important thing is the
quality of the medicine is more to be focus then the profit of the selling medicine.
Additional, PPMS did not use user friendly approach for it system
environment or interface. Also, PPMS is not specifically use by the certain user, for
example pharmacist. It can be use by other people that access the internet. The
processes exist in this system are distribution service, pharmacy brand, RY
purchasing programs, Front-end purchasing programs, merchandising, managed care,
marketing and advertising, pharmacy management software and services, ordering
and inventory management, and medication packaging.
Table 2.1: Summary for the Functions use in PSv2.0, PPMS, and PMS
This table summarize the functionality of each the systems, Pharmacy System
v2.0 (PSv2.0), Phamaserv Pharmacy Management System (PPMS), and Pharmacy
Management System (PMS). The summarization is base on the functionality use for
the three (3) of systems.
There are five (5) basic functions in the pharmacy management system,
medicine selection, user authentication, selling process, alert process, and analysis.
PSv2.0 and PPMS not suitable use is because the pharmacy needs to help in decision
making, so, the process of medicine selection is the solution to select the suitable
medicine for the certain illnesses. PSv2.0 do not has alert process which is to set the
warn message went out-of-stock.
2.3 Project Methodology
PMS is use two (2) types of methodology approach to develop the system.
The methodologies are Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC to the system
development and Database Life Cycle to develop the database.
2.3.1 Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC
SDLC is the history of an information system. It is the reference by the
database design and the application developer. Feasibility study can help in the initial
state in the SDLC. This methodology is divided to five (5) phases, which are,
planning, analysis, detailed system design, implementation, and maintenance.
Phase Act~on (s)
1 lnltlal assessment
2 Feaslb~l~tsytu dy
1 User requ~rement
2 Ex~sbngs ystem evaluation
3 Loglcal system deslgn
1 Deta~leds ystem speaficat~on
Figure 2.3: The Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC
Figure 2.3 show the software development life cycle that will be
implementing to develop the PMS. It is will be describing according to the phases
that exists in the software development life cycle.
Planning phase is the general overview of the pharmacy and the objectives.
There are two (2) indicates to be focused, the initial assessment and feasibility study.
Initial assessment needs to the manual system changed to the new system (PMS), as
the systematic management of the pharmacy.
For the feasibility study, it shows the hardware and software needed in
general. Hardware is include the operating system is used, Windows XP Professional
platform, software development used Dreamweaver 8.0 application, and database
development used MySQL application.
Analysis phase is the definition of the problem that defines at planning phase.
Pharmacist and system developer identify the process of the PMS system. It also
needs for study the user requirement and the manual system. The result is logical
data design. It is the specifying the conceptual data model, inputs, processes, and
expected output requirements. PMS has nine (9) modules or processes that to be
The logical design is describe using data flow diagram, DFD and entity
relationship, ER diagram, ERD. The results of the logical design are entities,
attribute and the relationship of the entities within the database. It also describes the
function of modulus for each process within the database environment. The users that
involve in the PMS are pharmacist, pharmacist assistance and customer.
18.104.22.168 Detailed system design
Detailed system design phase is the completed design of the system
processes. It is the specification of the PMS interface system, menus of the system,
and the reports. The other approach that use is the web application development
The implementation phase is starting at process installing hardware and
software requirements. Installation hardware is setting up the PC desktop hardware
requirements specification. Process of operating system installation is base on
Windows XP Professional platform installation. Dreamweaver 8.0 and MySQL are
installing following the steps that required.
The language is used are Pre-Hypertext Processor, PHP script and Structured
Query Language, SQL script. These scripts are type in PMS system application
development. This will be testing and debugging, until it is ready to be delivered.
The actual database is created and customizes the tables and view, and user
The testing process is to be doing to test the system application operation.
After testing is concluded, the final documentation is reviewed and printed, and end
users are trained. The system is in full operation at the end of this phase but will be
continuously evaluated and fine-tuned.
Maintenance phase is involve when PMS is used in several times, there are
the changes of the PMS is be request by the pharmacist. The changes generate the
system maintenance activities, which can be grouped into three types, corrective
maintenance in response to system errors, adaptive maintenance due to changes in
the business environment, perfective maintenance to enhance the system. For the
pMS it maybe include these three (3) maintenance activities which is, pharmacist
want to add the module or delete the module of the PMS application.
2.3.2 Database Life Cycle, DBLC
PMS-MSELMILLSAS use the Database Life Cycle, DBLC methodology
approach to develop the database. DBLC contains six (6) phases, which are; database
initial study, database design, implementation and loading, testing and evaluation,
operation, and maintenance and evaluation.
Phase Action (s)
1. Analyze the company situation
2. Define problem and constraints
3. Define objectives
4. Define scope and boundaries
1. Create the conceptual design
2. DBMS soffware selection
3. Create the logical design
4. Create the physical design
1. Install the DBMS
2. Create the database (s)
3. Load or convert the data
1. Test the database
2. Fine-tune the database
3. Evaluate the database and iis application programs
1. Produce the required information flow
1. Introduce changes
2. Make enhancement
Figure 2.4: The Database Life Cycle, DBLC
Figure 2.4 shows the database life Cycle that implement in PMSMSELMILLSAS.
The explanation is divided to the six (6) phases that exist in the
database life cycle.
22.214.171.124 Database initial study
There are four (4) purposes of the database initial study; analyze the company
situation, define problem and constraints, define objective and define scope and
boundaries. Analyze the company situation is discovering the company's operational,
the function and the interaction.
Figure 2.5: Summary of Activities in the Database Initial Study
Figure 2.5 is the summary of the first phase in DBLC, database initial study.
The define problem and constraint is the problem definition process might initially
appear to be unstructured. Company end users are often unable to describe the larger
scope of company operations precisely or to identify the real problems encountered
during company operations. Define objective is a proposed database system must be
designed to help solve at least the major problems identified during the problem
Scope and boundaries is the two (2) set of system limitation. The system
scope defines the extent of the design, according to operational requirements. The
system boundary is external to the system and also imposed by existing hardware and
In the database initial study for the PMS application is the analysis of the
company situation. Pharmacy is the place to get the medicine and give patient advice
of the healthcare. The situation is pharmacy objective, pharmacist operations and
Then there are the definition of the problem and constraints of the database
that is to handle at the database system specification. The problem is comes from the
manual system that be used before, which is the medicine stock is do not has the
warning process to warn pharmacist to prepared the stock of medicine. The results of
database system specification are the objectives, scope and boundaries that include in
2.3.3 Database design
The second phase focuses on the design database model that will support
pharmacy operations and objectives. It consists of three part as had been explains
126.96.36.199 Conceptual Design
Data modeling is used to create an abstract database structure. In this system,
there have user password to manage security system. Pharmacist and pharmacist
assistance are as entities. Beside that, the system can produce the report, queries data,
manage stock and display the warning.
188.8.131.52 Logical Design
Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and decomposition diagram are design based on
new system that wants to build. Microsoft Visio 2003 is used to design both of the
diagrams. Before identified the business rules, entities must be listed such as
pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmacist assistance.
184.108.40.206 Physical Design
This process is for selecting the data storage and data access characteristics of
the database. The storage characteristics are a function of the types of devices
supported by hardware, the type of data access methods supported by the system and
2.3.4 Implementation and loading
A PMS-MSELMILLSAS database implementation requires the creation of
storage-related constructs to house the end-users tables. In this system the database
storage group should be created, and then create the tablespace and at last create the
tables. During the implementation and loading phase, address performance, security,
backup and recovery, integrity, company standards and concurrency control must be
2.3.5 Testing and evaluation
When the system is complete, the PMS-MSELMILLSAS system should be
tested and fine-tunes the database for performance, integrity, concurrent, access, and
security constraints. Database tools are used to prototype the applications during the
coding of the programs.
If the database implementations not get the criteria, several parts should be
considered to enhance:
1. For performance-related issues, consider fine-tuning specific system
11. Modify physical design
111. Modify logical design
iv. Upgrade or change the Database Management System, DBMS software or
When the database has complete and passed in evaluation stage, it is
considered to be operational. At this part in the database, the system should have
complete information about its management, users and it is application programs.
The operational phase unfortunately starts with process of system evolution.
In any case, the demand for change is lead on phase maintenance and evolution.
2.3.7 Maintenance and evaluation
Before develop the system, routine maintenance activities must be prepared
within the database. Some of the required periodic maintenance activities include:
1. Preventive maintenance (backup)
11. Corrective maintenance (recovery)
. . .
111. Adaptive maintenance (enhancing performance, adding entities and attribute,
and so on)
iv. Assignment of access permissions and their maintenance for new and old
v. Periodic security
vi. Periodic (monthly, quarterly, or yearly) system-usage for budgeting purposes
2.4 Project Requirements
This is the requirement that will be using to develop the PMS. It will describe
to three (3) types of requirement, software requirement, hardware requirement and
2.4.1 Software Requirements
There are the software requirement for developer and user to develop and use
Table 2.2: Software Requirements
tools Drearnweaver 8.0.2, MS
Office Visio 2003, MS
Office Project 2003,
Adobe Photoshop 9.0.1,
Microsoft Windows XP
Professional 2002 Service
Pack 2, Apache,
apache - 2.0.58-win32-x86-
no - ssl
Microsoft Windows XP
Professional 2002 Service
Apache, apache-2.0.5 8-