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Problem statements


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Problem statements

  1. 1. Problem Statements First, selecting the suitable medicine for the type of illness is usually take time and makes the patient or customer waiting. Therefore, the time is waste for the customer to be waiting. Second, for the medicines stock management, the pharmacist must check it manually and no warning message for the medicine that decrease to finish. So, PMS provide the advantage to setup the process in selecting and alert program to warn about the medicine stock. Finally yet important, no analyses are done for the frequency type of medicine usually buy by the customer or patient at that area. This is also important to determine the medicines that are demanded more fiom the customers so that pharmacist can be prepared to order more for that type of medicine. 1.3 Objective The objectives that to be achieved from this PMS-MSELMILLSAS system application is; 1. To care the pharmacist alert about the out of stock of the medicine . . 11. To provide the reliable medicine selector for the minor illness type for children . . . 111. To provide a secure system application in terms of information retrieval iv. To help in decision making v. To provide a systematic medicine inventory 1.4 Scope The project scope will define the boundaries of PMS, which include PMS system functionality, users and operating location/availability. 1. System Functionality Modules to develop are: a. Medicine management module List and classifying the medicine relate to the symptoms that occur. The other function in this module is adding, delete and update medicine from the list and class of the medicine. b. Medicine selector module This module will process the function to select the suitable medicine depend on the information that match with the symptoms for that disease. c. Selling process module Record the medicines that sell to the customer. Give the quantity of the type of medicine that more frequently buy by the customer. d. User authentication module The authentications are dividing to two (2) conditions, administrator authentication user and administrator authentication. Administrator user can view all the process includes, selling transaction, reports, medicine stock and manipulate list of medicine. Administrator can only do the process like selling and buying process, view medicine stock, and list the medicine. The user can only display the list of pharmacy and the map of pharmacy. e. Medicine list module Function to listing the medicine that relate to the minor illness like cough,
  2. 2. fever, and flu. f. User Registration module Handle for the new user registration to be the authorized user in PMS application. g- Statistic of medicine sale module Display the statistic for medicine selling in bar graph visualization. h. Monthly report module Display the medicine buying statistic to show the total sold for each medicine. 1. Report for medicine module Provide the report to display the medicines that want to be ordered. . . 11. Users a. Pharmacist - Responsible to monitor the medicine stock alert warning. - Provide the list of suitable medicine and the advice from expert doctor. - Check the analyst of the frequency of the disease b. Pharmacist Assistance - Responsible in select the suitable medicine for minor illness - Control the information of the nearest pharmacy take place c. Customer - Tell the pharmacist about the symptom - Receive an receipt iii. Operating locationlavailability a. Available to deploy at all type of pharmacy in Malaysia b. A desktop server in manager or pharmacist room c. A desktop client at the receptionist or pharmacist assistant counter d. A desktop standalone for home use that has connection to the internet iv. Hardware and software requirement a. Operating system platform: Windows XP Professional b. Browser: Internet Explorer 6.0 1.5 Project Significance The pharmacist can work in the systematic environment with the warning process and medicine selector process that exist in this system. Customer or patient has the alternative to find the pharmacy and the information of the medicine through the internet. It can be useful alternative when it is in the emergency. PMS is also a more effective system because it can produce the analysis of the total medicine sold, so that the company can know the customer buying pattern. Because of that, pharmacist can be more prepared to increase the order of the medicine that more frequency buys by the customer or patient. This system can help management of pharmacist to produce the information of medicine to the customer. Therefore, customer can be more knowledge to the type of the medicine that they want to buy. However, customer still has to refer the advice from the specialist doctor. 1.6 Expected Output
  3. 3. Pharmacy Management System-Medicine Selector for Minor Illness and Stock Alert System, PMS-MSELMILLSAS is concern the delivery of system functional is the first priority to be handled. The functions that involve in this system are authentication, retrieve data, calculation, insert, update, delete data is can be works successfully. PMS-MSELMILLSAS process selector for the medicine is relating to the symptoms that give by the customer or patient. The calculation process is relating to the concurrency value of the alert signal is works as it programs, which is, the pop up message display when the inventory out-of-stock. There are the three (3) reports consist of the update report for every process involve. Statistic medicine sales report is the selling report for the certain period of time. Then, monthly report for the medicine that frequently use by customer. This report is to provide report as reference to set the medicine that is has the priority to order first and many. Finally, report for medicine, which is, to display the level of the quantity for the medicine at the certain time. 1.7 Conclusion PMS-MSELMILLSAS is the system applications that only do the process selection of the medicine for the minor illness and provide the alert warning message to the stock that to be finish. The problems that occur are successfully determined and the solution step is taken by the existing of the modules that include in to be system later. There are five (5) objectives will be achieve to make the system is successfully implementation. The objectives are listed according from the core of the system application that wanted to achieve first. Scope of this system application is the boundary to guide the system development to reduce the unnecessary process before it occurs. The scopes are divided to four (4) categories. These categories are the limit of the development can achieve. There are, system functionality, users, operating location~availability,a nd hardware and software requirement. Project significance is describing for the advantage of the PMSMSELMILLSAS system application when it is to be implemented. The expected result of this system is the successful of the all modules can be implementing and all objectives can been achieved. For the all of the result and solution that achieve in CHAPTER I, Introduction will be delivered to the next chapter, CHAPTER 11, Literature Review and Project Methodology. CHAPTER I1 LITERATURE REVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, Literature Review and Project Methodology are the reviewing from the before research that be make by the other people. The reviewing is including the process that relate to the PMS system application. The source of research can be referring to the journal, paper work, websites and reference book. As the result, this chapter can determine the fact and findings of PMS, which are, the domain that this system involve, project methodology that use to develop, project requirement as the tools to develop and the project schedule and milestones.
  4. 4. 2.2 Facts and findings on PMS 2.2.1 Domain Domain for PMS is Information and Communication Technology, ICT in Healthcare. According to Hoogervorst (2005), Healthcare provides are human. People are not infallible and unfortunately, errors do happen occasionally. Today's technology gives us good solutions to support care provides and prevent a good deal of those unwanted errors. An outstanding example of an area where ICT can play an important part is the exchange of medical data between care providers. It is so much easier to administer the right (amount of) care if all caregivers have the correct and most recent data at their disposal. The ICT in healthcare today provide the electronic identify system as the alternative to managing the patient data. The management can be security and systematic. It is because the identity is authenticating by the unique code that give to the each patient. Also, can prevent the misidentification of the patient from the treatment. According to Feeney (2005), ICT system is needed to the future strategic system of health service. Modem ICT infrastructures is to effectively connect all those the producer and archive of healthcare knowledge to all those who require the proper application of this knowledge on a daily basis, for example, patients, clinical professionals, healthcare managers, administrators and policy makers. There are two (2) strategies that will ensure the consideration of ICT systems that will change the way of health services are "strategic systems" that is rather than ones that merely support current operations "support systems". Undoubtedly healthcare institutions must strive together to further the interactive sharing of healthcare knowledge and information through newer and faster ways, bind the "transformational" potential of ICT can significantly enable this chailenge. ICT can be the best way of achieving our health service mission of excellence in patient care, health education and research in our knowledge-based environment of now and the future. Refer to Butler (2002), explain that in the pharmacy management the important thing is the maintenance of quality and the subsequent implications for patient care. Furthermore, according to this article, the clinical and corporate government will not exist without being capable of validating their quality agenda, which sees the safe and effective transportation and storage of vaccines and biological, will not be exempt from this analysis. Because of that, PMS provide the selection of medicine to the pharmacist to indicate the quality of the pharmacy management. Then, the alert process is the systematic system that gives many advantages to pharmacy, that is, to prepare the stock medicine and the priority to treat the disease that more frequently occur. Based on explanations above, the important point that they want to highlight are the technology in ICT can provide the solution to the problem and help to give the systematic process in the healthcare program. This is, use the system that can identify the patient and caregivers unique identification to as the security of them to communicate. The importance of ICT that can help to manage the current operational to be
  5. 5. more effective. Furthermore, there are methods that can be implementing by using ICT, strategic system. Strategic system means that modem ICT infrastructure can handle the producing and achieving of healthcare knowledge to the person that required, which are, patients, clinical professionals, healthcare managers, administrators and policy makers. 2.2.2 Existing System Pharmacy System v2.0 Pharmacy System v2.0 (PSv2.0) comes standard with a very long list of included features, however in order to help their clients make the business more successful the system offer many additional services like website search engines submission and promotion, and marketing services. Figure 2.1: Website portal of Pharmacy System v2.0 Figure 2.1 shows the website portal of the existing system that provide the ecommerce website and system. Pharmacy System v2.0 has services, website search engines submission and promotion, and marketing services Pharmacy System v2.0 has eleven (11) modules. The modules are product management, orders and accountancy, automatic prescription generation, back office user management, credit cards functionality, medical questionnaire, website management, statistic, history and security, affiliates functionality, and control and notification. The descriptions of the modules are explained in two (2) paragraphs. First, product management. This module perform to bulk product categories insert functionality or multiple ways to manage and upload product images. It also define product and marketing categories, assign one product to more than one category, set a marketing, prescription or handling fee in percentage for every product and many other features extremely suitable in the case of online pharmacies. Second, orders and accountancy, which is, payment and orders management. This module the integrated back office you could access securely information for the orders and see statistics and generate accountancy information in real time. The back provides also functionality to monitor and rejecttaccept the user payments and to send email notifications. Third, automatic prescription generation, which is, generate to prescription for every order at any time in PDF file format (the prescription may include the information for the order, the company's information and also the doctor's information and sign). Forth, back office user management, is process to define different user groups v2.0 and users for the back office (for example doctors, pharmacies, payment approval staff etc) and assign them different permissions to the resources of the back office. The back office provides also full statistics and history information for the users. Fifth, credit cards hctionality is the module to Pharmacy System v2.0 disposes of a rich credit card functionality including credit card numbers validation and also you may deny the access for example for some credit card numbers and banks of your choice. Sixth, medical questionnaire that is to setup questions that the user will be asked before he purchases an item from the pharmacy shop. These questions (for example do you have a high blood pressure) are usually managed by the members of the doctors back office group. Customer could setup also a group of obligatory
  6. 6. questions which will be always shown to the buyers (for example his age, weight and height). Seventh, website management, the module to Pharmacy System v2.0 provides an integrated WYSIWYG editor which helps v2.0 you add new pages to the site with ease as well as manage the site structure and edit the content of the pages with an integrated WYSIWYG editor. Eight, statistic, which is, statistics that can be display at any time for the site visits1 statistics for the orders and the turnover, the users and many others. It uses the various charts and graphics are also displayed on the statistics pages. Ninth, history and security, which is, for this module the developer always strive to integrate the latest security algorithms and features in order to protect the confidential data and guarantee the secure running of the system. With Pharmacy System v2.0 customers have not only a well-secured web based e-commerce system but you dispose also of some additional security tools and features like for example the algorithms for the credit card numbers validation. Tenth, affiliates functionality the module to allow the affiliate partners to register, generate links to the product items and put them on their sites and monitor their earning reports and statistics. From the back office the administrator of the system could monitor the affiliate activity and control the payments to the affiliates. Lastly, the eleventh module, function to control and notification the web shop and the entire pharmacy and the orders processing. The system allows you also to set email notifications sent to the administrators andlor the buyers when for example an order is placed on the website or a buyer's payment is rejected by the payment approve service and many others. The nine (9) modules include in PMS are describe in subtopic in CHAPTER I, 1.3 Scope, a) System Functionality of project. The main different between Pharmacy System v2.0 and Pharmacy Management System- Medicine Selector for Minor Illness and Stock Alert System, PMS-MSELMILLSAS is process of the commerce in Pharmacy System v2.0 and process of the management in PMS. Even, these two (2) systems are to pharmacy but the types of application make it different. However, PMS has the advantage in the system operation, which is, it can give pharmacy systematic and expert management in the selecting medicine and stock alert system, beside the Pharmacy System v2.0 that only base on the benefit of their business not the performance of the pharmacy. Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System Our Bus8resres 1 About Us [ Inveitors I Careerj 1 Corporate Citizensiiip Snuernance f Ccntad Us MSKESSON fzp~:k~ffgea k~kart! Offtrirgs li - Z '*arch >> ... ........... ............................................... acme > fur Pharmarie; > In.jependent Retoii > Ph;rrnacy i-lanagement S?ftrave and Servirrz > ?ha,,-a;?%* Ph:,mary Mina~e~e~t Produrts & Services - ....... .... 1 Eistribut~cn Services ] : ... , ............ -.. .............. < 1 PX Furchasing i i Programs . .- i Front-End P~~rchasinp I ! Prosrams 1 : . 1 -
  7. 7. i Mer:handising - . . ...... ; Managad Care . ........................... -i 1 Warketing and j Advertising --- j ~:-.iagerfi+nt I j SoRwa;t? en:i Ssr-.;,:+s : i Ordsrtng and Inventor9 ! :- M anagiment -- - . ...................... vour front-end busines Pharmacists are in short supply. Profit margins are shrinking under pressure. Mare than ever, a comprehensive, in:egra:ed pharmacy management system is esseratial. PharmaservB is the answer. Pharmaserv is an easy-to-use. easy-to-learn, comprehensive pharmacy management solution that fully inteprctes your back-end pharmacy processes with .s manauement, i t offers fully. intea.r ated functionality of point-of-sale, perpetual inventory, accounts ~eceivables,i nter~mvev oir~es ponse, long-tern care, reconaliation and automated dispensin.3. A typical day in the sharmacy includes a hectic schedule and an endless list of tasks to complete. With Pharmaserv, you can make each day more afftcient and profitable without saxificir:g the quality and excellent care your customers have come to expect. Whether you're an independent store or a chain af pharmacies, Pharmaserv can ha!^ you: . . Streamline pharmacy processes Enhance safety and government compl~ance Increase prcfitability Provlde more time for pahent care and business managercent :.& s.3 Prirint Pape Call 000.521.1750 for more information about Pharmaserf and related producti. Request mar. information Customer Testinlnnial 'The Pharmaserv system's f l e x i b i l i t y makes m y l i f e s o m u c h easier. Price schedule maintenance and AWP (average wholesale prica) updating is a breeze and takes very little time. The right tool makes the difference." DuWayne Chapman, R.Ph. Mzhank Pharmacy Mabank, Texas For more iraformation and a complete I;st uf features, view the F!~aim?,sBrV fait sheet (PDF) or the oniine demsnstrst~cn(F lash). Figure 2.2: Main Menu for Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System Pharmaserv Pharmacy Management System (PPMS) is quite similar for PMS-MEDSELMILLSAS, but, this system is the more too business in intends. The service base on the marketing process, which means, there is a marketing and advertising process include in this system. For customer the important thing is the quality of the medicine is more to be focus then the profit of the selling medicine. Additional, PPMS did not use user friendly approach for it system environment or interface. Also, PPMS is not specifically use by the certain user, for example pharmacist. It can be use by other people that access the internet. The processes exist in this system are distribution service, pharmacy brand, RY purchasing programs, Front-end purchasing programs, merchandising, managed care, marketing and advertising, pharmacy management software and services, ordering and inventory management, and medication packaging.
  8. 8. Table 2.1: Summary for the Functions use in PSv2.0, PPMS, and PMS Authentication This table summarize the functionality of each the systems, Pharmacy System v2.0 (PSv2.0), Phamaserv Pharmacy Management System (PPMS), and Pharmacy Management System (PMS). The summarization is base on the functionality use for the three (3) of systems. There are five (5) basic functions in the pharmacy management system, medicine selection, user authentication, selling process, alert process, and analysis. PSv2.0 and PPMS not suitable use is because the pharmacy needs to help in decision making, so, the process of medicine selection is the solution to select the suitable medicine for the certain illnesses. PSv2.0 do not has alert process which is to set the warn message went out-of-stock. 2.3 Project Methodology PMS is use two (2) types of methodology approach to develop the system. The methodologies are Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC to the system development and Database Life Cycle to develop the database. 2.3.1 Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC SDLC is the history of an information system. It is the reference by the database design and the application developer. Feasibility study can help in the initial state in the SDLC. This methodology is divided to five (5) phases, which are, planning, analysis, detailed system design, implementation, and maintenance. Phase Act~on (s) 1 lnltlal assessment 2 Feaslb~l~tsytu dy 1 User requ~rement 2 Ex~sbngs ystem evaluation 3 Loglcal system deslgn 1 Deta~leds ystem speaficat~on 1 Evaluat~on 3 Enhancement Figure 2.3: The Software Development Life Cycle, SDLC Figure 2.3 show the software development life cycle that will be implementing to develop the PMS. It is will be describing according to the phases that exists in the software development life cycle. Planning Planning phase is the general overview of the pharmacy and the objectives. There are two (2) indicates to be focused, the initial assessment and feasibility study. Initial assessment needs to the manual system changed to the new system (PMS), as the systematic management of the pharmacy. For the feasibility study, it shows the hardware and software needed in general. Hardware is include the operating system is used, Windows XP Professional platform, software development used Dreamweaver 8.0 application, and database development used MySQL application. Analysis Analysis phase is the definition of the problem that defines at planning phase. Pharmacist and system developer identify the process of the PMS system. It also needs for study the user requirement and the manual system. The result is logical data design. It is the specifying the conceptual data model, inputs, processes, and expected output requirements. PMS has nine (9) modules or processes that to be function. The logical design is describe using data flow diagram, DFD and entity
  9. 9. relationship, ER diagram, ERD. The results of the logical design are entities, attribute and the relationship of the entities within the database. It also describes the function of modulus for each process within the database environment. The users that involve in the PMS are pharmacist, pharmacist assistance and customer. Detailed system design Detailed system design phase is the completed design of the system processes. It is the specification of the PMS interface system, menus of the system, and the reports. The other approach that use is the web application development methodology. Implementation The implementation phase is starting at process installing hardware and software requirements. Installation hardware is setting up the PC desktop hardware requirements specification. Process of operating system installation is base on Windows XP Professional platform installation. Dreamweaver 8.0 and MySQL are installing following the steps that required. The language is used are Pre-Hypertext Processor, PHP script and Structured Query Language, SQL script. These scripts are type in PMS system application development. This will be testing and debugging, until it is ready to be delivered. The actual database is created and customizes the tables and view, and user authentication. The testing process is to be doing to test the system application operation. After testing is concluded, the final documentation is reviewed and printed, and end users are trained. The system is in full operation at the end of this phase but will be continuously evaluated and fine-tuned. Maintenance Maintenance phase is involve when PMS is used in several times, there are the changes of the PMS is be request by the pharmacist. The changes generate the system maintenance activities, which can be grouped into three types, corrective maintenance in response to system errors, adaptive maintenance due to changes in the business environment, perfective maintenance to enhance the system. For the pMS it maybe include these three (3) maintenance activities which is, pharmacist want to add the module or delete the module of the PMS application. 2.3.2 Database Life Cycle, DBLC PMS-MSELMILLSAS use the Database Life Cycle, DBLC methodology approach to develop the database. DBLC contains six (6) phases, which are; database initial study, database design, implementation and loading, testing and evaluation, operation, and maintenance and evaluation. Phase Action (s) 1. Analyze the company situation 2. Define problem and constraints 3. Define objectives 4. Define scope and boundaries 1. Create the conceptual design 2. DBMS soffware selection 3. Create the logical design 4. Create the physical design 1. Install the DBMS 2. Create the database (s) 3. Load or convert the data 1. Test the database 2. Fine-tune the database 3. Evaluate the database and iis application programs 1. Produce the required information flow 1. Introduce changes 2. Make enhancement
  10. 10. Figure 2.4: The Database Life Cycle, DBLC Figure 2.4 shows the database life Cycle that implement in PMSMSELMILLSAS. The explanation is divided to the six (6) phases that exist in the database life cycle. Database initial study There are four (4) purposes of the database initial study; analyze the company situation, define problem and constraints, define objective and define scope and boundaries. Analyze the company situation is discovering the company's operational, the function and the interaction. Figure 2.5: Summary of Activities in the Database Initial Study Figure 2.5 is the summary of the first phase in DBLC, database initial study. The define problem and constraint is the problem definition process might initially appear to be unstructured. Company end users are often unable to describe the larger scope of company operations precisely or to identify the real problems encountered during company operations. Define objective is a proposed database system must be designed to help solve at least the major problems identified during the problem discovery process. Scope and boundaries is the two (2) set of system limitation. The system scope defines the extent of the design, according to operational requirements. The system boundary is external to the system and also imposed by existing hardware and software. In the database initial study for the PMS application is the analysis of the company situation. Pharmacy is the place to get the medicine and give patient advice of the healthcare. The situation is pharmacy objective, pharmacist operations and company structure. Then there are the definition of the problem and constraints of the database that is to handle at the database system specification. The problem is comes from the manual system that be used before, which is the medicine stock is do not has the warning process to warn pharmacist to prepared the stock of medicine. The results of database system specification are the objectives, scope and boundaries that include in the PMS. 2.3.3 Database design The second phase focuses on the design database model that will support pharmacy operations and objectives. It consists of three part as had been explains below. Conceptual Design Data modeling is used to create an abstract database structure. In this system, there have user password to manage security system. Pharmacist and pharmacist assistance are as entities. Beside that, the system can produce the report, queries data, manage stock and display the warning. Logical Design Data Flow Diagram (DFD) and decomposition diagram are design based on new system that wants to build. Microsoft Visio 2003 is used to design both of the diagrams. Before identified the business rules, entities must be listed such as pharmacy, pharmacist and pharmacist assistance. Physical Design
  11. 11. This process is for selecting the data storage and data access characteristics of the database. The storage characteristics are a function of the types of devices supported by hardware, the type of data access methods supported by the system and the DBMS. 2.3.4 Implementation and loading A PMS-MSELMILLSAS database implementation requires the creation of storage-related constructs to house the end-users tables. In this system the database storage group should be created, and then create the tablespace and at last create the tables. During the implementation and loading phase, address performance, security, backup and recovery, integrity, company standards and concurrency control must be added. 2.3.5 Testing and evaluation When the system is complete, the PMS-MSELMILLSAS system should be tested and fine-tunes the database for performance, integrity, concurrent, access, and security constraints. Database tools are used to prototype the applications during the coding of the programs. If the database implementations not get the criteria, several parts should be considered to enhance: 1. For performance-related issues, consider fine-tuning specific system . . 11. Modify physical design ... 111. Modify logical design iv. Upgrade or change the Database Management System, DBMS software or hardware platform 2.3.6 Operation When the database has complete and passed in evaluation stage, it is considered to be operational. At this part in the database, the system should have complete information about its management, users and it is application programs. The operational phase unfortunately starts with process of system evolution. In any case, the demand for change is lead on phase maintenance and evolution. 2.3.7 Maintenance and evaluation Before develop the system, routine maintenance activities must be prepared within the database. Some of the required periodic maintenance activities include: 1. Preventive maintenance (backup) . . 11. Corrective maintenance (recovery) . . . 111. Adaptive maintenance (enhancing performance, adding entities and attribute, and so on) iv. Assignment of access permissions and their maintenance for new and old users v. Periodic security vi. Periodic (monthly, quarterly, or yearly) system-usage for budgeting purposes 2.4 Project Requirements
  12. 12. This is the requirement that will be using to develop the PMS. It will describe to three (3) types of requirement, software requirement, hardware requirement and network requirement. 2.4.1 Software Requirements There are the software requirement for developer and user to develop and use the PMS. Table 2.2: Software Requirements tools Drearnweaver 8.0.2, MS Office Visio 2003, MS Office Project 2003, Adobe Photoshop 9.0.1, Pre-Hypertext Processor PHP-5.1.5-Win32 Operating system/server Database system Microsoft Windows XP Professional 2002 Service Pack 2, Apache, apache - 2.0.58-win32-x86- no - ssl MySQL, mysql-essential- 5.0.24a-win32 Microsoft Windows XP Professional 2002 Service Pack 2 Apache, apache-2.0.5 8- win32-x86-no-ssl MySQL, mysql-essential- 5.0.24a-win32